Guide Kommt wieder auf der finstern Gruft BWV 480 - Score

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Bente Bramming, cand. In the first half of the 18th century, Pietism emerged as a large and predominant religious persuasion in Lutheran northern Europe. Pietism roughly means a method of faith the Latin word pietas means faith and the ending -ism means here, as elsewhere, a methodical philosophical structure. This may come as a surprise to many unsuspecting Christians who do not feel that faith and method have all that much to do with each other. But in the 18th century age of scientific Enlightenment they have! The meditation that plays such an important role in the hymns of the time is strictly methodical and full of guidance and instruction.

The Pietist movement is a mystery and a self-contradiction. On the one hand, the Pietists are notorious — and with good reason — for religious censoriousness and paternalism from which people have suffered life-long damage. Present-day rejection of Christianity is often a rejection of Pietism. On the other hand, the music and poetry of Pietism often offers a beauty that hardly any form of Lutheran religiosity can rival.

Although it is dogmatic and rigorous in its thinking, it is also musical and radiantly beautiful. Both aspects are also in evidence in the most important Danish representative of the movement, the hymn-writer H. Like other important clergymen of his age, Brorson connects clear-headed Christian faith with poetic taste and talent. But if all of this has the appearance of a paralysing systematics, the work is actually anything but: it is a rich and abundant songbook where one can sing oneself from this troublesome earthly life straight into heaven.

Not, however, without sacrificing earthly joys for heavenly ones. Earthly loss and heavenly gain are intimately interrelated. And precisely this is the answer to the mystery and self-contradiction of Pietism. For the believers were also harsh towards themselves and thereby they learnt something about the ways in which profound pain or even broken-heartedness are an indispensable component of life-experience, as of music and poetry. Here it is the pain that acquires a voice, it is pain that ecstatically tunes the harp of the heart DS And broken hearts know best of all What bliss this Christmas festival Will fill us with completely.

Method means something that is prescribed and systematically planned. The word contains the Greek hodos , which means way. But way is also a word that Jesus applies to himself when he says the famous words: I am the way, the truth and the life St. The Rare Treasure of Faith is such a way of heaven, something that its poetry and music confirm in every respect. At an early point in his work, Brorson translated a wonderful hymn by the German Pietist C. The formulation from Richter is a striking characterisation of the Pietist nature: seen from the outside it is contemptible and insignificant, but inside it is rich in hope and promise.

Like the bulb of the lily lies black and slimy under the earth for most of the year, Christians are insignificant in earthly contexts. A Pietist thus has a life that is hidden from the world. This Christian life is also hidden from the more or less fossilised, absolutist church of that age. But in the Pietist doctrine it is also the day when new Christian secrets are revealed in the congregation of believers and the personal soul.

He masters the most demanding and difficult verse forms with elegant ease. And although he also has a tone of grim invective, he adds a previously unseen mildness and soulfulness to the Danish language. As a translator, Brorson was just as excellent as he is in his own texts.

He effortlessly masters even the most demanding times and rhyme patterns, and with unfailing taste chooses among the musical material available at the time. Strains of caring and psychological empathy. If every Christian, young or old, is directly answerable to his creator and saviour, children too may also find a way to Jesus, which is developed by the resolute Pietists into a wise and loving pedagogy.

The centre of the Pietist movement was in Halle, with August Hermann Francke — as its central figure and energetic inspirer. His large institution can still be visited in Halle, and in its impressive complex teaching and study took place as well as the cultivation of theology, Christian writing and music at a high level. The Halle hymn-book Geistreiches Gesangbuch , edited by J. Freylinghausen became the model for many other hymn-books, including Troens rare Klenodie.

Freylinghausen, who was a theologian, composer and poet, is the man behind the Advent Sunday hymn Op, thi dagen nu frembryder TRK 3 , a complex overture of Christian faith, music and theological poetry, beautifully translated into Danish by Brorson. The Pietist song has a number of interrelated tasks.

First and foremost, it is to open up a new, more profound entrance to the gospels. Pietism, to start with, means thorough, persevering reading of the Bible, conveyed via the rhythms and sounds of music. When one insists on and persists in uncovering the Christian secrets, a special way of reading develops that seeks out the sweetness of the holy mysteries. A heavenly sweetness, which in Pietist thinking stems from the idea that earthly hymn-singing is a distant echo or an anticipation of the perfect music that sounds in heaven.

