See D. Gutei Teaching He is painting with his finger. Hearing of this, Gutei cut off his finger with a knife. As the boy ran out of the room screaming with pain, Gutei called to him. When he turned round his head, Gutei stuck up one finger. The boy suddenly became enlightened. I used it all my life, but did not exhaust it. There are several versions of this story and in this one the middle part is much abbreviated. Trailokya, the three worlds of desire, form and formlessness.
S0t- 6SS. Gutei cut it off with the knife. As the boy ran howling out, Gutei called to him. Most commentators make him a mere imitator of his master and hold him up to scorn as being like monks who pretend to have a knowledge of Zen when they have no understanding of it whatever. This spoils the story, though it does not alter the koan as such. Actions speak louder than words. Emerson says: There is no great or small But the soul that maketh all. How can the lilies of the field or the fowls of the air manifest the essential Nature of All Things?
To explain what is not a horse, by a horse, is not so good as explaining what is not really a horse by a no-horse. All Heaven and Earth is only a finger. All things in the world are only a horse. Not that God uses my finger or that my finger is part of the Body of God—rather, that my finger is God, without remainder. This is what we mean by saying that Gutei realised, when Tenryu held up his finger, that the finger was a no-finger-like God, with no attributes, because all attributes and contradictories are to be predicated of ifim and it.
Christ pointed to the flowers of the field, and ever since people have explained it as referring to-the beauty of the flowers. Intellectual understanding is of its nature partial, but carries with it the illusion of totality. The silent raising of the finger could not be mis- 60 Case Ill understood, for it cannot be understood.
New every morning is the love Our waking and uprising prove. The origin of the enlightenment of Gutei and the boy is not in the finger itself. But it may be asked, who would make the mistake of supposing that the real meaning of life was contained in the tip of a finger? The sharp blade has damaged the boy.
The Mountain-Spirit raised his hand and lo, without effort, The thousand, myriad-piled mountain was split into two, Kasan and Shuyo. Again, they say that the chopping off the finger was an unnecessary and barbarous act, condemned by Mumon, who contrasts it with the gentle but all- powerful action of the Mountain-Spirit, who, according to Chinese tradition, divided the mountain with a mere touch of the hand, and allowed the waters of the Yellow River to flow between. This is so, and Gutei had to be quite sure of himself—much 62 Case III more so, in fact, than many doctors who cheerfully cut people about on the mere off-chance of its doing them some good.
Not that the same action is done in a different way every time—this is not the meaning. The same action in the same way—this is all right—but the question is, in what way? This is what Mumon is warning us against, the danger of indiscriminate imitation, of any kind of imitation. When he was dying he wrote his death-poem. The problem Wakuan sets us is not a philosophical or in the ordinary sense a religious one. Christ was a man; he was also God. Mary was a virgin, and a mother at the same time.
God created the world out of nothing. God is the author of evil, but not responsible for it. He creates imperfection, but is himself perfect. Christ died for mankind, but is far from really dead. All this is no different from a beardless bearded barbarian. The great difference between Zen and Christianity, however, is this, that Zen does not ask us somehow or other to believe in the contradiction. It requires us to become the omnipotent weak Nazarene.
Donne says, what is Zen, rather than Christian: Take me to you, imprison me, for I Except you enthral me, never shall be free, Nor ever chaste except you ravish me. Again a word of Zen: God is not a God of the dead but of the living, for unto him all live. This must not be explained as referring to physical and spiritual life. But when you explain what you saw, you have already fallen into relativity. Once I stayed for some time at a small Zen temple. I got up at the proper time, 4.
I cursed them as I swept, and despised them as I washed the floor. I hoped the roshi would get up and catch them slacking and find me heroically working in the darkness, but he never did. He was in bed himself. I judged the monks indifferent to their duty and to the welfare and prosperity of Zen.
