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The latter corresponds to a clause introducing a control structure and statements and other control clauses and braces within its scope are expected to have no less indentation. If tabs within your program are other than 8 blanks you should use the -t option. This message is suppressed for unit checkout -u option. Please note that a declaration, even one bearing prototype information is not a definition.

See the glossary at the beginning of this chapter. If the Symbol is a library symbol, make sure that it is declared in a header file that you're including. Alternatively, the symbol may be declared in a Library Module. Unreachable code at token Symbol -- A portion of the program cannot be reached. Symbol 'Symbol' Location not referenced -- The named static variable or static function was not referenced in the module after having been declared. Symbol 'Symbol' Location not subsequently referenced -- The named variable was declared but not referenced in a function.

Symbol 'Symbol' Location not initialized -- An auto variable was used before it was initialized. Field size too large for 'Symbol' -- The size given for a bit field of a structure exceeds the size of an int. Return mode of function 'Symbol' inconsistent with Location -- A declaration or a definition of a function implies a different return mode than a previous statement. The return mode of a function has to do with whether the function does, or does not, return a value.

A return mode is determined from a declaration by seeing if the function returns void or, optionally, by observing whether an explicit type is given. See the fdr flag for a further explanation of this. See also the fvr and fvo flags. Ignoring return value of function 'Symbol' compare with Location -- A function that returns a value is called just for side effects as, for example, in a statement by itself or the left-hand side of a comma operator. Try: void function ; to call a function and ignore its return value.

See also the fvr, fvo and fdr flags. Repeated include file 'FileName' -- The file whose inclusion within a module is being requested has already been included in this compilation. The file is processed normally even if the message is given. If it is your standard practice to repeat included files then simply suppress this message.

Excessive size -- The size of an array equals or exceeds 64K bytes. Did not expect positive indentation from Location -- The current line was found to be positively indented from a clause that did not control the line in question. The Location cited will be that of the if clause.

Excessive size -- A string initializer required more space than what was allocated. The default is -sb8. Excessive size for bit field -- An attempt was made to assign a value into a bit field that appears to be too small. The value to be assigned is either another bit field larger than the target, or a numeric value that is simply too large. You may cast the value to the generic unsigned type to suppress the error. You may get this message unexpectedly if the base of the bit field is an int. Some compilers specifically allow commentary to follow the endif.

If you are following that convention simply turn this error message off. Redefinition of symbol 'Symbol' conflicts with Location -- The indicated symbol had previously been defined vis define to some other value. This is almost certainly an unwanted semi-colon as it inhibits the if from having any effect. Suspicious cast -- A cast was made from a pointer to some enumerated type or from an enumerated type to a pointer.

This is probably an error. Check your code and if this is not an error, then cast the item to an intermediate form such as an int or a long before making the final cast. Symbol 'Symbol' Location not accessed -- A variable local to some function was not accessed. This means that the value of a variable was never used. Perhaps the variable was assigned a value but was never used. If an address of a variable is taken, its value is assumed to be accessed.

An array, struct or union is considered accessed if any portion thereof is accessed. Symbol 'Symbol' Location not accessed -- A variable declared static at the module level was not accessed though the variable was referenced. See the explanation under message above for a description of "access". Symbol 'Symbol' Location not accessed -- An external variable was not accessed though the variable was referenced.

Undefined preprocessor variable 'Name', assumed 0 -- The indicated variable had not previously been defined within a define statement and yet it is being used in a preprocessor condition of the form if or elif. Conventionally all variables in preprocessor expressions should be pre-defined. The value of the variable is assumed to be 0. Either do not set the flag or do not use elif.

Either do not set the flag or do not indent the. Too few arguments for format Integer missing -- The number of arguments supplied to printf, sprintf, fprintf, scanf, fscanf or sscanf was inconsistent with the number expected as a result of analyzing the format string. Argument counts begin at 1 and include file, string and format specifications.

Integer should be a pointer -- The given argument to one of the scanf or printf family of functions should be a pointer. For the scanf family, all arguments corresponding to a format specification should be pointers to areas that are to be modified receive the results of scanning. Integer indirect object inconsistent with format -- The given argument to scanf, sscanf, or fscanf was a pointer to an object that was inconsistent with that which was anticipated as the result of analyzing the format string. If your compiler does not accept the ellipsis but makes this assumption, then you should suppress this message.

Label 'Symbol' Location not referenced -- The Symbol at the cited Location appeared as a label but there was no statement that referenced this label. Other, more typical cases, are given in the manual. Volatile variables are also checked for repeated use in an expression. The ANSI standard is dubious as to how this tag could link up with any other tag. For most compilers this is not an error and you can safely suppress the message.

On the other hand, to be strictly in accord with ANSI C you may place a small stub of a declaration earlier in the program. For example: struct name; is sufficient to reserve a place for name in the symbol table at the appropriate level. The indicated character Char found in a format specifier was inconsistent or redundant with an earlier character found in the same format specifier.

This is because the length modifier is designed to be used with integral or float conversions and has no meaning with the string conversion. Such characters are normally ignored by compilers. A numeric field or asterisk was expected at a particular point in the scanning of the format. But since no field width is given, the request is meaningless. See also message Loss of information Context Integer bits to Integer bits -- An assignment or implied assignment, see Context was made from a constant to an integral variable that is not large enough to hold the constant.