Erik A. Nielsen, Dr. The fervent spiritual life of Pietism found expression in profusive hymn texts and exuberant galant melodies. It might seem paradoxical that this devout and world-disavowing religious persuasion within Protestantism chose menuets and sarabandes as templates for their hymn tunes.

And yet the passionate relation to faith found in Pietism is seldom more evident than in precisely this combination. Secular galant music, despite its immediate dissimilarity, is a precondition for what we connect with Pietist hymns, and it can be a short cut to an understanding of the innermost being of Pietism, with all this contains in the way of eroticism, fervour, meditation, passion and exaltation. A number of well-known, key hymns have therefore been deselected in favour of lesser-known songs, solely on the basis of the existing qualities and origins of the melodies.

Of the songs in Troens rare Klenodie The Rare Treasure of Faith , Brorson has provided or so with indications of suitable melodies. Important characteristics of these artistic spiritual songs are elements taken from the galant music of the time, including an often expressive melodic line that is stylistically very close to sacred arias. Johann Sebastian Bach placed his personal chorale book with figured bass harmonisations at the disposal of G.

Schemelli, and for many years people assumed that Bach himself was the composer of the not immediately identifiable melodies. Although Brorson was hardly familiar with these two melodies, both of them stem from the Pietist tradition and, in our opinion, they offer a good contemporary alternative choice of melody. The lovely melody that it has become a tradition to use for this text was originally composed by J. In Breitendich it also appears as such in the Danish translation Kom, o kom du Aand som giver. Despite this, we have chosen in this instance to add our own figured bassline to the melody.

Both of them are linked to Pietism, which became the official religious persuasion at the court when Christian VI came to the throne in These two melodies are not found in the German tradition either, and must therefore be assumed to be of Danish origin. The collection contains transcriptions in French guitar tablature for one or two baroque guitars of a repertoire that was probably taken from a larger collection of music that Ludvig Holberg purchased for the Court Music Archive in A selection of these melodies has additionally been arranged in guitar tablature by Fibiger.

The small Sonata no. He was additionally an eager amateur flautist and alongside his work he amassed a considerable collection of flute music from all of Europe. From Gieddes samling we have chosen to present two composers, both of whom were active in Copenhagen at the time of Brorson. The most important basis of his development as a virtuoso flautist and composer, however, took place during a stay of several years in England in the s, where he was able to become familiar with the influential musicians and composers of the time.

Stylistically, they have their roots in the Baroque, but are also influenced by the galant style that was emerging in Europe. In , he unsuccessfully applied for the post of organist at the St. There remain three Cantatas which are incomplete: in the following pages they are designated U 1, U 2, U 3. Finally, there are four Cantatas of doubtful authenticity B. Four of the Church Cantatas Nos. D 1, D 2, D 3, D 4 were written at dates which are not ascertained. Weimar Cantatas Leipzig Cantatas First Epistle Rom. Gospel St Matt xxi. See No.

St Luke xxi. Third E. St Matt. Fourth 5 E. St John i. Christmas Day E. Titus ii. St Luke ii. Feast of St Stephen E. Titus iii. Feast of St John the Evangelist E. Sunday after Christmas E. Sunday after the Circumcision E. Feast of the Epiphany E. Isaiah lx. First E. Second E. St John ii. Fourth E. Septuagesima Sunday E. Sexagesima Sunday E. St Luke viii. St Luke xviii. Palm Sunday E. Easter Day E. St Mark xvi. Easter Monday E. Acts x. St Luke xxiv. Easter Tuesday E. Acts xiii. St John xx. St John x. St John xvi. James i. St John xv. Ascension Day E. Acts i.

Whit Sunday E. Acts ii. St John xiv. Whit Monday E. St John iii. Whit Tuesday E. Acts viii. Trinity Sunday 1 E. St Luke xvi. St Luke xiv. Third 11 E. St Luke xv. St Luke vi. Fifth E. St Luke v. Sixth E. Seventh E. St Mark viii. Eighth E. Ninth E. Tenth E. St Luke xix. Eleventh E. Twelfth E. St Mark vii. Thirteenth E.

