Guide NEMS-CLARKE 120-E Field Strength Meter

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Well the time has come, i can't stave it off any longer, my spare procaster has to be sold off. Seven Two Zero, , or kc8gpd gmail. I'm officiallly listing these for sale now. I know there was some interest from a couple folks when I casually mentioned they are available but they're still sitting on my desk, so here it is. These are the two transmitters I used for my field tests. They weren't used for anything but testing and look and operate as new. The Whole House 3. I received it in a defective state. It also works fine off a computer USB port.

This is less than half the new price once you consider shipping. The Decade CM is what it is. It's the transmitter with attached telescoping antenna and separate power supply. Nothing else came with it. If these are still here in a week I will be putting them on ebay with a Buy It Now price as listed above. I purchased them explicitly for field testing and I'm done with that.

I just won't have time to do any more with them before winter moves in up here, and I have no personal use for them. I gladly accept paypal and don't mind taking the hit on their fees, so your price is as shown. I'm looking to get back into Part 15 AM operations. As such, I'm in need of an AM Transmitter. Whether it be a newer model Talking House, Rangemaster, Procaster, ect. I know. I need to stand in line, right?? Anybody got one lying around? Works great and is in pretty decent cosmetic shape with just a few mild surface scratches here and there. I have searched online, and can only get the microfiche version, i would much prefer a pdf version.

So if anyone has a good Radio capable of C-Quam reception, let me know! Hi there-. I have a genuine Hamilton Bomar kHz crystal I'd like to trade for a kHz, if anyone has any spares. I wanted to shift down 10 kHz for some testing, but due to a necessary design change, apparently only the newer kHz crystal modules and adapter are available from Hamilton. I am continuing my clearout of unused and backup items. It was a backup to my main transmitter, and I only recently pulled it out and checked it - it works just fine.

It's in almost new condition - there is a very small ding on the bottom of the telescopic antenna that doesn't affect operation of said antenna I had several others with this same ding - it was a common cosmetic fault. The testing and calibration systems of the proposed 3D EFS were developed. Evaluation and refinement of a field -portable drinking water toxicity sensor utilizing electric cell-substrate impedance sensing and a fluidic biochip. The US Army's need for a reliable and field -portable drinking water toxicity sensor was the catalyst for the development and evaluation of an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing ECIS device.

Water testing technologies currently available to soldiers in the field are analyte-specific and have limited capabilities to detect broad-based water toxicity. The ECIS sensor described here uses rainbow trout gill epithelial cells seeded on fluidic biochips to measure changes in impedance for the detection of possible chemical contamination of drinking water supplies. Chemicals selected for testing were chosen as representatives of a broad spectrum of toxic industrial compounds.

To simplify field -testing methods further, elimination of a procedural step that acclimated cells to serum-free media streamlined the test process with only a slight loss of chemical sensitivity. For field use, the ECIS sensor will be used in conjunction with an enzyme-based sensor that is responsive to carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. According to the operating specifications of existing electric field measuring instruments, measuring technicians must be located far from the instruments to eliminate the influence of the human body occupancy on a spatial electric field.

Nevertheless, in order to develop a portable safety protection instrument with an effective electric field warning function for working staff in a high-voltage environment, it is necessary to study the influence of an approaching human body on the measurement of an electric field and to correct the measurement results. A single-shaft electric field measuring instrument called the Type LP, which was developed by our research team, is used as the research object in this study.

First, we explain the principle of electric field measurement and describe the capacitance effect produced by the human body. Through a theoretical analysis, we show that the measured electric field value decreases as a human body approaches.

Article written by Mark Persons

Their relationship is linearly proportional. Then, the ratio is identified as a correction coefficient to correct for the influence of human body proximity. The conclusion drawn from the theoretical analysis is proved via simulation. Finally, a physical experiment is performed. The correction coefficient obtained from the experiment i. Two experimental programs are set; under these programs, the excitation voltages and distance measuring points are regulated to produce different electric field. Field emission chemical sensor.

A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising a an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and b a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode.

One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith. Potential interferences tested were chlorine and chloramine commonly used for drinking water disinfection , geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol MIB Protection Agency maximum residual disinfectant level for chlorine and chloramine is set at 4 mg l1 under the Safe Drinking Water Act and thus would Evaluation and refinement of a field -portable drinking water toxicity sensor utilizing electric cell—substrate impedance sensing and a fluidic.

