Emotional problems that may occur alongside dysgraphia include impaired self-esteem , lowered self-efficacy , heightened anxiety , and depression.
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Dysgraphia is a hard disorder to detect as it does not affect specific ages, gender, or intelligence. There are some common problems not related to dysgraphia but often associated with dysgraphia, the most common of which is stress. Often children and adults with dysgraphia will become extremely frustrated with the task of writing specially on plain paper and spelling ; younger children may cry, pout, or refuse to complete written assignments.
This frustration can cause the child or adult a great deal of stress and can lead to stress-related illnesses. This can be a result of any symptom of dysgraphia. Dysgraphia is a biologically based disorder with genetic and brain bases. With devices like drawing tablets , it is now possible to measure the position, tilt, and pressure in real time.
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From these features, it is possible to compute automatic features like speed and shaking and train a classifier to diagnose automatically children with atypical writing. Treatment for dysgraphia varies and may include treatment for motor disorders to help control writing movements. The use of occupational therapy can be effective in the school setting, and teachers should be well informed about dysgraphia to aid in carry-over of the occupational therapist's interventions.
Treatments may address impaired memory or other neurological problems. Some physicians recommend that individuals with dysgraphia use computers to avoid the problems of handwriting. Dysgraphia can sometimes be partially overcome with appropriate and conscious effort and training.
They also suggest teaching the students cursive writing as it has fewer reversible letters and can help lessen spacing problems, at least within words, because cursive letters are generally attached within a word.
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- Developmental Dyslexia and Dysgraphia: What can We Learn from the One About the Other??
There is no special education category for students with dysgraphia;  in the United States, The National Center for Learning Disabilities suggests that children with dysgraphia be handled in a case-by-case manner with an Individualized Education Program , or provided individual accommodation to provide alternative ways of submitting work and modify tasks to avoid the area of weakness. Children will mostly benefit from explicit and comprehensive instructions, help translating across multiple levels of language, and review and revision of assignments or writing methods.
It is also suggested by Berninger that teachers with dysgraphic students decide if their focus will be on manuscript writing printing or keyboarding. In either case, it is beneficial that students are taught how to read cursive writing as it is used daily in classrooms by some teachers. This causes less frustration for the child as they are able to get their knowledge across to the teacher without worrying about how to write their thoughts. The number of students with dysgraphia may increase from 4 percent of students in primary grades, due to the overall difficulty of handwriting, and up to 20 percent in middle school because written compositions become more complex.
With this in mind, there are no exact numbers of how many individuals have dysgraphia due to its difficulty to diagnose. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 DSM-5 doesn't use the term dysgraphia but uses the phrase "an impairment in written expression" under the category of "specific learning disorder".
This is the term used by most doctors and psychologists. While IDEA doesn't use the term "dysgraphia", it describes it under the category of "specific learning disability". This includes issues with understanding or using language spoken or written that make it difficult to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dysgraphia Specialty Pediatrics Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting , but also coherence. Odd wrist, arm, body, or paper orientations such as bending an arm into an L shape Excessive erasures Mixed upper case and lower case letters Inconsistent form and size of letters, or unfinished letters Misuse of lines and margins Inefficient speed of copying Inattentiveness over details when writing Frequent need of verbal cues Relies heavily on vision to write Difficulty visualizing letter formation beforehand Poor legibility Poor spatial planning on paper Difficulty writing and thinking at the same time creative writing, taking notes Handwriting abilities that may interfere with spelling and written composition Difficulty understanding homophones and what spelling to use  Having a hard time translating ideas to writing, sometimes using the wrong words altogether May feel pain while writing cramps in fingers, wrist and palms .
Dyslexia A2Z. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. As described in Chapter 2 , these findings show how the brain organizes with reading experience from childhood to late adolescence for typically developing readers and readers with reading disabilities. The neurotrajectory involved in reading takes years to develop for children given adequate early exposure.