Examples include placing a hex constant whose bit requirement is such as to require an unsigned int into a variable typed as int. The number of bits given does not count the sign bit. Loss of sign Context Type to Type -- An assignment or implied assignment, see Context is being made from a negative constant into an unsigned quantity. Casting the constant to unsigned will remove the diagnostic but is this what you want. Suspicious Cast -- Usually this warning is issued for casts of the form: unsigned ch where ch is declared as char and char is signed.

Although the cast may appear to prevent sign extension of ch, it does not. Following the normal promotion rules of C, ch is first converted to int which extends the sign and only then is the quantity cast to unsigned. To suppress sign extension you may use: unsigned char ch Otherwise, if sign extension is what you want and you just want to suppress the warning in this instance you may use: unsigned int ch Although these examples have been given in terms of casting a char they will also be given whenever this cast is made upon a signed quantity whose size is less than the casted type.

Examples include signed bit fields a possibility in the new standard , expressions involving char, and expressions involving short when this type is smaller than int or a direct cast of an int to an unsigned long if int's is smaller than long. This message is not issued for constants or for expressions involving bit operations. Excessive shift value precision Integer shifted right by Integer -- A quantity is being shifted to the right whose precision is equal to or smaller than the shifted value. To suppress the message you may cast the shifted quantity to a type whose length is at least the length of the shift value.

It is not a good idea to mix unsigned quantities with signed quantities in any case a will also be issued but, with division, a negative value can create havoc. To resolve this problem, either cast the integer to unsigned if you know it can never be less than zero or cast the unsigned to an integer if you know it can never exceed the maximum integer. It is not a good idea to mix unsigned quantities with signed quantities in any case a will also be issued but, with the four relationals, a negative value can produce obscure results.

For example, if the conditional: if n Top. Mixed memory model option 'String' -- The indicated option requested a change to the memory model after part or all of another module was processed. The memory model option should be specified before any module is processed. The most common cause of this error is specifying the memory model after having specified the standard library.

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This would be a natural error to make if the standard library file were specified via a LINT environment variable. Declaration of symbol 'Symbol' hides symbol 'Symbol' Location -- A local symbol has the identical name as a global symbol or possibly another local symbol. This could be dangerous. Was this deliberate? It is usually best to rename the local symbol. The reason is that many compilers' variable argument schemes using stdarg.

Redeclaration of function 'Symbol' hiding Location causes loss of prototype -- A declaration of a function within a block hides a declaration in an outer scope in such a way that the inner declaration has no prototype and the outer declaration does. A common misconception is that the resulting declaration is a composite of both declarations but this is only the case when the declarations are in the same scope not within nested scopes. If you don't care about prototypes you may suppress this message. You will still receive other type-difference warnings. Option 'String' is obsolete and should no longer be used -- This message is issued whenever we encounter an option that appears to do more harm than good.

For example, to suppress message when calling f int use the option -esym ,f even if f is overloaded. EOF is normally defined to be If ch is defined to be an int all is well. If however it is defined to be some form of char, then trouble might ensue. If ch is an unsigned char then it can never equal EOF. If ch is a signed char then you could get a premature termination because some data character happened to be all ones. Note that getchar returns an int. The reason it returns an int and not a char is because it must be capable of returning different values different characters plus EOF, assuming an 8-bit character.

Once this value is assigned to a char only values are then possible -- a clear loss of information. Trigraph sequence?? Char detected -- This message is issued whenever a trigraph sequence is detected and the trigraph processing has been turned off with a -ftg. If this is not within a string or character constant then the trigraph sequence is ignored.

This is useful if your compiler does not process trigraph sequences and you want linting to mirror compilation. Outside of a string we issue the Warning but we do translate the sequence since it cannot make syntactic sense in its raw state. The sequence?? Char is not a valid Trigraph sequence -- This warning is issued whenever a pair of '? Did the programmer intend this to be a Trigraph sequence and merely err?

Even if no Trigraph were intended, it can easily be mistaken by the reader of the code to be a Trigraph. Moreover, what assurances do we have that in the future the invalid Trigraph might not become a valid Trigraph and change the meaning of the string? To protect yourself from such an event you may place a backslash between the '? Alternatively you may use concatenation of string constants. String 'Name' is deprecated. String -- The Name has been deprecated by some use of the deprecate option. See Section. The first String is one of the allowed categories of deprecation.

The trailing String is part of the deprecate option and should explain why the facility has been deprecated. Predicate 'String' can be pre-determined and always evaluates to String -- The predicate, identified by the first String, one of greater than, greater than or equal, less than, less than or equal, equal, or not equal , cannot possibly be other than what is indicated by the second String parameter.

For example: unsigned u; Predicate 'String' will always evaluate to String unless an overflow occurs -- The predicate, identified by the first String, cannot possibly be other than what is indicated by the second String parameter unless an overflow occurred. See also Message Predicate 'String' will always evaluate to String assuming standard division semantics -- The predicate, identified by the first String parameter, cannot possibly be other than what is indicated by the second String parameter assuming standard signed integer division semantics. For example: int n; Predicate 'String' will always evaluate to String assuming standard shift semantics -- The predicate, identified by the first String parameter, cannot possibly be other than what is indicated by the second String parameter assuming standard signed integer shift semantics.

