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It has an excellent ratio of carbohydrates: fat: protein. It has the highest concentration of calcium, due to the milk, rather than beer or Coke, as in the other 2 meals. It has lettuce, tomato and apple, which contain many vitamins, and result in it having the highest concentration of vitamin C. It also has a wholewheat roll, which takes longer to break down to sugar than white bread or coke in the other meals. The wholewheat roll and lettuce, tomato and apple contain cellulose, which acts as roughage.

Any other logical answer. How many servings does a person need to provide the RDA of energy? Which organic compounds are the most important energy providers? How much energy do the vitamins in the cereal provide? What deficiency disease could result if a person does not obtain adequate amounts of vitamin B1?

Atoms and their Interactions - The Chemistry of Life

Iron is essential for the formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells. It is also part of the structure of some proteins. From the information provided in the histograms above, name two types of food that:. Will form only monosaccharides and amino acids after digestion. Are not involved in the formation of cell membranes. Name the nutrients tested for in each of the experiments numbered A, B, C and D.

Identify the chemicals numbered 1, 2 and 3. B: blue to brick red. C: blue to lilac through rose pink.

Enabling the chemistry of life

Identify each of the compounds A, B and C. In each case give a reason for your answer.

Which compound A, B or C serves as a main source of energy in cellular respiration is most likely to form part of an enzyme. The figure below shows the differences between the upper and lower basin of a water body. What has caused the key differences between the upper and lower basin? What could have been added to the water in the lower basin to cause it to look milky-green?

The lower basin has undergone eutrophication. A deficit in essential minerals results in deficiency diseases in plants and animals.

Fertilisers are a way that essential nutrients can be added to the soil to improve plant growth. Carbohydrates are made up of C, H and O. They can be in the form of monosaccharides single sugars , disaccharides double sugars or polysaccharides many sugars , and are an important energy source for plants and animals.

Lipids are made up of C, H and O. Triglycerides are a type of lipid that contains glycerol and three fatty acid chains.

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Cholesterol, another type of lipid, can increase the risk of heart disease. Proteins consist of a long chain of amino acids that fold into a very specific three-dimensional structure. Proteins are an important building block in plants and animals and play a role in the immune system and in cell communication. Enzymes are a type of protein that act as a biological catalyst to speed up reactions. They work by a "lock and key" mechanism and are affected by temperature and pH. Biochemistry 33 , 2—9 Schofield, C. Proteins of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway.

Bertino, I. Gesteland, R. Narlikar, G. Mechanistic aspects of enzymatic catalysis: lessons from comparison of RNA and protein enzymes. Sheppard, T. A DNA enzyme with N-glycosylase activity. Zhang, B. Peptide bond formation by in vitro selected ribozyme. Nature , 96— Cech, T.

Radzicka, A. A proficient enzyme. Science , 90—93 Stryer, L.

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Biochemistry 4th edn Freeman, San Francisco, Patten, P. The immunological evolution of catalysis. Science , — Wagner, J.

Chemistry of Life Processes (CLP)

III Efficient aldolase catalytic antibodies that use the enamine mechanism of natural enzymes. Smithrud, D. The state of antibody catalysis. Lippard, S. Walsh, C. Nickel enzymes. Biochemistry 26 , — Watt, R. Nickel binding proteins.

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Cell Mol. Life Sci. Wong, C. Cane, D. Thematic issue on polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases. Konz, D. How do peptide synthetases generate structural diversity? Harnessing the biosynthetic code: combinations, permutations, and mutations. Science , 63— 68 Trauger, J. Peptide cyclization catalysed by the thioesterase domain of tyrocidine synthetase. Nature , — Roach, P.

The crystal structure of isopenicillin N synthase, first of a new structural family of enzymes. Valegard, K. Structure of a cephalosporin synthase. Que, L. One motif—many different reactions. Nature Struct.