For children and adolescents with reading disabilities, this trajectory appears to be disrupted and is associated with structural and functional differences in brain functioning between children with and without reading disabilities. These brain differences are not necessarily fixed or immutable. Change neuroplasticity in neurological patterns has been observed in children and adolescents with reading disabilities as a result of effective intervention.
We review this intervention research and studies of differences in brain structure and function between readers with and without reading disabilities because it has the future potential to inform assessment and literacy instruction for adults with disabilities as neurobiological theories of learning and reading and writing development become better explicated Just and Varma, Brain Structure and Function.
A number of anatomical neuroimaging studies research that uses magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, to measure gray and white matter volumes across brain regions have identified structural differences, such as reduced gray matter volume, in the brains of people with reading disabilities. These differences have been found in several of the left hemisphere LH regions that functional brain imaging show to be involved in reading, including the temporoparietal and occipitotemporal areas Brambati et al.
Using a recently developed MRI technique known as diffusion tensor imaging DTI , studies show differences in white matter tracts for those with reading disabilities. Individuals with reading disabilities have atypical white matter development in critical LH pathways linking the major reading areas.
This finding suggests reduced myelin in the axonal fibers connecting distributed brain areas that form the reading circuits of the brain Beaulieu et al. These reported gray and white matter differences in brain organization of LH posterior regions between typically developing readers and those with a reading disability appear to be associated with underlying language difficulties Niogi and McCandliss, It is not known whether these structural differences are a cause or consequence of reading disability.
This question requires further study with research that includes prospective longitudinal designs with individuals before they learn to read. Functional neuroimaging research uses such techniques as functional MRI fMRI to measure activation in different parts of the brain while an individual performs cognitive tasks.
In studies of this type, both children and adults with reading disability show marked functional differences relative to typically developing readers in the activity generated in major components of the reading circuit temporoparietal, occipitotemporal, and inferior frontal systems Brunswick et al. Individuals with reading disability tend to underactivate both temporoparietal and occipitotemporal regions; this disruption also is evident in reduced functional connectivity a type of analysis that measures the degree to which brain areas show correlated activation and hence are acting as a functional circuit Hampson et al.
This atypical functional connectivity of key LH posterior regions in disabled relative to able readers suggests interregional communication difficulties in the left hemisphere. This pattern of reduced posterior activation and connectivity in the left hemisphere associated with reading disability has been observed in a large number of studies with both children and adults with reading disabilities Pugh et al. In addition, readers with reading disabilities often show evidence of apparently compensatory responses to their LH posterior dysfunction: an increased functional role for right hemisphere RH temporoparietal regions Sarkari et al.
Differences in both structural and functional brain organization of LH posterior regions have been consistently observed across neuroimaging studies. It is hypothesized that these differences may reflect genetically based patterns of brain development, a subject of research for many years. Postmortem studies show cortical and subcortical cellular anomalies ectopias, microgyria, and glial scarring in the brains of individuals with reading disability Galaburda et al. Genetic factors may give rise to these anomalies by way of abnormal neuronal migration during fetal brain development.
Using animal models, studies that explore the ways in which these anomalies might impede both brain development and learning have been undertaken Galaburda et al. This research holds promise for. More also needs to be understood about the brain bases of basic computational processes involved in reading. For example, reading depends on such cognitive processes as memory and attention; reading disabilities have been associated with deficits that include limited memory capacity, limited processing speed, and specific problems with learning and memory consolidation.
Research to identify how structural and functional differences in reading disability may limit learning and cognitive processes will be important to developing brain-based models of reading and other learning disabilities see Just and Varma, The relative contributions of environmental factors e. Reading difficulties at any age or in any population are the result of a complex mix of congenital gene-brain-behavior and environmental factors.
It is well known that genetic factors contribute to reading disabilities Fletcher et al. The observation that reading difficulties run in families and are evident across generations was reported almost a century ago Hinshelwood, It has been estimated that children of a parent with a reading disability face an eight times greater risk of a reading disorder themselves relative to the population as a whole Pennington and Olson, Much less is known about the specifics, such as which genes play a role and the ways in which genetic influences occur e.