This is because shifting a negative number to the right yields results that are implementation defined. Further, the order of evaluation of the two is not determinable. The programmer should generally rewrite these expressions so that the compiler is constrained to use the intended order. For example: char msg[]; If msg is read from user input, then in the first example, a naive user could cause a glitch or a crash and a malicious user might exploit this to undermine system security.

Since the unsafe form can easily be transformed into the safe form the latter should always be used. Custodial pointer 'Symbol' Location possibly not freed or returned -- This is the 'possible' version of message A pointer of auto storage class was allocated storage and not all paths leading to a return statement or to the end of the function contained either a free or a return of the pointer. Hence there is a potential memory leak. Please see message for an explaination of "custodial" and ways of regulating when pointer variables retain custody of allocations.

Excessive shift value precision Integer shifted left by Integer -- A quantity is being shifted to the left by a value greater than or equal to the precision of that quantity or by a negative value. For example, i Top. Expected a type for symbol Symbol, int assumed -- A declaration did not have an explicit type. Was this a mistake? For example, if instead of typing: double radius, diameter; the programmer had typed: double radius; diameter; this message would be raised. Or was a comment end inadvertently omitted? Then this warning will not be issued.

Symbol 'Symbol' Location not initialized -- The address of the named symbol is being passed to a function where the corresponding parameter is declared as pointer to const. This implies that the function will not modify the object. If this is the case then the original object should have been initialized sometime earlier.

Returning address of auto variable 'Symbol' -- The address of the named symbol is being passed back by a function. Since the object is an auto and since the duration of an auto is not guaranteed past the return, this is most likely an error. You may want to copy the value into a global variable and pass back the address of the global or you might consider having the caller pass an address of one of its own variables to the callee.

Increase in pointer capability Context -- This warning is typically caused by assigning a pointer to const to an ordinary pointer. This message can be given for the volatile qualifier as well as the const qualifier and may be given for arbitrary pointer depths pointers to pointers, pointers to arrays, etc. If the number of pointer levels exceeds one, things get murky in a hurry.

The problem is that after the above assignment, a pointer to a const char can be assigned indirectly through ppc and accessed through pp which can then modify the const char. The message speaks of an "increase in capability" in assigning to ppc, which seems counter intuitive because the indirect pointer has less capability. However, assigning the pointer does not destroy the old one and the combination of the two pointers represents a net increase in capability.

The message may also be given for function pointer assignments when the prototype of one function contains a pointer of higher capability than a corresponding pointer in another prototype.

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There is a curious inversion here whereby a prototype of lower capability translates into a function of greater trust and hence greater capability a Trojan Horse. Before compilers knew better and believing that adding in a const to the destination never hurt anything, earlier compilers allowed the Greeks to pass warrior to Troy and the rest, as they say, is history. The ANSI standard indicates that the name will not be replaced but since many C compilers do replace such names the construction is suspect. Examine the macro definition and if you do not want substitution, change the name of the parameter.

Assigning to an array parameter -- An assignment is being made to a parameter that is typed array. For the purpose of the assignment, the parameter is regarded as a pointer. Normally such parameters are typed as pointers rather than arrays. However if this is your coding style you should suppress this message. Suspicious pointer conversion -- An assignment is being made between two pointers which differ in size one is far and the other is near but which are otherwise compatible. Suspicious pointer combination -- Pointers of different size one is far and the other is near are being compared, subtracted, or paired in a conditional expression.

This is suspicious because normally pointers entering into such operations are the same size. Suspicious cast -- Either a pointer to a function is being cast to a pointer to an object or vice versa. This is regarded as questionable by the ANSI standard. If this is not a user error, suppress this warning. Expected a declarator -- A declaration contained just a storage class and a type. This is almost certainly an error since the only time a type without a declarator makes sense is in the case of a struct, union or enum but in that case you wouldn't use a storage class.

Symbol identifies the pointer variable that may be NULL. See also messages and Some compilers may, however, allow variables in this context in which case you may suppress this message. Auto aggregates arrays, structures and union are normally initialized by a collection of constant-valued expressions without side-effects. A compiler could support side-effects in which case you might want to suppress this message. Was this deliberate or did the programmer forget to insert a break statement? Also, there must actually be a possibility for flow to occur from above. String is both a module and an include file -- The named file is being used as both an include file and as a module.

Unlike Error repeated module this is just a warning and processing of the file is attempted. Storage class specified after a type -- A storage class specifier static, extern, typedef, register or auto was found after a type was specified. This is legal but deprecated. Either place the storage class specifier before the type or suppress this message. Loss of precision Context Pointer to Pointer -- A far pointer is being assigned to a near pointer either in an assignment statement or an implied assignment such as an initializer, a return statement, or passing an argument in the presence of a prototype Context indicates which.

Such assignments are a frequent source of error when the actual segment is not equal to the default data segment. If you are sure that the segment of the far pointer equals the default data segment you should use a cast to suppress this message. Suspicious constant L or one? Was this intended to be a one? The two characters look very similar. To avoid misinterpretations, use the upper-case letter 'L'. Identifier clash Symbol 'Name' with Symbol 'Name' at String -- The two symbols appeared in the same name space but are identical to within the first count characters set by option -idlen count,option.