St Luke x. Fourteenth E. St Luke xvii. Fifteenth 9 E. Sixteenth E. St Luke vii. Seventeenth E. Eighteenth E. Nineteenth E. Twentieth E. Twenty-first E. St John iv. Twenty-second E. Twenty-third E. Twenty-fourth E. Twenty-fifth E. Twenty-sixth E. Twenty-seventh E.

Feast of the Purification of the B. Feast of the Annunciation of the B. St Luke i. Feast of the Visitation of the B. Feast of St John Baptist E. Feast of St Michael the Archangel 1 E. For General or Unspecified Use 8. For a Wedding 3. For a Funeral 7. For the Inauguration of the Town Council 5. The one hundred and eighty-four Cantatas that include Hymn stanzas or melodies fall into three groups.

The largest, containing one hundred and eighteen Cantatas, includes those in which Bach introduces Chorals, almost invariably as the concluding movement 2 , occasionally in the middle movements, very rarely in the opening movement 3 , but always without permitting them to dominate the Cantata 4.

The second, and smallest, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] group consists of twelve Cantatas which bear the name of a congregational Hymn, whose text and melody are introduced into their opening movements, but are not permitted to close the Cantata, and therefore do not leave a vivid impression of the Choral as the key to the whole composition 1. He was led to it by the inadequacy of the texts with which Picander provided him, and by the failure of his earlier experiments in building a Cantata upon a congregational Hymn.

The Choral Cantata united the best features of both forms. Briefly its essentials are these: 1 The text of the Cantata is based upon that of a congregational Hymn, the Cantata in effect being an elaborate setting of its stanzas. If the Hymn is too short, as for instance No. But whether the stanzas be reconstructed or extended, the spirit of the original Hymn is preserved, and in the case of reconstructed stanzas the actual words of the original text are preserved so far as is convenient. As Spitta comments, the Choral Cantatas assume that the hearer held constantly in mind the Hymn in its original form.

He had sung them times without number in church, had taken them as his guide in daily life, and had drawn consolation and edification from isolated verses under various experiences. This was the audience to which Bach addressed himself, and such an audience do these compositions still require, for to such alone will they reveal all their meaning and fulness 2.

It was in the early thirties, or after , that Bach, dissatisfied with the Cantata texts which he had used for so many years, turned to the Hymns of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] At Weimar he had been so fortunate as to find in Salomo Franck a man of his own temperament. Erdmann Neumeister also provided him with texts, though in lesser number. But almost from the moment of his arrival at Leipzig, he entered into a literary partnership with Christian Friedrich Henrici, or Picander 2 , which lasted for twenty years.

Yet Picander hardly can have satisfied Bach, though he accepted from him and set many texts which are wanting in taste and fine feeling. Picander began his literary career as a lampoonist, a form of expression for which he was better fitted. It is probable that the texts of the Choral Cantatas also were arranged by Picander under similar conditions. It is to be assumed, therefore, that Bach originated the Choral Cantata, and guided it to its final form in the Cantatas of the post period.

An examination of the earlier group of Choral Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] Cantatas, while it reveals contrast, brings out their essential agreement with the later. The first and last movements are stanzas of the same Hymn, set to its proper or customary melody. In every case the first movement is in the form of a Choral Fantasia. In every case the final movement is a simple Hymn setting, except in Nos.

In eight of the fifteen Cantatas the Hymn and its melody are associated only in the first and last movements. They are Nos. Of greater importance is the structure of the early Choral Cantata libretti. More than half eight are the unaltered text of a congregational Hymn: they are Nos. The text of four Cantatas consists partly of actual and partly of paraphrased Hymn stanzas: they are Nos. In two Cantatas movements are included which are neither actual nor paraphrased stanzas of the Hymn: they Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] are Nos.

In a single Cantata, No. As a whole, therefore, the early Choral Cantata group exhibits no uniform treatment of the Hymn libretto. The composer is generally content with the actual text of the Hymn without attempting to mould it to a more plastic form. But Bach soon discovered that a uniform stanza, particularly a stanza lavishly rhymed, was not as appropriate to Recitativo and Aria as it was, for instance, to the Simple Choral and more elaborate Fantasia.