I thought of nothing else but them and their idleness, and begrudged both my own labour and their slumbers. When you work, work for yourself, not for other people. Let him worry about it. Why did he have no beard? Why did he have five and a half beards? Here is the first step towards the answer. The beardless barbarian,— It is adding obscurity to clarity! The second two fines of the verse are a sort of short history of the world, or at least of religion.
When we begin to distinguish the two we become exceedingly confused. The table is square; at the same time it is round. Daruma has a beard; at the same time he has no beard. Every thing is relative; at the same time it is absolute. There is not a relative truth, and an absolute truth. The relative is the absolute, the absolute is the relative, and yet we must go on and assert that the relative is not only the absolute but the relative; the absolute is not only the relative but the absolute.
His name was taken from the name of a mountain, and the temple there, where he afterwards lived. Then, after remaining silent for some jime, he began to explain, in many words, his view of the matter, but Isan would not listen. He was in the state Herbert describes in Affliction: Now I am here, what with thou do with me?
None of my books will show. Even if Kyogen had quoted from, for example, the Svetasvatara Upanishad this would still be third or fourth-hand. I will spend the rest of my days as a rice-gruel monk, and avoid troubling my peace of mind. If, at that time, he had explained things to me, this would never have happened!
The sound of something struck! Satori is suddenly induced, and consists in unlearning. Effect is out of proportion with cause. Satori has no supernatural gift of tongues or prophecy. Last year a fine gimlet could find a place; This year even the gimlet is gone. No oddness or eccentricity; a monotonous sameness. Nyorai Zen implies Buddhistic, pre-Daruma Zen. Patriarchal Zen is that handed down from master to master after Daruma.
If he answers, he will lose his life. What should he do? Love is mutual obedience. Also it means teaching the other to love more. Even if you can explain the whole body of the Buddhist sutras, that also is useless. If you can answer the problem properly, you can kill the living, bring the dead to life. If we really love somebody or some animal or plant, that is enough. The whole corpus of the Buddhist scripture was first made in China in A. Actions, it is said, speak louder, but not less truly, not more untruly. Maitreya is the next Buddha, now in the Tusita Heaven.
He is to come 5, years others say 5,,,00,0 years after the Nirvana of Sakyamuni. The moral of the story is, don t get into awkward circumstances. And indeed he may pose another problem. Suppose a man practises asceticism for ten years, and the day before he is going to be enlightened,—he dies! Was it worth it all? Anyway Mumon is talking like the schoolboy who regrets that such people as Euclid and Shakespeare were ever born.
It was used for its sound. Buddha is transliterated Sit Sit m SBlfc. The historical Sakyamimi, who is referred to in this Case, was born some time or other, no doubt, and died at the age of eighty. The records of the life of the Buddha are utterly unlike those of Christ. The Indian and the Jewish minds are those of two different species of animals, and the Chinese mind resembles neither. There is the same problem in Christianity: is it primitive Christianity we want, the actual words, the thoughts and feelings of Jesus, or Christianism as it has changed and developed in twenty centuries?
This is a dilemma not easily resolved, for on the one hand we want the highest teachings, but on the other, it is the humanity we are after, the human warmth. Whether the story of Buddha holding up a flower is authentic, or whether the story of the woman taken in adultery is spurious or not does not really matter. Gamp and Mr. Pecksniff are as real to us as Queen Elizabeth and Dr. It is this kind of reality that matters. Whether Lazarus rose from the dead or Buddha was wafted through the air to Ceylon are poetical, not historical questions. We neglect the improbable miraculous for the same reason as we reject the certain fact,—it is meaningless.
But for Zen the important thing is not the life and death of Sakyamuni, nor his teachings, but his enlightenment. Not his words but his silence, not his acts but his un-acts are what we would grasp. What did Buddha become aware of under the Bodhi-tree? No sutra tells us. Mahakasyapa was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Buddha,. MS; Purna, 1a0P? Mahakasyapa was a Brahman of Magadha. Mahakasyapa was fa- 76 Case VI mous as following most assiduously the twelve Dhuta, a discipline to attain Nirvana.