See -idlen. Size of argument no. Integer inconsistent with format -- The argument to scanf, fscanf or sscanf, where position is given by Integer, was a pointer whose size did not match the format. This is legal but potentially confusing. Is this what the programmer intended? This is technically legal but is not a wise programming practice. Integer inconsistent with format -- The argument to a printf or fprintf or sprintf was inconsistent with the format.

Although the size of the quantity was appropriate the type was not. You might consider casting the quantity to the correct type. You could also suppress this message, as more flagrant violations are picked up with warning Integer indirect object inconsistent with format -- The type of an argument to scanf or fscanf or sscanf was inappropriate to the format. However, the argument was a pointer and it pointed to a quantity of the expected size. Argument information can come from a prototype or from a function definition. This usually happens when an old-style function declaration indicates that the function is in a library but no prototype is given for the function nor is any argument information provided in a standard library file.

This message is suppressed if you are producing a lint object module because presumably the object module will be compared with a library file at some later time. The static class is only permitted for functions in declarations that have file scope i. Either move the declaration outside the function or change static to extern; if the second choice is made, make sure that a static declaration at file scope also exists before the extern declaration.

Though technically the construct is not portable, many compilers do tolerate it. This is not necessarily an error since C permits the redefinition, but it can be a source of subtle error. It is not generally a programming practice to be recommended. Assignment to strong type 'Name' in context: Context -- An assignment or implied assignment, Context indicates which violates a Strong type check as requested by a -strong A Assignment from a strong type 'Name' in context: Context -- An assignment or implied assignment, Context indicates which violates a Strong type check as requested by a -strong X This message would have been suppressed using flags "Je".

This is being done with a -parent option or by a typedef. Note that this may not necessarily be an error; you are being alerted to the fact that the old link is being erased. This message would have been suppressed using flags "Je" or "Jr" or both. Expected index type 'Symbol' for strong type 'Symbol' -- This is the message you receive when an inconsistency with the -index option is recognized. A subscript is not the stipulated type the first type mentioned in the message nor equivalent to it within the hierarchy of types.

Strong type mismatch for type 'Name' in binary operation -- A binary operation other than an equality or a relational operation violates a Strong type check as requested by a -strong J This message would have been suppressed using flags "Jo". Expected strong type 'Name' in Boolean context -- A Boolean context expected a type specified by a -strong B Converting enum to int -- An enumeration type was used in a context that required a computation such as an argument to an arithmetic operator or was compared with an integral argument.

An intermediate policy is to simply turn off this warning. Assignment of int to enum will still be caught. This warning is not issued for a tagless enum without variables. Format char 'Char' not supported by wsprintf -- This means that you are using an option of the form: -printf w If you are not really using wsprintf but are using the w flag to get far pointers you should turn this message off.

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Loss of precision in pointer cast -- A far pointer was cast to a near pointer. Such casts have had disastrous consequences for Windows programmers. If you really need to make such a cast, you can do it in stages. If you cast to a long first i. Variable 'Symbol' Location may not have been initialized -- An auto variable was not necessarily assigned a value before use. Symbol 'Symbol' Location may not have been initialized -- An auto variable was conditionally assigned a value before being passed to a function expecting a pointer to a const object.

See Warning for an explanation of the dangers of such a construct. At the very least, this reflects poor programming style. Suspicious truncation -- This message is issued when it appears that there may have been an unintended loss of information during an operation involving int or unsigned int the result of which is later converted to long. It is issued only for systems in which int is smaller than long. For example: long n Top. Overflow in computing constant for operation: String -- Arithmetic overflow was detected while computing a constant expression. String gives the operation that caused the overflow and may be one of: addition, unsigned addition, multiplication, unsigned multiplication, negation, shift left, unsigned shift left, subtraction, or unsigned sub.

To suppress this message for particular constant operations you may have to supply explicit truncation. For example, if you want to obtain the low order 8 bits of the integer into the high byte of a bit int, shifting left would cause this warning. However, truncating first and then shifting would be OK. The following code illustrates this where int is 16 bits. Sign fill during constant shift -- During the evaluation of a constant expression a negative integer was shifted right causing sign fill of vacated positions.

If this is what is intended, suppress this error, but be aware that sign fill is implementation-dependent. Constant out of range for operator String -- In a comparison operator or equality test or implied equality test as for a case statement , a constant operand is not in the range specified by the other operand.

For example, if is compared against a char variable, this warning will be issued. Moreover, if char is signed and 8 bits you will get this message if you compare against an integer greater than The problem can be fixed with a cast. The second suppresses the warning and corrects the bug. Potentially confusing initializer -- An initializer for a complex aggregate is being processed that contains some subaggregates that are bracketed and some that are not. ANSI recommends either "minimally bracketed" initializers in which there are no interior braces or "fully bracketed" initializers in which all interior aggregates are bracketed.

For example: int n; define n N will draw this complaint. Prior symbols checked are local and global variables, functions and typedef symbols, and struct, union and enum tags. Not checked are struct and union member. Possible loss of fraction -- When two integers are divided and assigned to a floating point variable the fraction portion is lost. To make sure you don't lose the fraction, cast at least one of the operands to a floating point type. If you really wish to do the truncation, cast the resulting divide to an integral int or long before assigning to the floating point variable.