Currently, the genetics literature contains references to about 20 potential genetic susceptibility loci, which are regions of the genome that have demonstrated a statistically significant linkage to reading disability and typically involve more than one and often hundreds of genes Schumacher et al. None of these loci or genes, however, has been either fully accepted or fully rejected by the field, and intensive research is ongoing.
The information that has contributed to the identification of susceptibility loci and candidate genes for reading disability has been generated by molecular genetics studies of reading and reading-related processes. Unlike heritability and relative risk studies, these studies assume the collection of genetic material DNA from blood or saliva samples. More research is needed to fully understand the involvement of these genes with reading, its related processes, and their development.
A portion of the adults who need to develop their literacy skills is likely to have genetically based learning disabilities. A range of other factors, such as inadequate instruction, poverty, cultural and language barriers, and motivation, are likely to contribute substantially to the reading difficulties of low-literate adults. Interdisciplinary research aimed at building gene-brain-behavior models of typical and atypical reading development and understanding how these factors interact with environmental forces has the potential to enhance understanding of the unique challenges in developing reading and writing skills faced by adult learners.
As noted earlier, a growing body of evidence is showing how functional neurocircuits change with reading experience from childhood to late adolescence in typically developing youth and how this development differs in populations with reading disabilities Booth et al. In one developmental fMRI study using a cross-sectional design, Shaywitz and colleagues examined changes in functional brain organization in large typically developing and reading disabled cohorts ranging from age 7 through 17 Shaywitz et al.
A beginning reader, on a successful learning trajectory, appears to employ a widely distributed cortical system for reading-related processing, including the temporoparietal, frontal, and RH posterior areas. This region appears important to the development of fluent reading see Booth et al. A full understanding of individual differences in the development of the brain for reading requires understanding not only change in functional circuits over time but also possible neuroanatomical constraints on learning.
Structural imaging techniques MRI used to examine changes in gray and white matter volume from early childhood into late adolescence and adulthood show variable increases in white matter and decreases in gray matter volumes as brain regions develop Giedd et al. Some regions mature later e. A priority for research is to examine the ways in which age-related changes in gray and white matter organization affect plasticity and the impact on learning to read at later ages.
The trajectory of brain development, both structural and functional, is established over a period of years for typically developing children given adequate early exposure. It is not. What is known, however, for both children and adolescents with reading disabilities is that, in the absence of intensive remediation, this neurotrajectory of reading-related brain changes remains disrupted Brunswick et al. It will be important to determine whether intensive and evidence-based intervention with those who experience atypical patterns of brain organization can lead to some degree of normalization in the structure or function of LH systems.
New research on remediation suggests that a good deal of plasticity from childhood into adulthood may still be expected for those with reading disabilities. Several recent treatment studies indicate that, at least for younger readers, gains in reading skill with systematic and intense reading intervention are associated with a more normalized brain organization for reading. In a recent study using magnetoencepholography to measure brain changes, young children with severe reading difficulties underwent a brief but intensive phonologically based reading remediation program Simos et al.
After intervention, significant gains in reading were observed, and the most salient change observed for every individual who received the intervention was a robust increase in the activation of the LH temporoparietal regions of the brain and a moderate decrease in the activation of the compensatory RH temporoparietal regions. Shaywitz et al. One group of children with reading disabilities received nine months of an intensive experimental reading intervention treatment group.
As described in Blachman et al. For the fMRI study, there were two control groups: a control group of normal readers and a control group of readers with reading disabilities who received standard intervention from their community schools. Treatment participants with reading disabilities showed significant gains in reading fluency and comprehension compared with the control group with reading disabilities who received remediation in their schools.
When the two reading disabled groups were compared on fMRI scans posttreatment Time 2 , significantly more activation increases in LH posterior reading areas were seen in the treatment group. Direct comparison of activation profiles showed that reading disabled children in the treatment group, but not the reading disabled controls, had reliable. One year after treatment, follow-up fMRI scans showed children with reading disabilities in the treatment group continued to experience patterns of brain region activation that indicated the intervention had an enduring influence on normalizing brain pathways for reading.
