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Each year, two or three cities are chosen to produce a year-long program of cultural events. All of the events must come together under a common theme or themes. Many of its events encouraged community involvement and civic engagement. Projects are meant to stay a part of the city after —some pieces of sculpture may be used for athletics, for instance.


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Turku officials hope to inspire other European countries to undertake similar projects. Europe also strengthens ties between its diverse peoples and cultures by supporting multilingual education. The European Union has 23 official languages, and the continent has more than 60 indigenous languages. Flourishing immigrant communities are bringing in new languages to the continent, including Arabic, Hindi, and Mandarin. A European study showed that 53 percent of respondents could speak a second language, while 28 percent could speak two foreign languages.

The study also showed that only 8 percent of respondents considered language-learning unimportant. The European Union has adopted a multilingual language policy with the goal that everyone should be able to speak at least two languages in addition to their own. By supporting this policy, the European Union hopes it will strengthen social, educational, professional, and economic ties in Europe and make the continent more competitive in global markets.

Scandinavian design, for instance, is primarily focused on fashion and home wares. It is characterized by simple, minimalist design and low-cost mass production. Italian fashion is also an important cultural export. The city of Milan is regarded as a major fashion capital, hosting an international fashion week twice a year.

The city is home to the headquarters of luxury brands such as Valentino, Gucci, Versace, and Prada. Milan is also home to important European fashion magazines, such as Grazia , Vogue Italia , and Vera. German automotive design has a global reputation for excellence and prestige. Automobile companies such as BMW, Mercedes, and Audi are known throughout the world for creating cars with dynamic designs and an engaging driving experience. The country is also home to a number of outstanding schools for automotive design, such as the Hochschule Esslingen and Hochschule Pforzheim.

Political geography is the internal and external relationships between government s, citizens, and territories. Early Europeans, in fact, shaped global ideas of citizenship and government. These ideas have been tested during times of peace and military conflict, and continue to be redefined today. Described as the birthplace of democracy , ancient Greece revolved around the polis , or city-state. City-states were unique in that they were governed not by a hereditary ruler, but by a political body that represented its citizens.

This idea of citizenship—of being connected to and having a voice in your community—became the basic building block of democracy.

Philosophers and politicians have used these writings to uphold and defend the democratic tradition ever since. Roman civilization had a major influence on Western concepts of law, government, and the military.

Themes in the historical geography of France / edited by Hugh D. Clout. - Version details - Trove

At its largest, Rome controlled approximately 6. The Roman approach to conquering and controlling territory is often considered to be the basis of Western imperialism. Imperialism is a policy that has been used throughout history, most notably by European powers and the United States. Other political institutions of Rome persist throughout Europe and former European colonies. World War I left about 16 million people dead.

By the end of the war, the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires collapsed and broke into a dozen separate nations. Border s between existing nations, such as Poland and Russia, were entirely redrawn. World War II left about 43 million Europeans dead, including about 6 million who died in the Holocaust. The Holocaust was the mass murder of Jews under the Nazi regime. World War II also left more than 40 million refugee s, contributed to the independence of European colonies throughout the world, and devastate d the urban infrastructure of many European cities.

The relationship between the United States, with a free-market economy , and the Soviet Union, with a communist economy , was known as the Cold War. The Iron Curtain was an ideological boundary that divided Europe into two blocs—Western countries influenced by the United States, and Eastern countries influenced by the Soviet Union. International economic and military organizations developed on either side of the Iron Curtain. The United States and the Soviet Union built up huge nuclear arsenal s, with many missiles aimed at targets throughout Europe. The Iron Curtain took on the physical shape of border defenses, walls, and limited diplomacy.

The nation of Germany was divided in two.

Themes in the Historical Geography of France

In fact, the most famous symbol of the Iron Curtain was the Berlin Wall , which divided the East German city of Berlin into western and eastern-controlled parts. The economic and political demise of the Soviet Union led to the end of the Iron Curtain in the late s. During this time, a number of anti-communist revolution s swept central and eastern Europe.

These revolutions eventually lead to the end of the Cold War, symbolized by the falling of the Berlin Wall in Contemporary Issues Europe is now broadly defined in the context of the European Union EU , an economic and political body officially created by the Maastricht Treaty in The EU works to create a unified structure for social, environmental, military, and economic policies of its member states.