Option String obsolete; use -width W,I -- The option -w is now used to set the warning level and should no longer be used to specify the width of error messages. Instead use -width with the same arguments as before to set the width. To set the warning level to 3, for example, use the option -w3, not -w 3. The type of the result is considered to be the enumeration. This is considered a very minor deviation from the strict model and you may elect to suppress this warning. Unusual nonportable anonymous struct or union -- A struct or union declaration without a declarator was taken to be anonymous.

Tagged unions and tagged or untagged structs are rarely supported, as anonymous. Was this an attempt to define an anonymous union? It looks suspicious. Missing semi-colons after such definitions can be a source of strange and mysterious messages. For example to add the most unusual extension. For example: int a[10]; if n Top. Here, the programmer forgot to index the array but the error normally goes undetected because the array reference is automatically and implicitly converted to a pointer to the first element of the array.

If you really mean to access the first element use y[0]. Since the exit function does not return, control can never flow to the right hand operator. Unparenthesized parameter Integer in macro 'Symbol' is passed an expression -- An expression was passed to a macro parameter that was not parenthesized. The priority of the operator is not considered except that it must have lower priority than the unary operators. The message is not issued at the point of macro definition because it may not be appropriate to parenthesize the parameter.

For example, the following macro expects that an operator will be passed as argument. It would be an error to enclose op in parentheses. Expression with side effects passed to repeated parameter Integer of macro 'Symbol' -- A repeated parameter within a macro was passed an argument with side-effects. For example: define ABS x x Top. Inconsistent use of qualifiers for symbol 'Symbol' type 'Type' vs. There was a nominal difference in the declaration but owing to the memory model chosen there was no real difference. For example, in large model, one declaration declares external symbol alpha to be a far pointer and another declaration omits the memory model specification.

Possible data overrun for function 'Symbol', argument Integer exceeds argument Integer Reference -- This message is for data transfer functions such as memcpy, strcpy, fgets, etc. Possible access beyond array for function 'Symbol', argument Integer exceeds Integer Reference -- This message is issued for several library functions such as fwrite, memcmp, etc wherein there is a possible attempt to access more data than exist.

Possibly passing to function 'Symbol' a negative value Integer , Context Reference -- An integral value that may possibly be negative is being passed to a function that is expecting only positive values for a particular argument. See message for an example and further explanation. Possible memory leak in assignment to pointer 'Symbol' -- An assignment was made to a pointer variable designated by Symbol which may already be holding the address of an allocated object which had not been freed.

The allocation of memory which is not freed is considered a 'memory leak'. The memory leak is considered 'possible' because only some lines of flow will result in a leak. Possibly inappropriate deallocation Name1 for 'Name2' data. The kind of data is one or more of: malloc, new, new[], static, auto, member, modified or constant. The word 'Possibly' is used in the message to indicate that only some of the lines of flow to the deallocation show data inconsistent with the allocation.

Returning address of auto through variable 'Symbol'. It is normally incorrect to return the address of an item on the stack because the portion of the stack allocated to the returning function is subject to being obliterated after return. No prior semantics associated with 'Name' in option 'String' -- The -function option is used to transfer semantics from its first argument to subsequent arguments. However it was found that the first argument Name did not have semantics. Possibly negative subscript Integer in operator 'String' -- An integer whose value was possibly negative was added to an array or to a pointer to an allocated area allocated by malloc, operator new, etc.

This message is not given for pointers whose origin is unknown since a negative subscript is in general legal. Member 'Symbol' field length Integer too small for enum precision Integer -- A bit field was found to be too small to support all the values of an enumeration that was used as the base of the bit field. However, if one additional color is inserted, Warning will be issued informing the programmer of the undesirable and dangerous condition.

Suspicious Truncation in arithmetic expression combining with pointer -- This message is issued when it appears that there may have been an unintended loss of information during an operation involving integrals prior to combining with a pointer whose precision is greater than the integral expression. Any overflow is ignored even though the larger precision of the pointer could easily accommodate the overflow.

Suspicious Truncation in arithmetic expression converted to pointer -- An arithmetic expression was cast to pointer. Moreover, the size of the pointer is greater than the size of the expression. In computing the expression, any overflow would be lost even though the pointer type would be able to accommodate the lost information.

To suppress the message, cast one of the operands to an integral type large enough to hold the pointer. Alternatively, if you are sure there is no problem you may cast the expression to an integral type before casting to pointer. See messages , , and Loop is not entered -- The controlling expression for a loop either the expression within a while clause or the second expression within a for clause evaluates initially to 0 and so it appears as though the loop is never entered. Taking the size of such an array will actually yield the size of a pointer.

For example: define strlen mystrlen will raise this message. The problem is that the semantics defined for strlen will then be lost. Consider this message an alert to transfer semantics from strlen to mystrlen, using -function strlen, mystrlen The message will be issued for built-in functions with built-in semantics or for user-defined semantics. The message will not be issued if the function is defined to be a function with a similar name but with underscores either appended or prepended or both. It will produce Info instead. Passing address of auto variable 'Symbol' into caller space -- The address of an auto variable was passed via assignment into a location specified by the caller to the function.

This looks suspicious because upon return the array will contain a pointer to a variable whose lifetime is over. It is possible that this is benign since it could be that the caller to f is merely passing in a working space to be discarded upon return. For instance, do you have a good memory?

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But what of the son of Laertes, what is his situation? Did he escape you? Mistress, he sits inside, the most welcome of prisoners! I do not want him to die yet. Post-expansions, finally, seem generally to lack a turn-initial particle. Such turns are often sequence-closing thirds, in the form of assessments of the second pair part just received, such as an answer to a question.

