The 2nd edition is composed entirely of new articles. Darity Jr. Though the Encyclopedia was initially intended to "complement, not supplant" MacMillan's earlier, fifteen-volume Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences , which had been published from to and was edited by American economists Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman and Alvin Saunders Johnson , it effectively replaced the earlier Encyclopaedia , in practice.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved But is uncertainty not freedom? Berthelot There is another attack on social sciences from the opposite side as well: Postmodernity Foucault, Baudrillard, Lyotard and de-constructivism Wittgenstein, Feyerabend. Another issue in this context is the scientific non-knowledge Wehling One other attack came from one of the most prominent German sociologists of the twentieth century, Helmut Schelsky, who declared himself an anti-sociologist Schelsky ; Gallus So we have the choice between two kinds of social theories:.
At the end, to answer my initial question, there are Western and Universal Social Sciences. Which one is hegemonic? Finally, I am not against hegemony, but in the sense of, i. Actually that is in my eyes for which enlightening versus obscuring main-stream social sciences are striving for. Footnote 13 And this is not an issue of West vs. East, North vs. South, global vs. Vanek Western social sciences have deep structures Gurvitch like all social entities, and build on the progress made over thousands of years and many civilizations Elias ; Merton , It is fortunately not the end of history — against what Francis Fukuyama proclaimed in Fukuyama , because we do not live in the best possible world.
Neil Postman sees the entertainment — like in ancient Rome with its panem et circenses — as the challenge for Enlightenment Postman Is this the end of democracy as well? However, China is just copying it. On the other hand China could contribute to a real universal tool for international communication: If the world would adopt the several thousand year old Chinese system of writing, at least we could all understand the writings in any language. That would be a huge step forward for universal knowledge and by it of non-hegemonic social sciences. Is Wikipedia not a universal approach for sciences?
Actually, the diverse versions are not only in 29 different languages, but express on the same topic quite different approaches. Reality is not divided into disciplines. This is in my eyes the main task of universal social sciences. We need for this purpose a Second Enlightenment Postman ; Strydom ? Or a Post-Enlightenment? Gubrium and Silverman Definitely a lot of Sociological Imagination Mills and social innovation are necessary Harrisson et al.
The French Edgar Morin is sketching a way Morin He differentiates between Homo sapiens and homo demens , by this referring to the contradictory and at the same time complementary nature of humanity. His main contribution is, however, his insistence on complexity of all life — in contrast to Niklas Luhmann, who argues that the role of social sciences is to reduce complexity. Finally, we may ask with Max Weber: Is science a vocation? Weber ; Lassman et al.
Fortunately natural scientists can make also joke on themselves since many years, cf. Annals of Improbable Research. Unfortunately this most eminent contribution to universal social sciences, embedding them into the whole process of nature and life since its beginning has been translated so far only into Spanish and Italian; the first volume into English and German.
Similar rankings can be found for economists, as well for countries and states within the U. N , for philosophers Leiter Report , and for all others Thomson Reuters Buddhism uses the notion of Enlightenment as well, however, in a completely unscientific, mystical way. This argument goes, however, more into the direction of undogmatic, non-traditional thinking. These simply do not exist. As we can see in the case of David Horowitz, authors are changing over time between Enlightening and Obscuring positions Horowitz , Adorno, Theodor W.
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Smelser , Paul B.