Rhythmical uniformity impeded his musical utterance. He therefore invented the paraphrase of the Hymn stanza, of which he had made trial already in Cantata No. Hence, the libretti of the later Choral Cantatas display a textual uniformity that is lacking in the earlier ones. Only two of them, Nos. In all the others the libretto is made up of actual and paraphrased Hymn stanzas. Twelve of the thirty-nine Cantatas, however, contain paragraphs foreign to the original Hymn text. In No. The Choral Cantatas of the post period, written for the most part, as Spitta shows 1 , on paper having the same watermark, exhibit the final and perfected type of libretto.

In all, the first and last movements are Choruses upon the words and melody of the Hymn. In all, the opening movement is a Choral Fantasia 2. In all but eight, the last movement is a Simple Choral—Nos. He does so only in Nos. The Choral forms which Bach employs in the Cantatas must now be considered. With the exceptions to which attention already has been drawn, the Choral Cantatas invariably are opened by a Chorus of this type. Like the first movement of the Concerto, the Choral Fantasia colours and defines the whole Cantata.

It is perfect and complete in itself, and yet a detail in an ordered whole. The Cantatas contain seventy-eight movements of the Choral Fantasia form 2. They are as follows: Nos. With few exceptions all the foregoing are the opening movement of a Cantata. The exceptions are: No. While a Choral Fantasia as a general rule begins a Cantata, a Simple Choral, almost invariably, brings it to a close.

List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach

Only in three instances—Nos. It is remarkable that Bach generally preferred to bring his Cantatas to an end in a simple and unpretentious form. That he did so with the Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] reverent purpose of rivetting a last impression of the Hymn in its most arresting form cannot be doubted. The following are the one hundred and thirty-four Simple Chorals in the Cantatas: Nos.

Closely related to the Simple Choral is the Embellished, or decorated Simple, form, of which there are thirty-five examples in the Cantatas: Nos. Excepting Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] Nos. In form they are identical with the Simple Choral. They differ in that, while in the Simple Choral the orchestra merely doubles the voice parts, in the Embellished form certain instruments have independent parts, giving brilliance or adding an ornament to the final statement of the tune.

In Nos. D 3 he uses two Trumpets obbligati 1. In a large number of cases a Simple Choral is strengthened by the addition of octaves in the Continuo. There are twenty-three Chorals of this kind in the Cantatas: Nos. All of them are the final movements of a Cantata, or of the first Part of a Cantata, except Nos. Among the Choral movements for individual voices the Unison Chorals are the most numerous.

They number twenty-one, and are as follows, the voice to which the melody is given being stated in the bracket: Nos. In this group also must be included No. As Schweitzer points out 2 , most of these Unison Chorals are exceedingly appropriate for use in liturgical services; the Soprano Chorals especially would be effective with instrumental or Organ accompaniment. The term Aria, as Bach used it, connotes a song in rhythmical proportions for one or more voices. In the Cantatas the term is applied to Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] movements for one, two, and three voices.

It will be convenient to set them out in three categories under the designations Solo, Duetto, Terzetto.

List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach - Wikipedia

There are three Solo Arias, Nos. In all of them only snatches of the Choral melody are introduced. The single example of the Terzetto form is No. In the first, the conversation is between two voices of contrasted calibre: their numbers are Nos. A larger number are movements for a single voice, though improbably for the same individual voice. The third class of Dialogue Chorals consists of Choruses which have been classified already, but belong also to the class under discussion.

They exhibit the same determining characteristic, in that they consist of alternating periods of the Choral S. Special occasions, and particularly funerals, also were marked by their performance. Hence Bach had large opportunity to write in this form. Yet, no Latin Motetts of his are extant, though there is evidence suggesting the conclusion that he wrote one.

Of the six Motetts only the last is without Choral movements. In form the latter for the most part are Simple Motetts 2, 3, 5. A single example of the Extended form is found in Motett 1, and of the Choral Fantasia or Motett form in Motett 3 verse 5 and Motett 4 2. The source whence Bach drew so large a supply of Hymn texts can be indicated readily.

Compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach

Of the Hymns used by Bach all but eleven are found there 1. The choice of Hymn texts therefore need not have occasioned Bach much research. The following are the Hymns, tabulated under the names of their authors:. Albrecht Margrave of Brandenburg-Culmbach Emilie Juliane Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Caspar Fuger d. Nicolaus Herman c. Martin Janus c. Johann Kolross d. Adam Reissner c. Bartholomaus Ringwaldt c. During his Cantorship at Leipzig Bach systematically collected, harmonised, and in some cases refashioned, Hymn tunes whose qualities attracted him.

At the time of his death he had brought together about two hundred and forty melodies in a manuscript which unfortunately has disappeared. Bach was invited to prepare the collection for the press. The Preface announced that about two hundred more melodies were ready for a second edition, should one be called for, as unhappily was not the case. To his own copy of the book he added eighty-eight harmonised Chorals. Meanwhile in Breitkopf of Leipzig acquired a ms. He invited Philipp Emmanuel Bach to edit and preface it with an Introduction. In the book was issued.

A second Part, with which Philipp Emmanuel was not associated, was published in Philipp Emmanuel edited this collection also. Leipzig bey Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf. Peters, Leipzig, in two volumes Prefaces dated and which contain three hundred and nineteen Choral settings. Erk gives some of the longer as well as the simple Hymn settings, besides some tunes drawn from other sources than those which the second of the two collections explores.

Gesammtausgabe fur den praktischen Gebrauch. They are printed from B. Besides these one hundred and four melodies, Bach uses twenty-eight in his Organ works that are not found elsewhere in his music. Therefore, excluding his own compositions, it appears that he introduced into the works that have come down to us the following one hundred and thirty-two Hymn tunes:. Wolfgang Dachstein d. An Wasserflussen Babylon 3.

Wolfgang Figulus c. O grosser Gott von Macht 3. Es sind doch selig alle 1. Herzlich thut mich verlangen 3. Heinrich Isaak b. O Welt, ich muss dich lassen 4. Johann Schop d. Das alte Jahr vergangen ist 2. Wo soll ich fliehen hin 1. Carl von Winterfeld, who first gave the subject critical examination, left a heavy legacy of error, which Ludwig Erk did somewhat to lighten. Spitta 3 devotes a few pages to the subject, but they are disfigured by very serious mistakes. Schweitzer carries the investigation no farther and merely records the conjectures of others. It will be useful, therefore, though the enquiry is not directly relative to the Cantatas and Motetts, to explore the subject in the light of information which Spitta did not possess.

At the outset, it is advisable to clear the ground by eliminating tunes which have been or are asserted to be by Bach and demonstrably are not. In fact not one of them is by him. They are as follows:. Zahn, Nos. Their common source appears to be G. The melody Zahn, No. The tune is printed in a Dresden collection of Zahn, No. See Cantata The second Choralgesange, No. The tune is as old as Zahn, No.

Spitta himself attributes the following melodies to Bach, inaccurately in every case:. The tune is by Gottfried Vopelius and dates from Zahn, No. It is in Hymns A. It occurs in Cantata and is discussed there infra at length. The tune dates from Zahn, No. The tune occurs in Zahn, No. The tune is found in a Silesian ms. The melody occurs in Cantata and is there discussed. The tune is found in a Gotha Psalter of Zahn, No. We can pass now to a number of tunes which are found for the first time in one or other of the Bach collections and, for that reason, establish a presumptive right to be regarded as his compositions.

They number forty-two. In the second Part of F. The last three are the only tunes of his own composition which Bach has wedded to the stanzas of a congregational Hymn in the whole range of his concerted Church music 2. Zahn, No. Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] The melody is not found in any other Hymn book. It is not found elsewhere. As the Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] Hymn practically had been neglected since Jakob Hintze gave it a melody in , it is curious that Bach and Konig, the one at Leipzig and the other at Frankfurt a.

Main, should have turned their attention to it simultaneously. Indeed, it declares his Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] authorship unmistakeably. It is not found in any other Hymn book. Zahn No. It had a wide vogue in Hymn books of the second half of the Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth century. It is characteristic of his Aria form and is certainly his. Notenbuchlein p. Erk, No. It differs from the Notenbuchlein.

Biographical/historical information

The tune is not found in other Hymn books. A large number of variations of that tune exist, one of which Zahn, No. That Bach was familiar with the tune appears from the fact that, with an altered first part, it is among the Choralgesange of , set to the same Hymn Erk, No. The Schemelli tune, though modelled on the Neander-Freylinghausen form, is a new melody. It is not found in any other eighteenth century Hymn book. The melody is an Aria —it is so called in the ms. The melody and Bass are by Bach.