Post-sequences can also be opened with a question that is prompted by a preceding answer. Earlier I noted that most first pair parts have a preferred and a dispreferred response. The latter is usually marked in some way, whereas preferred responses tend to be more straightforward in form. A common case of preferred response is an information-providing answer to an information-seeking question. Since an answer is the normatively expected response to a question, no specific signal is needed to mark the upcoming turn as such. Similarly, preferred responses to requests and offers, i. Such responses often signal their connection to the speech situation by starting with a verb in the first person, which indicates that the speaker is obeying the request or accepting the offer.

In some cases preferred responses do contain turn-initial particles. In modern languages, too, certain words work differently depending on their placement in a conversation—English oh , for example, does one thing when uttered at the start of an answer a second pair part , another in an expansion after an answer a first pair part. If a speaker cannot or does not want to provide an answer to a question, grant a request, or otherwise utter a preferred response to a certain first pair part, the response tends to be formally marked.

Speakers of dispreferred responses tend to start speaking after a pause, use turn-initial discourse markers, be indirect in their formulation, and give accounts for why they do not answer, grant, accept, or obey. In the stylized discourse of tragic and comic dialogues, we cannot identify pauses between turns, but we do find dispreferred responses with justifying accounts. Have you any knowledge? Have you heard anything? Or have you failed to notice the evils from our enemies as they come against our friends?

Since the Argive army left during this night, I know nothing further Different linguistic forms, then, tend to introduce preferred and dispreferred responses. Preferred responses to questions, directives, and offers often start without any contextualization cue. According to CA, it is possible to identify linguistic constructions that regularly perform particular actions. Appealing an addressee is particularly appropriate to turns that are meant to persuade. Rather, Andromache argues, Neoptolemus does not like Hermione because of her arrogance and temper.

But if you get angry, you argue that Sparta is a great city and Scyros is of no account, that you are a rich woman living in the midst of the poor, and that Menelaus is a greater man than Achilles. It is for this that your husband hates you. An example from Aristophanes Wealth may clarify the difference. In t24 the god Hermes has just secretly knocked on the door; Cario opens it and does not immediately see him.

Then Hermes makes himself visible: t No one around, apparently. It is often found at the beginning of answers to questions. Consider the following example from Euripides Medea : t This common action in talk-in-interaction involves a speaker evaluating something, and thereby positioning herself and dis aligning with others. It quickly freezes your shins solid. Turn-initial interjections are also related to stancetaking: they indicate an emotional reaction to the previous turn.

He was dark, but just beginning to have grizzled hair, and his appearance was not far from yours. Ah me! It seems that all unknowing I have exposed myself to a dread curse. Stancetaking turns can also start without any particles or other linguistic contextualization cues. An example is the last turn by Medea in the following passage: [ ] t Swear by the plain of Earth, by Helios, my grandfather, and by the whole race of gods all together. I swear by Earth, by the holy light of Helios, and by all the gods that I will do as I have heard from your lips.

That is good. But what punishment do you call down on yourself if you do not abide by your oath? We also find several borderline cases of stancetaking turns that contain a contextualization cue as their second or third word, but still within the first discourse act. Consider the following example: t Turns without turn-initial contextualization cues may take on a particularly important or formal character. Now, since I have been subjugated into obeying you in this, I will go, treading on purple, to the halls of my house. There is a sea—who will ever dry it up?

The pragmatic analysis of linguistically uncontextualized utterance starts can throw light on textual problems involving the addition or removal of a turn-initial particle. Cinesias introduces his most important point in lines I certainly will not, not until you men agree to a settlement and stop the war. The actions of answering and stancetaking both tend to be uttered in non-initial positions in a conversational sequence: the preceding discourse sets up the relevance of an answer or usually a stancetaking; therefore their relationship to the previous turns does not need to be made explicit.

This chapter has argued that CA illuminates particle use in tragedy and comedy. Despite their stylized language, the plays still reflect many practices of everyday spoken conversation. Most important, it has been shown that the use of particles is sensitive to the interactional aspects that are clarified by CA. That is to say, particles reveal how turns relate to each other and to the structure of an ongoing interaction.

By taking into account the interactional context surrounding every turn, a CA approach helps us understand why different particles are appropriate in different communicative contexts. The following is an overview of all turn-initial expressions in the twelve plays of my corpus. It also indicates what other linguistic forms tend to be found in turn-initial position, along with their frequencies.

Table 1: Overview of turn-initial forms in three plays per author. Concerning the total number of turns per play, comedies feature more turns than tragedies, and the plays of Aeschylus contain the fewest turns. The following diagram shows that this holds true for all individual plays. In my corpus, there are many more turns in each play of Aristophanes than in any individual tragedy. These quantitative differences reflect different conversational styles. Figure 2: Number of turns in the three plays per author.

In tragedy, the plays of Aeschylus have the fewest speaking turns: only on average. This is primarily because the long lyric sections make up a large part of Aeschylean plays. These three tragedies also contain fewer and shorter stichomythic passages than those by Sophocles and Euripides. The higher relative frequency of turn-initial interjections in Aeschylus is due to the extremely high number in Persians , where lamenting—with which many interjections tend to be associated—is one of the main communicative actions of the play.