The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging EFI technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields , or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for illuminating volumes to be inspected with EFI.

The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor e- sensor , and its construction, optional electric field generation quasistatic generator , and current e- sensor enhancements ephemeral e- sensor are discussed. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors , dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

The sensor is comprised of a MEMS piezoelectric cantilever with a microscale permanent magnet mounted to the cantilever's free end. When placed near a wire carrying AC current, the magnet couples to the oscillating magnetic field surrounding the wire, causing the cantilever to deflect, and piezoelectric coupling produces a sinusoidal voltage proportional to the current in the wire. The sensor is itself passive, requiring no power supply to operate. It also operates on proximity and need only be placed near a current carrier in order to function.

The sensor does not need to encircle the current carrier and it therefore can measure current in two-wire zip-cords without necessitating the separation of the two conductors.

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Applications for tins sensor include measuring residential and commercial electricity use and monitoring electric power distribution networks. An analytical model describing the behavior of the current sensor was developed. This model was also adapted to describe the power output of an energy scavenger coupled to a wire carrying AC current. A mesoscale energy scavenger produced muW when coupled to a zip-cord carrying 13 A. MEMS current sensors were fabricated from aluminum nitride piezoelectric cantilevers and composite permanent magnets.

The cantilevers were fabricated using a four-mask process. Microscale permanent magnets were dispenser-printed using NdFeB magnetic powder with an epoxy binder. The sensor was also integrated with a mesoscale energy scavenger and power conditioning circuitry to create a fully self-powered current sensor. Unamplified sensitivity of the sensor was 0. Kennedy Space Center KSC operations are located in a region which experiences one of the highest lightning densities across the United States.

As a result, on average, KSC loses almost 30 minutes of operational availability each day for lightning sensitive activities. KSC is investigating using existing instrumentation and automated algorithms to improve the timeliness and accuracy of lightning warnings. Additionally, the automation routines will be warning on a grid to minimize under-warnings associated with not being located in the center of the warning area and over-warnings associated with encompassing too large an area.

This study discusses utilization of electric field mill data to provide improved warning times. Specifically, this paper will demonstrate improved performance of an enveloping algorithm of the electric field mill data as compared with the electric field zero crossing to identify initial storm electrification. End-of-Storm-Oscillation EOSO identification algorithms will also be analyzed to identify performance improvement, if any, when compared with 30 minutes after the last lightning flash. Utilisation of the magnetic sensor in a smartphone for facile magnetostatics experiment: magnetic field due to electrical current in straight and loop wires.

This paper reports on the result of a research into the utilisation of a smartphone for the study of magnetostatics on the basis of experiments. The use of such a device gives great measurement result and thus it can replace magnetic sensor tools that are relatively expensive. For the best experimental result, firstly the position of the magnetic sensor in the smartphone has to be considered by way of value mapping of a magnetic field due to permanent magnet.

The magnetostatics experiment investigated in this research was the measurement of magnetic field due to electrical currents in two shapes of wire, straight and looped. To evaluate the experimental results, the measured data were compared with theoretical values that were calculated by using both an analytical and a numerical approach. According to the experiment results, the measured data had good agreement with the results from the analytical and the numerical approach. This means that the use of the magnetic sensor in a smartphone in physics experiments is viable, especially for magnetic field measurement.

Here we analyzed several physical behaviors through computational simulation of systems consisting of a zig-zag type carbon nanotube and relaxed cold atoms Rb, Au, Si and Ar. These atoms were chosen due to their different chemical properties. The atoms individually were relaxed on the outside of the nanotube during the simulations. Each system was found under the influence of a uniform electric field parallel to the carbon nanotube and under the thermal effect of the initial temperature at the simulations. Because of the electric field , the cold atoms orbited the carbon nanotube while increasing the initial temperature allowed the variation of the radius of the orbiting atoms.

We calculated the following quantities: kinetic energy, potential energy and total energy and in situ temperature, molar entropy variation and average radius of the orbit of the atoms.

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Our data suggest that only the action of electric field is enough to generate the attractive potential and this system could be used as a selected atoms sensor. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor. Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.

We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals. Sensor devices comprising field -structured composites. A new class of sensor devices comprising field -structured conducting composites comprising a textured distribution of conducting magnetic particles is disclosed.