The Bass is unfigured. Erk, Nos. Moreover, he uses it in a much more changed form for another Hymn Zahn, No. The melody has the Bach Aria character, and may be regarded as by him. The character of Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] the tune and the fact that the words of the Hymn are by Schemelli establish the conclusion. The tune is not found elsewhere. There seems to be no ground on which to base either conclusion. It is included in some nineteenth century Hymn books, and seems to be another form of a tune, to the same Hymn, found in various versions Zahn, Nos.

The melody is not found elsewhere. It has an unmistakeable Bach curve. Choralgesange iii. Spitta 1 attributes the tune to Bach without qualification. But the compass of the tune is incompatible with congregational use. The tune is not found in any of the regular Hymn books. There was in existence already, but not in very general use, a melody to the Hymn by Johann Georg Ebeling The tune itself establishes a conviction that Bach composed it. It is not found in the regular Hymn books.

The probable author of the Hymn, Christoph Wegleiter, died in Whether Bach was the author the tune does not help to decide. Spitta 1 expresses himself positively to that effect. The Hymn was wedded to a proper melody of its own since , and Zahn reveals the existence of four others. It is not found in any other eighteenth century collection, and its Aria character seems to justify a positive ascription of it to Bach.

It is characteristic of his Aria type, and indubitably is his. It is in the form of a Gigue and is his unmistakeably. The Hymn had a melody of its own , which Konig uses, and another more recent If the pauses be neglected the Aria form of the melody appears, and justifies the ascription of the tune to Bach. The melody, which is not found elsewhere, reads like Bach. Choralgesange no. Spitta 2 attributes the tune to Bach without qualification.

See also B. The melody is not found in any other Hymn book. The Hymn had been set by Johann Ludwig Steiner in , but his tune was little known. It is so distinctive of his style that his authorship may be accepted. It differs greatly in character from earlier tunes in the same metre It is not found in any Hymn book earlier than the nineteenth century. It is, in fact, unmistakeably his, and is not found in any of the regular Hymn books.

It is found in a few modern Hymn books. Its intrinsic qualities do not Edition: current; Page: [ ] justify his confidence. That fact, and especially its general atmosphere, rouse a conviction that the melody is of earlier date than and that Bach was not the author of it. Bach D. It is unfigured. Becker no. Spitta 1 attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. The Hymn, by Zacharias Hermann , was published in , without a melody. Main, The Hymn was written during the plague of The initial Edition: current; Page: [ ] letters of its seven stanzas W.

Nicolai was born at Mengeringhausen in He died there in It is improbable that Nicolai composed the melody. Probably he adjusted it to the Hymn. The melody also occurs in Cantatas 36, 37, 49, 61, and There is another harmonisation of it in the Choralgesange, No. Organ Works, Novello, xix. English translations of the Hymn are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, pp.

Embellished 2 Corni, 2 Ob. Choralgesange, No. The Hymn was published in the same year in the Erfurt Enchiridion Oder eyn Handbuchlein, in association with the melody printed above. Walther arranged yet a third melody for the Hymn in his Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn Wittenberg, English translations of the Hymn are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, p. Choral Motett 2 Ob. Simple 2 Ob. In he became chief pastor at Gorlitz, and died there in It bears, however, so close a resemblance to a Konigsberg ms.

Oder, Bach uses the melody also in Cantatas Nos. The words of the opening movement are part of the first stanza of the Hymn:. Choral Fantasia 2 Ob. The cantus is with the Basses. The Choral of the second movement Recitativo is part of the first and second stanzas of the Hymn:. The Chorus S. The words of the concluding Choral are part of the twelfth stanza of the Hymn:. Bach uses the melody also in Cantata Other harmonisations of the tune are in the Edition: current; Page: [ ] Choralgesange, Nos. Organ Works, N. Soprano and Alto Duetto, the former voice having a somewhat free treatment of the cantus Cornetto, Trombone I, Continuo.

Choral Fantasia in Motett form Continuo. The cantus is with the Altos. Soprano and Tenor Duetto, treating the cantus somewhat freely in canon Continuo. Simple Cornetto, 3 Trombones, Strings, Continuo. The melody also occurs in Cantatas 89, , , and An English translation of the Hymn is noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, p.