Furthermore, in this sample Sophocles Oedipus King , with turns, appears as the tragedy of dialogue and of stichomythia par excellence : it has many more turns of speaking than any of the other eight tragedies. The importance of dialogue is not the same in every play, however. The plot of Aeschylus Persians , notably, is carried less by dialogue, and more by song, narration, and lamentation. Schuren builds on a limited number of CA references, apparently ignoring any works published after Beck in Homeric Conversation also mentions the approach of CA but only briefly; esp.

She is mainly concerned with aesthetic and poetic effects of Homeric conversation types: these are different issues from those normally discussed in CA. McHoul and, more generally linguistic, Dynel Dynel argues p. Theater-dialogue, in most traditions, dispenses with much of the chaos of real conversation in the interests of clarity. Long monologues and especially choral songs form a very different discourse situation from rapid dialogues: see III. See also I. Posthumously published as Sacks CA has grown into a widely practiced research field; helpful recent introductions can be found in Schegloff and Sidnell , and in shorter form in Gardner and Heritage See e.

Schegloff ; Sidnell The joint-action approach to language described by Clark is similar to CA, although the scholar does not directly work within a CA framework. On he underlines the importance of action over topic. Interactional Linguistics also resembles CA see e. Selting and Couper-Kuhlen [eds. Schegloff On TCUs, see e. Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson ; Schegloff ; ; ; Sidnell , I thank Geoffrey Raymond for clarifying this point with me personal communication.

A choral song, then, is technically one utterance and one turn, unless it is interrupted by speech of another character; however, the conversational regularities of turn-taking, sequence organization, and preference organization are less relevant in this communicative environment than in the iambic parts of the plays. Therefore I do not discuss choral songs in this chapter. See III. Although this choice changes the meaning of the question, it is not relevant for my illustration here. Similar one-word vocative turns with similar reactions in Aristophanes may be found in Acharnians , , ; Frogs 40, , ; Women at the Thesmophoria This short sequence of two turns may be described as a summons-answer pair.

See Aristophanes Acharnians bis the addressees of Dicaeopolis members of the Acharnian chorus reportedly shake their heads during the course of uttering these lines; yet since the Acharnians do not give a verbal reaction, the lines still count together as one turn. On the importance of the start of turns, see e. Schegloff ; ; Sidnell On projection, see Auer passim ; Schegloff e. See Cook-Gumperz and Gumperz , and the discussion by Auer Auer defines p. I use the term here only for linguistic expressions.

On the difference between primary and secondary interjections, see e. Norrick a. Aristophanic swearing expressions can be considered secondary interjections. On the use of primary interjections in Greek drama, see Nordgren On TRPs, see also Clayman Schegloff i. Schegloff xiv.

Statistical modelling of citation exchange between statistics journals

On adjacency pairs, see e. Specifically, while trying to generate the wherewithal to complete some of my sequences here in addition to other things , I'm not sure why my count of in-editing plus a stable count of changing perhaps but approved sequences has declined. It may be that I was simply taken off authorship, as I have not looked into this; but I did receive no notice by email A specified collection of sequences was worked out, but perhaps it was decided to shift all credit to one who either 1 showed priority outside the purview of the OEIS or 2 gave me mention for the initiation; and, then again, it may be that 3 the work was simply deleted entirely with no notice or 4 something even worse happened with a removal of other sequences and a high-jacking but approval of what I've done recently OR one with my password said go ahead and erase.

Things should be easy to clarify at the top of 'the OEIS editing party', but I'm not sure whether or not you want to handle this question yourself. Please let me know. Merickel , 24 November UTC. To update, I do find that Sloane published, and may possibly be wrong about the number that were approved but don't believe so i. At any rate, you may strike the 'no email' matter This was mistaken, and there may even be no issue whatsoever other than a slightly poor memory and likewise slightly pessimistic expectations.

I only came out primarily to do some necessary things regarding my banking situation. It's a long walk, and it's cold, and I am quite disorganized now. But I do only have one pending and I was not able to say anything about that and wanted to update an older submission of mine. Thank you editors. Merickel , 11 December UTC. I've seen that you edited this Draft and left status as "Editing".

Do you have more changes to do? I had started to draft this sequence, but I noticed there were errors and I've stopped editing it. I would like to release the number for other people. Could you help me please? Doesn't one need some place to create and send a b-file from if one wants to add it? I can't make out how to do this from the library. I also don't understand your fellow editors' objections to my sequence currently in edit. Two references are to terms that would be invisible if reduced to three lines, and what is 'uniformity' and how important?! Once I explain that I think all the terms are called for, to enough of a degree in my opinion, it seems the editors should take on why the sequence should be reduced with more reason.

The tool at the Prime Pages is faster. No objection, of course, to your having added one, but I didn't think it important for me to do so. Merickel , 4 June UTC. I was getting ready to concede on this. It's obviously not all that important. Thanks for the b-file. I guess to do that myself I need to have webspace, like a blog, somewhere?

Merickel , 5 June UTC.

I addressed your most recent question immediately. Cross-referenced wrong sequence. Merickel , 11 July UTC The basic problem is I am a pedestrian with only cellphone internet service of my own. Was a kind of misquote of other sequences in the group because both were mentioned in the 1st sentence of the earlier one. That one was the one offset by 1 from the particular sequence of mine, and the correct one is supersequence of the bunch.