Today, the European Union is composed of 27 member states, with new members mainly coming from central and eastern Europe. The financial and diplomatic success of the EU has led to its rapid growth across the continent. The euro is one of the strongest currencies in the world. The euro is the second-most popular currency behind the American dollar and is used daily by more than million people. The EU accepts few candidates: member states must maintain a stable, democratic form of government, a free-market economy, and commitment to the rule of law.

The rapid growth of the European Union, however, has caused a number of administrative and political tensions. Strict EU regulations place a heavy burden on developing countries to compete with their more developed neighbors. The global financial crisis , which began around , has caused these tensions to elevate dramatically.

See over years of French Kings, Presidents, Emperors and border changes in History of France Make sure to tell me what you thought in comments, and please let me know what European country. All of these are connected to eachother. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Alps and the Pyrenees, France has long provided a geographic, economic, and linguistic bridge joining northern and southern Europe.

Movement - 5 Themes of Geography: France. Political geography is the internal and external relationships between governments, citizens, and territories.


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  4. Early Europeans, in fact, shaped global ideas of citizenship and government. Historical geography is a sub-discipline of human geography concerned with the but is more usually regarded as a distinctively French style of history. Geography and Climate of France. The climate of Metropolitan France varies with one s location but most of the country cool winters and mild summers, while the Mediterranean region has mild winters and hot summers. Human-Environment interaction Paris is a center of fashion, cuisine, art and architecture. French is the dominant language of the country.

    Catholicism is the predominant religion of France. France is in the eastern and northern hemispheres, and it is located in Western Europe. France is an independent nation in Western Europe and the center of a large overseas administration. It is the third-largest European nation after Russia and Ukraine. In ancient times France was part of the Celtic territory known as Gaul or Gallia.

    Its present name is derived from the Latin Francia, meaning country of the Franks, a Germanic people who conquered the area during.

    1st Edition

    Reading is like doing a mental gymnastics. The brain must translate information in the form of language into place and context, which you must remember. Five themes of geography - Wikipedia. The first provincial geographical society in France was established in Lyon in articles on European themes by graduates in history and geography of the. What are the 5 themes of geography An overview of Belgium featuring information on the Belgium s geography, history, government, demographic and economic facts. An overview of Belgium featuring information on the Belgium s geography, history, government, demographic and economic facts.

    Geography and Information About France. Switzerland: History, Economics, Geography. The Discovery of France book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Clout --Petite culture Historical Timeline 0f France Major historical dates and events in French history, with wars and battles; the reigns of the kings, queens and political figures. You can also test and improve your general knowledge with the French trivia.

    France - France - Climate: The climate of France is generally favourable to cultivation. Most of France lies in the southern part of the temperate zone, although the subtropical zone encompasses its southern fringe.

    Themes in the Historical Geography of France

    All of France is considered to be under the effect of oceanic influences, moderated by the North Atlantic Drift on the west and the Mediterranean Sea on the south. Themes in the Historical Geography of France In this book, Xavier de Planhol and Paul Claval, two of France s leading scholars in the field, trace the historical geography of their country from its roots in the Roman province of Gaul to the s. They demonstrate how, for centuries, France was little more than an ideological concept, despite its natural physical boundaries and long territorial history.

    History of France - Discover France. France facts National Geographic. Location is defined as a particular place or position.

    1st Edition

    Most studies of geography begin with the mention of this theme of geography. It is located 99 miles southeast of Nice. Mountains such as the Alps or the Jura are mainly located in eastern, south central, and southern France. The country's highest point is at Mont Blanc, which reaches a staggering 15, ft. It also happens to be the second highest point in Europe. France is home to the Gorges du Verdon, a massive and spectacular canyon that reaches meters deep, and roughly 11 miles long.

    France is an effective democracy. It is a unitary state with a semi-presidential system, having both a president and a prime minister. Presidential elections are held every five years since and are conducted only by direct popular vote since A president is elected in two stages of voting. All political parties are involved in the first round. In the event of an absolute majority, the election is over and the most popular candidate becomes the president.

    However, if there is no definite majority present in the first round, then a second round is required.