Global tracer transportation is quite efficient on the SMC grid with optional second or third order transportation scheme, thanks to the removal of the CFL restriction at high latitudes and parallelization of unstructured 1-D arrays. Possible dynamical application on the SMC grid is demonstrated with a model of shallow-water equations Li, Its potential applications for global models and coupled systems are to be explored.
Starting with a brief outline of the SMC grid technical structure, present applications in ocean surface wave models are demonstrated, followed with some possible future applications in other systems. For clarity, only the Euro-Arctic region is shown here. Because of the unstructured feature of the SMC grid, SMC grid supports flexible domain shapes and stepped resolutions. The mapping rule Eq. The cells are listed as a 1-D array and sorted by their y -size for use of sub-time steps on refined cells.
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Please note that the sorting is on the y -size because the cell x -size may change due to the longitudinal merging at high latitudes, which are not counted as resolution level change. The cell number counts in y -size are used for setting up sub-time-step loops for efficient spatial propagation schemes Li, Because the SMC grid uses the same lat-lon quadrilateral cells as a conventional lat-lon grid, numerical schemes for propagation on the SMC grid are almost identical to those used on a lat-lon grid except for extra size factors for fluxes.
Retaining the lat-lon grid finite difference schemes on the SMC grid is a major advantage over triangle-cell or other shaped finite element grids. It is a well known fact that finite element method is more expensive than finite difference method because of the skewness of finite element cells, which incur more complicated calculation of flow movement than quadrilateral cells. In the polar region, SMC grid uses a single Polar cell to remove the singularity at the Pole and introduces a fixed reference direction, the map-east, to mitigate the errors caused by the increased curvature at high latitudes Li, Vector components, such as those for wind velocity or 2-D wave energy spectrum, are specified in the map-east direction system at high latitudes within the red circle in Fig.
Because the angle from the map-east to the local east varies with latitude and longitude, vector components defined by local east cannot be mixed up with those defined from the map-east. The map-east region is separate from the local east part and they are linked up by boundary conditions over four overlapping rows. This map-east region is a key feature to improve the polar performance of the reduced grid, particularly for dynamical models Li, Both the face and cell loops are divided into sub loops by their sizes and sub time steps are used for refined face and cell loops for efficiency Li, This sub loop technique makes the multi-resolution SMC grid more efficient than nested grids because of the removal of overlapping regions and boundary conditions in nested systems.
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The flexible refinement of the unstructured SMC grid makes it even more efficient than conventional nested grids because it does not need to keep a whole rectangular sub-domain at high resolution. It has to be emphasized that the map-east polar system is only required for vector components. For propagation of scalars, such as temperature, salinity, atmospheric species or pollutants, there is no need to bother about the curvature at high latitudes as long as the wind components for propagation are given correctly on the SMC cell faces C-grid.
This will be particular useful for a global chemistry model where over a hundred of species may be involved. The initial condition is a spherical step function SSF , which is constructed by setting all cell values to be 1. Cells within this stripe are initially set to be 5 units as marked by the red dots in Fig.
The initial SSF is shown in Fig. The rotational pole is chosen on the Equator so the raised stripe ring could sweep over the full sphere. The SSF sharp ring edges are very sensitive to numerical oscillations and the uniform background is ideal to reveal any distortion caused by the advection scheme or the size-changing parallels.
The maximum and minimum values are 5. Nevertheless, the whole background and the raised stripe look unchanged except for the rounded stripe edges. This indicates that the SSF passes through the size-changing parallels and the polar cells smoothly. The maximum and minimum values 5. By this time, the stripe has returned back to its initial position so a normalised root-mean-square NRMS error could be evaluated against the initial SSF.
Physical diffusion or numerical smoothing may degrade high order advection scheme and makes it equivalent to a low order scheme. The map-east system has been tested in an idealised ice-free Arctic and validated with available satellite observations Li, So the UNO2 advection scheme and the SMC grid combination is strongly recommended for atmospheric dispersion or chemistry model where physical diffusion is unavoidable. A rotated 1. Figure 4. Figure 5.
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Figure 9. Figure It is calculated in two categories by considering PLR as Equation Optimization of grid independent hybrid PV—diesel—battery system for power generation in remote villages of Uttar Pradesh, India. Search ADS. A novel approach for optimal combinations of wind, PV, and energy storage system in diesel-free isolated communities. Performance evaluation of a stand-alone PV-wind-diesel-battery hybrid system feasible for a large resort center in South China Sea, Malaysia.
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Published by Oxford University Press. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Issue Section:. Download all figures. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Advance article alerts. Article activity alert. Subject alert. Data distribution and communication between parallel CORBA objects is being done transparently to the programmers. It is thus possible nowadays to design multi-physics applications based on the connection of parallel components, each of them solving a particular physics.
In parallel, we worked on the design of a runtime system called PadicoTM, to allow components to exchange data independently of the underlying networking technologies.
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Efficient networking technologies found in clusters were therefore inefficiently used. Similarly, high-bandwidth Wide Area Networks are under-exploited without the use of advanced features such as parallel streams. One of the issues under current investigation is the automatic deployment of software components onto grids.
We propose a network topology description model that is capable of describing the available networking resources and their configuration. This model has been implemented in the Globus middleware within the information service. It will allow an efficient mapping of the application component graph to the grid infrastructure, taking into consideration the application requirements.
These different projects are being integrated in a single software platform based on Globus.