The conducting properties of such field -structured materials can be precisely controlled during fabrication so as to exhibit a large change in electrical conductivity when subject to any environmental influence which changes the relative volume fraction. Influences which can be so detected include stress, strain, shear, temperature change, humidity, magnetic field , electromagnetic radiation, and the presence or absence of certain chemicals.

This behavior can be made the basis for a wide variety of sensor devices. Electric and magnetic fields. A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer.

The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion.

The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields. Electric field imaging EFI technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields , or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional 2D measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional 3D EFI system is presented.

Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown.

These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge ESD mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors , combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of.

Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

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Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor. A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: 1 the resistive pin technique and 2 the discrete length pins technique.

In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin or a few pins in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins.

A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest. Magnetic field sensor. Earlier papers in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds.

A new fundamental relationship of electric field with magnetic field has been inferred from the fundamental experimental laws and theories of classical electromagnetics. It can be described as moving magnetic field has or gives electric feature. It is improper to use the time-varying electromagnetics theories as the fundamental theory of the electromagnetics and group the electromagnetic field into static kind and time-varying kind for the static is relative to motional not only time-varying.

The relationship of time variation of magnetic field induction or magnetic flux with electric field caused by magnetic field is fellowship not causality. Thus time-varying magnetic field can cause electric field is not a nature principle. Sometime the time variation of magnetic flux is equal to the negative electromotive force or the time variation of magnetic field induction is equal to the negative curl of electric field caused by magnetic field motion, but not always. And not all motion of magnetic field can cause time variation of magnetic field.

A wireless sensing system includes a sensor made from an electrical conductor shaped to form an open-circuit, electrically -conductive spiral trace having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field , the sensor resonates to generate a harmonic response having a frequency, amplitude and bandwidth.

A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to the sensor and wirelessly detects the sensor 's response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents. The progress made in the years in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF.

Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field -aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities. They used an array of three plate induction sensors and a simple algorithm to deter mine the direction of the planes [9].

In more recent The techniques developed thus far have not received Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor. A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors , and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy.

The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range.

The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two. Molecular engineering of logic gate types by module rearrangement in 'Pourbaix Sensors ': the effect of excited-state electric fields.

Two types of fluorescent logic gates are accessed from two different arrangements of the same modular components, one as an AND logic gate 1 and the other as a PASS 0 logic gate 2. The molecules consist of ferrocene as the electron donor, 4-aminonaphthalimide as the fluorophore and a tertiary alkylamine as the receptor. The PASS 0 logic of 2a and 2b results from the transfer of an electron from the excited state fluorophore to the ferrocenium unit under oxidising conditions as predicted by DFT calculations. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy provided lifetimes of 8.

The divergent logic attributes of 1 and 2 highlight the importance of field effects and opens up a new approach for regulating logic-based molecules. Cryosurgery with pulsed electric fields. This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique.

One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields PEF are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation.

The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. The study yielded motivating results. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields. Analyzing spatial coherence using a single mobile field sensor. According to the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, the intensity distribution of a spatially incoherent source and the mutual coherence function of the light impinging on two wave sensors are related.

It is the comparable relationship using a single mobile sensor moving at a certain velocity relative to the source that is calculated in this paper. The auto-corelation function of the electric field at the sensor contains information about the intensity distribution. This expression could be employed in aperture synthesis. Silicon nanowire field effect transistor FET sensors have demonstrated their ability for rapid and label free detection of proteins, nucleotide sequences, and viruses at ultralow concentrations with the potential to be a transformative diagnostic technology.

Their nanoscale size gives them their unique ultralow detection ability but also makes their fabrication challenging with large sensor to sensor variations, thus limiting their commercial applications. In this work, a combined approach of nanofabrication, device simulation, materials and electrical characterization is applied towards identifying and improving fabrication steps that induce sensor to sensor variations. An enhanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor CMOS compatible process for fabricating silicon nanowire FET sensors is demonstrated.

Also, these improved nanowire sensors have the highest reported sensitivity and enhanced signal to noise ratio with the lowest reported defect density of 1x10 18 eV -1 cm -3 in comparison to literature data. In summary, this work brings the nanowire sensor technology a step closer to commercial products for early diagnosis and monitoring of diseases. Electric Field Fluctuations in Water. Charge transfer in solution, such as autoionization and ion pair dissociation in water, is governed by rare electric field fluctuations of the solvent.