In research with somewhat older learners, Temple and colleagues used fMRI scans to examine the effects of an intervention on the cortical circuitry of a group of 8- to year-old children with reading disabilities. After intervention, increased LH activation was observed, which in turn correlated significantly with increased reading scores. Similarly, in a study of fifth graders, Meyler et al. Observed increases in gray matter volume indicated a significant effect on both brain structure and function Keller and Just, Structural changes that accompany successful intervention Keller, Carpenter, and Just, ; Meyler et al.
Interventions with adults are rare, but Eden and colleagues Eden et al. The fact that both structural and functional reorganization of LH brain circuitry for reading can occur after effective remediation for both children and adults with reading disabilities is potentially very important. Similar positive outcomes may occur for adult learners who have lacked the extended experiences needed to develop literacy skills, regardless of whether or not they have latent undiagnosed reading disabilities.
Knowledge of brain-based developmental trajectories from childhood to adulthood, although still incomplete, suggests the patterns of brain activation that might be achieved with effective instruction and remediation of struggling readers. This work also has resulted in the development of neurobiological measures for research that may prove useful for evaluating interventions for adults learning to read for the first time. Accommodations adjust the manner in which instructional or testing situations are presented so that individuals with documented disabilities can learn and demonstrate their learning in a fair and equitable manner Gregg, Accommodations are not a replacement for literacy instruction.
Rather, accommodations are adjuncts that remove barriers imposed by. Understanding the issues surrounding accommodation practices is critical to grasping the consequences for adolescents and adults with learning disabilities who are not provided access or equal opportunities to fully participate in instruction or demonstrate their knowledge in testing contexts. Lack of access to accommodations can have major negative effects on career development and adult income Gregg, ; Gregg and Banerjee, Reading Accommodations.
As difficulties with phonological, orthographic, morphologic, and syntactic awareness slow down the process of decoding, extra time becomes a critical accommodation for adolescents or adults with learning disabilities dyslexia. There is a significant amount of research to support the need for this accommodation for adolescents and adults with learning disabilities Gregg, ; Gregg and Nelson, in press; Shaywitz, Emerging technologies are changing the range of literacy skills needed in the worlds of school and work.
A wide range of technologies are being used to accommodate learning and work environments for these individuals. In the area of reading, alternative media and the software to access these formats are essential accommodations for college students with learning disabilities.
Alt media is a broad term that refers to a variety of formats into which printed text is converted e. Regardless of the alt media format, etext is not an effective accommodation for individuals with learning disabilities unless it is used in conjunction with assistive technology software. Optical character recognition OCR software is first used to convert scanned or bit-mapped images of text into machine-readable form. The text may then be saved on magnetic media e. TTS is a type of speech-synthesis application that is used to create a spoken version of etext on a computer or handheld device.
TTS can enable the reading of computer display information for an adolescent or adult with learning disabilities, or it may simply be used to augment the reading of a text message. Anderson-Inman and Horney prefer the term supported etext to refer to the integration of etext with assistive software. An important feature of alt media is its portability. Digital files can be delivered to adolescents or adults via email or Internet portals and used in a variety of electronic and physical environments.
Current advancements in technology now allow etext files to be downloaded easily not only to computers,.
However, much of the TTS software cannot access or integrate with the various social media tools—from text messaging to blogging—that are becoming essential to success in school or the workplace. As colleges and universities are posting lectures on YouTube and many chief executives of major companies are communicating to their employees and customers through blogs and web pages, assistive technology software needs to integrate seamlessly with various forms of social media.
The lack of empirical evidence to identify effective technologies to provide adolescents and adults with learning disabilities access to reading online and offline traditional print-based is of considerable concern, given the prevalence of low literacy skills among youth and young adults in society. Reading comprehension problems are more difficult to accommodate than decoding and reading fluency problems.
