This contradiction results in the construct of agency as yielding potentially no explanatory power in understanding language learning processes without a more nuanced discussion of the conditions under which learner agency emerges, the types of agency that are possible in the particular context and, crucially, the effect of the action. Sociolinguists have expanded on notions of agency in the social sciences by considering the linguistic construction of agency, both embedded in grammars and instantiated in interaction.
Ahearn defines agency as the 'socioculturally mediated capacity to act', and Al Zidjaly elaborates on this definition by suggesting that these processes are also linguistic, explaining that 'agency is best conceived as a collective process for negotiating roles, tasks, and alignments that takes place through linguistic Like Al Zidjaly, my analyses of children's agency will be primarily linguistic with a focus on the interactional strategies children use not only for action in the family, but also to transform the interactional context in which they participate.
I will further argue that it is the outcomes of agentive actions in which we are most interested in second language learning. Three adoptive families participated in the research presented in this book, and each family context gave rise to a different type of agency that gained importance in negotiating the interactional context and language-learning opportunities for the children.
In the first family, The Sondermans Chapter 4 , I examine the children's resistance to the father's prompts and questions. In the second family, the Jackson-Wessels Chapter 5 , I look at elicitation of parental talk and control through children's questioning practices as a type of agency. And finally, in the third family, I discuss the children's negotiation of language choice and the use of Russian as an agentive practice.
These different types of learner agency — resistance, control and negotiation — do lead to important language learning and identity construction opportunities in the adoptive families despite the fact that they do not always coincide with the parents' desired practices and norms. In this way, the second language socialization processes in these transnational adoptive families, where bonding and becoming a family are central to family interactions, are negotiated and collaborative.
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Families both reflect and construct ideologies and processes found on the macro or societal level see King et al. In this book I focus on how the micro-level roles that children take on in the family as resistor, questioner or negotiator influence parents to change their linguistic and interactional strategies. I argue that these interactional-level identities do relate to the children's larger, desired identities as they establish certain child-directed discourse practices as the norm over other, parent-directed ones.
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These processes lead to new opportunities for learning for the children and open up spaces for them to talk about and be the type of individuals they want to be. Specifically, it gives the children in these different families opportunities to connect their prior lives in Russia or Ukraine with their current families and, in the third family Chapter 6 , to make space to continue speaking Russian in the home environment.
Since the s, more than , children have been adopted by US families from abroad Vandivere et al.
Ebook Second Language Socialization And Learner Agency Adoptive Family Talk
Popular authors such as Boston Globe journalist Adam Pertman have written about the pervasive nature of such changes to the US family, claiming that adoption contributed to the trend of multiculturalism in the US by bringing together families across racial, ethnic and cultural lines. The adoptive family, then, contributes to multiculturalism and diversity in the US at the micro level of the individual family at the same time as it reflects societal notions of family and kinship.
But how do we do we understand these larger societal-level processes as they coalesce in individual families? And even more, how do we e.
Lyn Wright Fogle (Author of Second Language Socialization and Learner Agency)
Language plays a key role in establishing social identities and relationships, such as those entailed in membership in a family De Fina et al. And from a sociocultural point of view, language also mediates cognitive processes of learning Lantolf, ; Lapkin et al. Therefore, language is a key resource for becoming and displaying who we are, as well as learning new concepts, ideas and even linguistic structures.
In this book, these two processes i. In the families who participated in this study, as I have discussed thus far, transformations emerged in daily negotiations over language choice, values and norms within the family sphere. Take for example the following excerpt from a dinner conversation that occurred in the Sonderman family detailed in Chapter 4.
John Sonderman, the US father, was an English-speaking psychotherapist who had studied Russian for two semesters in an intensive university course in preparation for adopting his two boys, Dima and Sasha. Dima age 10 at the time of recording and Sasha age eight had arrived from Ukraine about a year earlier in Both boys had been fluent in Russian and Ukrainian prior to the adoption, and John had used only Russian for about the first six months after the children's arrival.
In Excerpt 1, however, they both resist and seem unable to respond to their father when he prompts them to speak Russian. Facebook Twitter Pinterest Share.
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Description This book examines how Russian-speaking adoptees in three US families actively shape opportunities for language learning and identity construction in everyday interactions. By focusing on a different practice in each family i.
Bi- and Multilingual Family Language Socialization
The learners in this study achieve agency through resistance, participation, and negotiation, and the findings demonstrate the complex ways in which novices transform communities in transnational contexts. The perspectives inform the fields of second language acquisition and language maintenance and shift. The book further provides a rare glimpse of the quotidian negotiations of adoptive family life and suggestions for supporting adoptees as young bilinguals.
Her research focuses on sociocultural aspects of second language learning and bilingualism with an emphasis on second language socialization, learner identities, and language policy. She is a co-editor of the volume Sustaining linguistic diversity: Endangered and minority languages and language varieties Georgetown University Press , and her work has appeared in journals such as The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism and Language and Linguistics Compass. Free Returns We hope you are delighted with everything you buy from us. However, if you are not, we will refund or replace your order up to 30 days after purchase.
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