Knowing the statistics of such fluctuations can help explain the dynamics of these rare events.

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Trajectories short enough to be tractable by computer simulation are virtually certain not to sample the large fluctuations that promote rare events. Here, we employ importance sampling techniques with classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water to study statistics of electric field fluctuations far from their means. We find that the distributions of electric fields located on individual water molecules are not in general gaussian. Near the mean this non-gaussianity is due to the internal charge distribution of the water molecule.

Further from the mean, however, there is a previously unreported Bjerrum-like defect that stabilizes certain large fluctuations out of equilibrium. As expected, differences in electric fields acting between molecules are gaussian to a remarkable degree. By studying these differences, though, we are able to determine what configurations result not only in large electric fields , but also in electric fields with long spatial correlations that may be needed to promote charge separation. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring. Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains.

This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments.

A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters. Optical sensor of magnetic fields. An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field.

Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler.

A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated. This new class of sensors represents a stand-alone 2-dimensional geometric pattern of electrically open circuits without electrical connections.

The sensor is powered with an external, harmonic magnetic field and as the property being sensed changes, responds to frequency, amplitude or bandwidth changes. This response is interrogated using an external antenna, a single electrical component having no electrical connections. The sensor can be encased in any nonconductive material to provide protection from its environment. If the container is nonconductive, the sensor can be placed external to the container without contacting it, making installation very simple.

An encased sensor can also be placed inside a container for measuring the level of any fluid or material, including acids. Any readout device can be used with the sensor , including standard or digital gauges. SansEC sensors can be used to measure real-time fluid slosh to determine if a fuel tank's internal structural isogrid can be used to replace some of the baffles surface, thus reducing the overall baffle weight and giving a better understanding of the effect that isogrids have on fluid motion.

Any SansEC sensor can also be used for damage or tamper detection. When damaged, torn or tampered with, the measured response shift in frequency is commensurate to the detected damage, with the response frequency increasing with rising damage. The unique sensor design allows it to function even if damaged, because unlike other circuits, there is no single point on the sensor that, if damaged, renders it non-functional.

The broad metallic coverage of the array allows the array to be one of many thermal insulation layers.

Two such arrays were tested to understand the effects of high velocity damage. Each test article was targeted with metal projectiles emulating micrometeorite or orbital debris impact. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields. Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses.

The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation TES , specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity.

TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field , which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem.

A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active.

Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits.

Aircraft electric field measurements: Calibration and ambient field retrieval. An aircraft locally distorts the ambient thundercloud electric field. In order to determine the field in the absence of the aircraft, an aircraft calibration is required. In this work a matrix inversion method is introduced for calibrating an aircraft equipped with four or more electric field sensors and a high-voltage corona point that is capable of charging the aircraft. An analytic, closed form solution for the estimate of a 3 x 3 aircraft calibration matrix is derived, and an absolute calibration experiment is used to improve the relative magnitudes of the elements of this matrix.

As a test of the calibration method, we analyze computer-simulated calibration data derived from known aircraft and ambient fields and explicitly determine the errors involved in deriving the variety of calibration matrices. We extend our formalism to arrive at an analytic solution for the ambient field , and again carry all errors explicitly. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane. A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field.

Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane. A wireless temperature sensor includes an electrical conductor and a dielectric material on the conductor. The conductor is electrically unconnected and is shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field.

In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field , the conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses, each of which has a frequency associated therewith. The material is selected such that it experiences changes in either dielectric or magnetic permeability attributes in the presence of a temperature change. Shifts from the sensor 's baseline frequency response indicate that the material has experienced a temperature change. Electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases. Electrode configurations for electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases are provided.

According to an embodiment, electric-field electrodes can be incorporated in devices such as gas sensors and fuel cells to shape an electric field provided with respect to sensing electrodes for the gas sensors and surfaces of the fuel cells. In one embodiment, ring-shaped electric-field electrodes can be provided around sensing electrodes of a planar gas sensor. Electric field feedback for Magneto elasto Electric magnetometer development. Magneto elasto Electric ME sensors based on magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composites have been investigated to evaluate their performances to sense a magnetic signal.

Previous results have shown that the dielectric loss noise in the piezoelectric layer exhibits as the dominant intrinsic noise at low frequencies, which limits the sensor performances. I1O Original in three ring binder.

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