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Choral Fantasia Tromba da tirarsi, 2 Ob. Simple Tromba da tirarsi, 2 Ob. No doubt it is by him. There are other harmonisations of the Alto melody in the Choralgesange, Nos. Only stanzas iii-ix are by him. Selnecker was born at Hersbruck in He was a very prominent figure in ecclesiastical Germany and died at Leipzig in Translations of the Hymn are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, pp. Soprano Unison Choral Violoncello piccolo, Continuo 1. The similarity between the melodies is matched by the intimate association of the two Hymns. Bach uses the melody also in Cantata No.

The sharpened fourth note of the tune in this movement is found in an early text English translations of the Hymn are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, No. There is another harmonisation of it in Choralgesange, No. English translations are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, p.

The cantus is with the Tenor 1.

BWV 249 - Easter Oratorio (Scrolling)

Neumann was a native of Breslau, where he was born in He died in Bach has not used the melody elsewhere. Simple Corno, Flauto, 2 Ob. It was published in the Etlich Christlich lider Lobgesang, und Psalm Wittenberg, and repeated in the Erfurt Enchiridion of the same year. Speratus Hoffer or Offer was born in Suabia in Two harmonisations of the melody are in the Choralgesange, Nos. The words of the first movement are the first three clauses of the Magnificat:. Choral Fantasia Tromba, 2 Ob. The cantus is first with the Sopranos and then with the Altos.

The words of the concluding Choral are the doxology to the Magnificat:. Simple Tromba, 2 Ob. Bach uses the melody as an obbligato 2 Ob. Melodeien Luneburg, Simple 2 Fl. Wolfgang Figulus [] 1. Oder, [] 2. It appears in Cantatas 73, It appears to originate as a Tenor melody of the first melody, to which its own Tenor bears a clear relation. In spite of its derivation, its individuality permits the tune to be regarded as a separate melody.

It occurs in Cantatas 16, 28, Choral Fantasia 3 Trombe, Timpani, 2 Fl. The authorship of the tune has been attributed to Severus Gastorius of Jena, for whom the Hymn was written. The tune certainly is associated with Pachelbel, who set it in Motett form during his residence at Erfurt, c. Rodigast was born at Groben near Jena in The Hymn is said to have been written in at Jena for his sick friend, Severus Gastorius, Cantor there. Its opening three notes and its seventh line are identical with the opening line of the melody supra. Bourgeois, born in Paris early in the 16th century, was invited to Geneva in In he succeeded Guillaume Franc d.

Bach uses the melody also in Cantatas 19, 25, 30, 32, 39, 70, and Thence he was sent on an embassy to Russia and Persia The Hymn was written in , on the eve of his departure for Russia. In Flemming graduated M. Simple Flauti, Oboe, Strings, Continuo. Translations of the Hymn are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, p.

Choral Fantasia, in the Organ Choral form, the vocal themes being used in Counterpoint against the Choral melody in the orchestra Corno da caccia, 2 Ob. Herman was born circ. He Edition: current; Page: [ ] died there in He was a great lover of music, a good organist, and is credited with the authorship of the tunes set to his Hymns.

Bach uses the melody also in Cantatas 31 and There are other harmonisations of the tune in the Choralgesange, Nos. His other variations also are found in earlier texts. Extended 3 Clarini, Timpani, Strings, Continuo. Only the first four lines of the melody are printed above. See the Choralgesange, No. Oder, c. Eber was born at Kitzingen, Bavaria, in He entered the University of Wittenberg in , and eventually held the Chairs of Latin and Hebrew there.

He was a friend of Melanchthon and, next to Luther, is the best poet of the Wittenberg School. An English translation is noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, p. It contained thirty-nine hymns, for the majority of which thirty Kugelmann composed the tunes. Kugelmann is said to have been born at Augsburg. Later he passed into the service of Duke Albert of Prussia in a similar capacity, and eventually became Ducal Capellmeister at Konigsberg. Graumann was born at Neustadt in the Bavarian Palatinate in In he became Rector of the Thomasschule, Leipzig.