Current technology advancements, however, are providing professionals with more tools than ever before to help college students with functional limitations in reading comprehension. One promising technology software accommodation for reading instruction is embedded etext support: TTS and links to definitions, highlighting, and summaries of text Gregg and Banerjee, Many of the embedded supports can significantly help readers with reading comprehension problems.
Embedded supports used in combination with etext and TTS software may prove more effective than etext or TTS alone for college readers with learning disabilities. A growing body of research is providing strong validation for the effectiveness of embedded supports in enhancing reading comprehension for students with reading disorders Anderson-Inman, ; Anderson-Inman and Horney, ; Anderson-Inman et al. A promising technology for enhancing the reading comprehension of at-risk readers is web-based tutors that provide online self-explanation and metacognitive reading strategies. McNamara and her colleagues McNamara et al.
It is a web-based tutoring program designed for adolescents and adults that uses animated agents to teach reading strategies. However, at this time, no research is available to support its effectiveness with individuals diagnosed with learning disabilities. Again, the effectiveness of software such as iSTART depends on its ease in successfully integrating with screen readers and other technologies necessary to access the online reading requirements of the program.
Difficulty decoding words, understanding vocabulary, or remaining sensitive to sentence or text structures often slows down the reading process for many adolescents or adults with learning disabilities. In addition, if any strategy or technology e. Writing Accommodations. Very little research is available to guide accommodations for the college population with handwriting disorders. Professionals depend on clinical experience and assessment data in choosing specific accommodations.
For all three types of graphomotor disorders i.
Word processing and various assistive technologies also provide accommodation options appropriate for all types of graphomotor disorders. Traditional assistive technologies used with more severe motor disorders, such as adapted switches, adapted keyboards, and keyboard overlays, have not been well investigated by researchers as to their effectiveness with adult populations with learning disabilities. Although limited in number, studies are available to support the effectiveness of word processing, word prediction software, and voice input speech to text for enhancing the legibility and fluency of writing for adult populations Gregg, In addition, the need is great for researchers to investigate the usefulness of touch windows and macro software for accommodating the writing of college students with learning disabilities, since these recommendations are often suggested by professionals.
With the popularity and accessibility of mobile touch devices i. Spelling difficulty is a hallmark of college writers with learning disabilities dyslexia. Although there is evidence to support the effectiveness of assistive technologies in enhancing spelling performance, research on the college population is limited. As with handwriting disorders, extra time is an appropriate accommodation for college students with significant spelling deficits, since they require more time to recall the motor and orthographic patterns necessary to spell words.
Word processing also appears to enhance the fluency and spelling of young adult writers with learning disabilities. Research also supports the effectiveness of spell checkers and word prediction programs for enhancing the spelling performance of adolescent writers with learning disabilities Handley-More et al.
Speech recognition software for dictation has gained some support as a means to enhance the writing of adolescents and adults with spelling, handwriting, and fluency problems Higgins and Raskind, ; MacArthur and Cavalier, ; Reece and Cumings, The effectiveness of accommodations for the college writer with written syntax disorders has not been well addressed.
It is important to investigate the cognitive and linguistic deficits underlying difficulty in producing sentence structures as a guide in selecting specific accommodations Gregg, For writers struggling to produce written sentences, extra time and word processing are appropriate accommodations. For writers with significant attention or executive functioning deficits, outlining, webbing, and TTS software might be an effective accommodation. For students whose difficulty recalling words influences sentence structure production, word prediction software might be recommended.
Speech-to-text software is often not as effective for writers demonstrating oral expressive syntax disorders. The technology is currently not advanced enough to deal with the oral hesitations and pronunciation errors often demonstrated by these individuals. These were characterized by omissions, repetition of letters and exchange of letters in consonants and vowels.
This type of error involving rules tended to decrease with the advance in schooling, although it persisted in children with reading difficulties. Salles and Parente in a study on the type of errors in the second school year verified that the children in word reading committed a greater number of errors in regularization than lexical errors and of ignorance of rule dependent on the context, evidencing a predominance of the use of the phonological route over the lexical route in reading.