Having it accepted as it was, without doing anything else with the program, was my preference. I can see the point of the other editors' opinion on it, so I hope it wasn't confusion over the nature of change preferred and assistance needed by me that got it through. Merickel , 13 July UTC. Yes, my plan for 8 primes is to have a go-to link that will suffice in terms of full commenting for both the just-approved and the 9-primes case with no program planned shown for that, but an adequate brief description of how to get the right program from the linked one. I don't know what exactly the hold-up now is for A , I should say.

It could be punitive about cluttering the wiki with a dispute over moot capitalization and period with an editor who too long went without mentioning a source , an unwritten need for me to change something and I now may have too few terms shown, but not too many , or merely an oversight by you because you are unaware others are taking their time. I can see also the possibility written in comments there that you yourself are engaged in debugging a fast program to put a b-file and new comment there yourself. I had no plans to put more than could be in the sequences proper, and for days to a week it wouldn't now even be possible and commenting the addition would look stranger from me than another contributor as well, with comparison becoming internal rather than across the two sequences a hassle of sorts in rewording things that a second contributor wouldn't need to contemplate.

Merickel , 13 July UTC If having terms up and then removing them without putting a b-file is at issue, I can't get around to do much about it. This isn't a state-of-the-art phone either. I can see more easily editing in a new program and b-file in a month than a b-file for a handful of terms in the next few days. Merickel , 13 July UTC Perhaps it is odd to submit with a simple program that works in under a week when it is known an improvement is essentially available to print terms as quickly as the print command can.

It tends to make the two sequences a possibly unwanted lesson on efficient programming. But it's the order in which results came out for me, looking for minor tweaks to the weak program and finding larger improvements instead. Currently editing correction of this sequence title wrong , and think my current edit is pretty much best.

If you could please render a verdict so I can clear one of the three at least, I'd appreciate it because the two editors who have appeared there didn't respond as though they comprehended. You'll see in the pinkboxes that I had a simpler change than the current one or will pretty much accept a 'Who cares if it is a little imprecise?!

Just seems the best most reasonable of the three to move along on either with another change and rapid acceptance, or no change and the same. Merickel , 26 July UTC. Primarily mentioning this one because it's the one that I might need to change further, so if you don't feel put upon by it I don't think further immediate changes to the other two are needed though for one my comments dealing with later unseen terms is really hard reading and I plan to link an article to clear it up as soon as I complete it.

Since these other two were brought up, I'll just say that A 's changes are no more than a better title a 2nd and final time with one matching change to comments; and A 's are first-and-foremost a fix of comments from when I didn't understand that a 1 only exists if the offset is under 2, and then a change to offset 1 with a trivial a 1 given -- to match a recent change I see Neil Sloane and another editor decided upon quite recently A , plus addition of a whole bunch of palindrome cross-references many mine and many not, with no particular critically important linkages.

This just to ease your attempt to discern the changes if you want to skip pinkbox reading. As for the section title here, what I have there now is a use of 'non-trivial' in the title with specified definition in a comment this being about representation as a palindrome, a single-digit or 11 is so regarded. My first attempt to fix was the simpler addition of 'multidigit' and I thought a bigger change better afterward.

Sorry to bother you, but I'm concerned I cannot do what I think I should with this without a delay. You'll be aware that I only recently began adding b-files or changing them and was under the wrong impression non-automatic ones for sequences not filling 3 lines were even desired. While trying to get the above sequence just right, I apparently only removed the extension mentioning my b-file and not the b-file itself. If this is expected to matter, would you please do this?

I'm really worried it will block my other edits if I do it myself with my 3 limit. If you think it's trivia that won't create a later issue, I guess you don't need to do anything nor I. Merickel , 7 August UTC. Feel free to remove this after you fix that. I very much appreciate the Pari code you added on A Do any of the values of q appear to higher than the first power i. Hello, and thank you for the variety of resources you've provided for our edification.

It is less than a year old, but one of its major milestones at least in terms of other reddit communities is its indexing of factors through its participation in Berkeley's BOINC project, as well as some clever bots written for the subreddit. If not, what can a small community like ours do to provide a more accessible or reliable academic resource? Conrad , 5 September PST. There are many interesting proposals on improving the OEIS, some of which are really good I mean Features Wishlist , Suggestions for new keywords and so on.

Featured Title

Are there any chances that some of them will be implemented? It is by no means a claim, I'm just asking in case you know something about it. And in addition to this general question, there is a specific request: if you have time, please take a look at the t-file proposal. It is an attempt to solve a problem of machine-readable representation of arrays. Feel free to edit it if you find it worthy of attention. What do you think about granting the "Associate Editors" wiki-group the "validate" right?

As far as I understand, currently Associate Editors can "review" and "approve" pages -- moreover, their our edits are "automatically sighted", which hints that it as intended that Associate Editors should be able to turn drafts into approved versions for protected wiki-pages, but in fact all this "review" and "approve" stuff doesn't do anything.

The only right that affects the protected pages seems to be "validate". Hi, commons:File:A He's certainly entitled to compute the values and do whatever he likes with the result, but that's not what happened. How should it be handled, just let it stay as is? Propose it for deletion on Commons for the NC business after copying it? I've been fiddling with this a bit this morning, and applied an equation I found here: 1.

I'd like to explain this. Any suggestions?