Translations of the Hymn into English are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, p. Four clauses of the Litany are inserted into the second movement B. Embellished 3 Trombe, Timpani, 2 Ob. He had in mind the third stanza of the Hymn. See the Michaelmas Cantata No. Bach uses the melody in Cantata Choral Fantasia 3 Ob. Simple Tromba da tirarsi, 3 Ob. Georg Neumark was born at Langensalza in Thuringia in In ? The melody was composed by Neumark for the Hymn.

Bach uses the melody also in Cantatas 27, 84, 88, 93, , , and The cantus is with the Tenor. Bach uses the melody also in Cantatas 96, , The authoress was the daughter of a Polish refugee residing at Wittenberg, where she married Caspar Cruciger, a student at the University, in Cruciger, who was regarded by Luther with great affection and was treated as a son, became one of the Professors of Theology in the University.

His wife, a great lover of music, died at Wittenberg in This is the only Hymn of hers extant or known:. Extended Oboe, Strings, Continuo. Bach introduces the melody into the opening movement of Cantata He has not used it elsewhere in the Cantatas, Oratorios, or Motetts. He made an arrangement of it, however B. Translations of the Antiphon are noted in the Dictionary of Hymnology, p. Choral Fantasia Cornetto, 3 Trombones, 2 Ob. Neither the Choralgesange nor Erk prints the melody. Gottseligkeit eingerichtetes Meiningisches Gesangbuch Meiningen, It is among the anonymous melodies in that collection.

But the lines which compose it are found among the tunes the majority of them by Hieronymus Kradenthaller, a Regensburg organist in Lust- und Artzneigarten des Koniglichen Propheten Davids Regensburg, , and may be regarded as a reminiscence of them. The Hymn has other melodies, one of which Bach uses more frequently see Cantata The above melody is also in Cantatas 71 and There is a four-part setting of it in the Choralgesange, No.

The set of Variations, or Partite, in N. Extended Clarino, 2 Ob. Simple Cornetto, 3 Trombones, 3 Fl. In the opening Chorus of the Cantata B. Franck was born at Schleusingen in and in became a master baker there. In poverty drove him to Coburg, where he taught in the town school. The melody, which Bach uses in the opening and concluding movements of the Cantata, was composed by Franck and published, in four-part harmony, with the Hymn, in The melody does not occur elsewhere in the Cantatas.

Choral Fantasia Flauto, 3 Ob. Simple Flauto, 3 Ob. The authoress was born in , married her cousin, the Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and Edition: current; Page: [ ] died in About hymns are attributed to her. Heinrich Haveckers. Kirchen-Echo Leipzig, Its authorship is also claimed by Georg Michael Pfefferkorn :.

Choral Fantasia. Imprisoned in for a grave offence, he lived thereafter in Hamburg and Italy. The five-part setting of the melody which Bach uses here was published by Gottfried Vopelius in his Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch Leipzig, [] 1. Albinus was born at Unter-Nessa, Saxony, in Choral Motett Cornetto, 3 Trombones, 2 Ob. Simple Cornetto, 3 Trombones, 2 Ob.

Olearius was born at Halle in After he held appointments as Kirchenrath and General Superintendent at Weissenfels. His Geistliche Singe-Kunst of was one of the largest and best German Hymn books of the seventeenth century, and contained hymns by Olearius himself:. The words are the fifth stanza of the Hymn, which was posthumously added to its original four stanzas in Drei schone geistliche Lieder Coln, 2.

It is not by Herman:. Embellished Tromba, 3 Ob. Simple Oboe, Strings, Continuo. Schneesing, a native of Frankfort a Main, was pastor of Friemar, near Gotha, where he died in He is said to have been much interested in teaching children the hymns and tunes which he composed. The tune has been attributed to Schneesing. Bach has not used the melody elsewhere in the Cantatas, Oratorios, or Motetts.

Bach uses the melody elsewhere in Cantatas 61 and Duetto for Soprano and Alto 2 Ob. The words are the sixth stanza of the Hymn:. Tenor Unison Choral 2 Ob. The words are the eighth stanza of the Hymn:. The words are the fifth stanza of the Hymn:. Soprano and Alto Duetto Continuo in canon on the melody.

The author is said to have been a pastor at Basel and to have died there in The melody does not occur elsewhere in the Cantatas or Oratorios.