It would take longer to explain how English "sage" is related to sapientia than any of us has time for in class, and to no one's benefit. One may also wonder what precisely is the benefit of adding a word like "magistracy" to a list of derivatives for magister chapter 4 which already includes "magistrate," or of having both "procrastinate" and "procrastination" in the subsequent chapter under cras.
The Latin cross-references, on the other hand, are more useful, but that utility is undercut by three difficulties. First, a few of them are simply not very helpful. When students see that magister derives from magnus , we suspect they will only wonder where the "n" went and why. Second, and more importantly, these cross-references are inconsistent.
Why is cupiditas related only to cupio , while the latter is related not only to the former, but also to cupido and cupidus as well? Why senectus and senatus to senex , but not to each other? Or senex to neither senectus nor senatus? Third and most seriously, the cross-references are often especially, for obvious reasons, in the early to middle chapters to words that are in future chapters.
This problem existed in the 5th edition, but the expanded number of references here makes them particularly noticeable.
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Also, all cross-references to future chapters are now accompanied by the appropriate chapter number, while references to words already encountered do not show the chapter in which they first occurred. This places a great deal of visual emphasis on the words from later chapters, but the principle is entirely wrong-headed here. What possible use could a student, likely still in his or her first month of studying Latin, make of the statement, for instance, that tolero in chapter 6 is related to tollo and fero from chapters 22 and 31 respectively?
Wheelock's Latin, 6th Edition Revised (The Wheelock's Latin) - PDF Drive
Rather, emphasis should be placed on words that have already been encountered to allow for easy review. It makes little sense to send students forward by sometimes as many as twenty chapters to look at a word that may be in a declension or conjugation not yet learned and of no real use to them.
In fact, it would be better to remove all references to future chapters and include full listings of words from previous ones with references. The final change listed by L. We count twelve new entries under "A" alone.
Wheelock's Latin, 6th Edition Revised
The glossary is now far more useful as an aid to students in classes which emphasize composition in Latin, particularly the English to Latin exercises in each chapter. Thus, next to "please, placeo etc. We certainly look forward to the time that every English word given as a meaning in the Latin-English Vocabulary will appear in the English-Latin one. Incidentally, although we noticed no entirely new entries in it, the Latin-English Vocabulary has also been improved, albeit in less noticeable ways.
Matters of mere detail e. This is the full extent of the changes made to the new edition, and so several problems remain.
We list a few examples. Paradigms are still sometimes awkwardly split up by page breaks.
The text continues to insist crankily that "shall" is the more correct and usual form of the future modal in English with a first person subject. Some of the generalizations concerning usage are simply too general to be useful or are just plain odd cf. Nouns with separate masculine and feminine forms sometimes have the masculine listed first in the vocabulary, sometimes second; at other times both appear in the same entry, at other times in separate entries.
There are also more serious issues that we feel ought to have been addressed in the new edition. In particular, if one wishes to have students practice morphology without having an easy answer key as one finds in the Self-Tutorial exercises in the back of Wheelock , one must resort to the accompanying workbook. But, as L. Instructors may thus pick and choose and be selective We would suggest for the next edition that a few of the exercises be incorporated into the main text and that some of the SA and PR be excised.
Also, Wheelock, even in the 6th edition, retains its peculiar habit of introducing material for translation before any mention of the constructions involved, and sometimes the syntax is never explained. Students are tested numerous times on the genitive of description in the early chapters, but the first explanation is in chapter The anticipatory relative in chapter 17 SA 5, Martial 1. Satis is introduced in the vocabulary in chapter 5, but no mention of its taking the genitive is made anywhere, though SA 11 has satis pecuniae.
The alternate endings of several forms 3rd plural perfect active indicative, etc. So chapter 12 SA 9 would be the perfect opportunity to use Tacitus' habuere from Annales 1. In spite of these quibbles, both minor ones and those more than minor, we feel that in the marketplace of introductory Latin texts Wheelock in the 6th edition remains the best of an imperfect lot. Every experienced Latin instructor will have a list of personal gripes about any text that he or she has used. That the lists concerning Wheelock are generally shorter than comparable lists of the faults of other textbooks is a testament to the good sense of Professor Wheelock and of L.
It is also the reason why Wheelock, warts and all, will continue to be used by many programs, including our own here at the University of New Hampshire.
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