Several studies have shown that the complexity of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, as well as the syllabic structure affect the acquisition of reading BARCA et al. In terms of errors produced in the vowels and consonants, Loff and Vale verified in the European Portuguese that the children of the 1st year presented more errors in the vowels than in the consonants, which can be explained by the complexity of the rules of phoneme-grapheme correspondence in which the 5 vowel letters correspond to 18 phonemes. In several orthographies children also show reading difficulties in the case of digraphs.
Nunes and Aldinis , in brazilian portuguese, found that children in the first years of schooling made more mistakes in words that contained digraphs as opposed to those that did not, and that weaker readers had greater difficulties with digraphs. They put forward the hypothesis that these readers do not understand the need for the consonantal digraph to represent a sound due to phonological difficulties eg.
Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems
In Portuguese there are also rules of position, that is, double consonants can only appear in the middle of two vowels and never at the beginning or end of words. In relation to the syllabic structure, Sprenger-Charolles et al. They verified that there was better performance in pseudowords with simple CV syllabic structure when compared to complex syllabic structures like CCV and CVC. Goikoetxea in Spanish and Monteiro and Monteiro and Soares in Brazilian Portuguese also verified that children demonstrated many difficulties in reading complex syllables and used different reading strategies in order to transform the most complex syllables into canonical syllables.
In a study by Monteiro with children with reading difficulties, the strategies most used to solve the difficulty of reading complex syllables were: the omission of the ramification of the attack in syllables of the type CCV; the omission of the coda in CVC-type syllables and the insertion of graphemes in the reading of syllables of CVC type. According to Monteiro and Soares , the conjugation of a consonant with a vowel would be the base - decoding model, to which the children would return when they face difficulties with the complex syllables.
However, this strategy becomes inefficient to decode words with complex syllables or even grapheme-phoneme correspondences subject to context rules. Thus, the difficulty of acquiring grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, as well as the orthographic patterns of the language lead children into making reading errors. The development of these skills becomes fundamental to learning how to read and for the effective use of the lexical route. Few studies have been done in European Portuguese concerning the way in which errors in reading evolve in the first years of elementary school.
We will mention those of Gomes , Loff and Vale and Fernandes et al. Gomes verified through the reading error analysis of children from 1st to 3rd year of schooling that most errors occurred in words with complex syllables. The greatest number of reading errors occurred in the first year of schooling, and in the 2nd and 3rd year the errors were already small in number. Loff and Vale analysed the types of errors that children from the first four years of elementary school committed in oral word reading.
The results show that the average percentage of errors decreased dramatically from the 1st to the 2nd year, and there were no statistically significant differences from the 3rd year to the 4th year. With regard to the categories of errors, they observed that errors involving phonemic analysis of the word were more frequently committed than regularization errors. Only in year 4 this pattern is reversed.
However, the study did not reveal significant differences between the years of schooling for the different categories of error. In conclusion, the authors maintain that the quantitative progression is made clearly over the 4 years, but the reading strategies, except for the change between the 1st and 2nd year, tend to be very similar both in the beginning readers and in the more advanced. The children seem to construct an orthographic lexicon right from the 1st year of schooling, but the reading strategy continues to be mostly phonological decoding until the end of the 4th year.
Fernandes et al. Given the importance of these types of studies in understanding the learning process in reading and given the fact that research in European Portuguese is still narrow, our objectives were to understand which types of errors were most frequent in the first two years of schooling and, through a qualitative analysis, to see in which phoneme-grapheme correspondences the errors were most often committed, in order to recognize which correspondences are most problematic for the children.
We therefore sought to answer the following research questions:. Are there differences in the frequency of phonological and lexical errors between the 1st and the 2nd year of schooling? Is there a difference in the pattern of phonological errors between the 1st and 2nd year of schooling? In the 1st grade there were 75 female participants and male participants; in the 2nd grade there were 63 females and 74 males.
The average age of children in the 1st grade was Participation consent was requested from the schools as well as from the parents of all children. A questionnaire was applied to teachers regarding their method of teaching how to read. Most teachers claimed to use an analytical-synthetic approach. We selected only children whose first language was Portuguese and who had no special educational needs.
It consisted of a list of 32 words that vary in regularity, frequency, extension and syllabic structure. There are 16 regular and 16 irregular words; 21 are non-frequent and 11 are frequent.
Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems | UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI LIBRARY
The number of letters in the words varies between 4 and 9, with 19 short words and 13 long words. As regards the syllabic structure, words with different syllabic formats were considered. It may be considered, therefore, that the test has high internal consistency. Each correct answer was quoted with 1 point, and the results could range from 0 to 32 points. The task was timed, which allowed for the calculation, for each child of the number of correctly read words per minute.
The test was held in a room near the classroom free of distractions and with reduced noise in the vicinity. The test was conducted individually with the child and the investigator. The reading was recorded in audio format, with the Audacity program and transcribed into the written form of the word orally read. In order to be able to analyse the results we proceeded to the categorization of the reading errors committed.
The classification of the types of errors that served as the basis for the analysis of the incorrect answers is presented. All these errors can occur more than once per word. Each incorrect response was subject to error rates up to a maximum of 4 errors per word. This type of error occurs only once per word. The means and standard deviations of phonological and lexical errors for the first two years of schooling are presented in Table 1. Although phonological errors may occur more than once per word, in this analysis they were only counted once per word to allow comparisons with lexical errors.
As can be seen in Table 1 , the mean of phonological errors is higher than the mean of lexical errors in both the 1st and the 2nd years. However, the frequency of phonological errors decreases from the 1st to the 2nd year, while the frequency of lexical errors increases from the 1st to the 2nd year. In the second year phonological errors occurred in The lexical errors occurred in.
In the second year the lexical errors occurred in In order to make the comparison between the 1st and 2nd year of schooling, two independent samples t-tests were performed, having as an independent variable the year of schooling and as dependent variables lexical errors and phonological errors. The results show that there were statistically significant differences in the phonological errors between the 1st and the 2nd grade t As for the lexical errors, statistically significant differences were also obtained between the 1st and the 2nd grade t The mean and standard deviations for the subcategories of the phonological errors of the 1st and 2nd year children are presented in Table 2.
As previously mentioned, these errors can occur more than once per word. In this analysis we took into account the total number of phonological errors committed by the children. We can see that substitution errors, both in the 1st year and the 2nd year, are the most frequent eg. In the first year, addition errors come in second place eg. In the second year, the order of these three types of errors changes, with accentuation errors being the most frequent, followed by omission errors and finally addition errors. Inversion is the least frequent error in both years eg.
The hierarchy of subtypes of phonological errors is not the same, revealing that the pattern of errors is different between the two years of schooling. In order to compare the various subcategories of phonological errors between the 1st and 2nd year of schooling the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used. Since substitution errors are the most frequent, we will look at the substitution error subtypes in more detail further on. With regard to the addition errors, these occurred more frequently in the words initiated by a CCV syllable, the children adding mostly a vowel to this syllable, usually the phoneme [e] eg.
With regard to omission errors, children also used this strategy to solve the reading of CCV syllables eg. Finally, inversion errors, the less frequent errors, mostly occurring in the 1st grade, mainly took place in words containing the CCV syllable eg. Substitution errors were subdivided into four subtypes: vowel, consonant, vowel digraph and consonantal digraph error.
Table 3 presents the percentage of these errors in the 1st and 2nd year. This percentage was calculated using the number of errors divided by the number of possible occurrence of the error type in question. The results were converted into percentages. Consonant substitution subtype is the most common error in both 1st year and 2nd grade. In these words the children replace the consonant by its more common phonetic value.
Within substitution digraph errors, we found that the vowel digraph error is the most frequent in both grades. However, there is a change in the reading strategy of the vowel digraph from the 1st to the 2nd grade. In the 1st year, children replaced a nasalized syllable by a non - nasalized one and added a vowel eg.