At this time all were silent, but the Venerable Kasyapa only smiled. It is said to be in the Daibontennomonbutsu- ketsugikyd, fnjffI?. There it says; At this time, the World-honoured One lifted up a consecrated golden-coloured Bala flower, opening his eyes, and, raising his eyebrows expressively, showed it to the assembled congregation.
At this time all were silent and motionless; only the Venerable Kasyapa smiled. The monks were all silent. So were Buddha and Kasyapa, but with a difference. E means true as opposed to false m but in this case it means absolute, beyond true and false and all other antithises. The real form is not only a no-form, it is a form as well, at one and the same time. Zen comes ultimately from the Upanishads. We are told to consider how they grow, without intellectuality, without emotion, without hope or satiety. The result is a beauty, a significance greater than the most successful human life. Eckhart says, The meanest thing that one knows in God,—for instance, if one could understand a flower as it has its being in God; this would be a higher thing than the whole world!
Then there is the Immortality Ode: To me the meanest flower that blows Can give thoughts that lie too deep for tears. The self flowers. Or if Kasyapa had not smiled, how would it have been handed on? Sakyamuni was' born in Kapilavastu; kapila means brown. The statues of Buddha were of gold, or covered with gold-foil. The part is greater than the whole. When Buddha holds up a flower some monks should dance round it, some make a sketch of it, some grind it underfoot, some spit on it,—all according to their free-moving life.
It would be a great mistake to think that Kasyapa smiled as a sign that he understood something or other. We must weep with those that weep, and rejoice with those that rejoice. I beg you to teach me. Monastery, means literally a copse-wood, that is, a place thickly populated with monks.
It is also called zenrin fRk, and may well have the same connection with trees as school, which means meeting, under the trees, 7k, for learning, The bowl is one of the Eighteen Things, , which a monk should carry. One wonders what Thoreau would have said to these. The staff and the bowl were the most important. Nowadays, in Japan, each Zen monk has a 1.
For cleaning the teeth. The largest, larger than that used by ordinary people, is for rice or rice-gruel; the next for vegetables; the other two for pickles, etc. This Case looks easy, but cannot be intellectually solved. Zen means doing ordinary things willingly and cheerfully. Zen is common life and uncommon life, sense and transcendence, both as one, yet two. The great danger is to divide the washing and the truth.
Sweeping a room as for thy laws Makes that and the action fine. This is true. Wash away your dirty enlightenment; sweep away the divinity, and even the fineness. We can look at things in the commonsense way, or the transcendental, or the symbolical. With the present anecdote, the danger is in the first and the third. To say, -Then wash your bowl! We are always complicated about simple things, like Hamlet, or simple about complicated things, like Othello.
If the bird began to look for the air, or the fish for the water, —but are these aimiles any use? What is difficult to grasp is that the bird is the air, and the fish is the water, and at the same time they are utterly different from each other. In it says that the Yellow Emperor invented the cart wheel and tarried heavy things long distances on it; later, a bull was used to pull it, and then Keichu used a horse. The circle represents things subsisting in the arms of the void. In Laotse, Section 11, we have the following: Thirty spokes go to the hub of a wheel.
But the use of it depends upon the empty space there. Clay is kneaded to make a pot. But the empty space inside is what makes the pot useful. Doors and windows are opened into a room. But it is empty space which gives the room its use. It is the Buddha nature the Void, g? Nagasena asks King Menander, who lived in the first century B. Is it on account of the axle? By this means the king is brought to realise his ignorance of what the real carriage is, and is silent. Human beings are the same. No five skandhas, no men. If it is taken apart and separated, it loses the name of carriage.
Put the five skandhas together, and as a result you get a man. However you examine all the different parts of a horse, you have no idea what a horse is. But if a horse is tied up in front of you and you look at the hundred parts [as one whole] you know what is called a horse. But there was also the Chinese experience of the reality of each combination, repeated again and again over the centuries. According to the pre-Buddhist Hinduistic experiences recorded in the Upanishads there was Something behind all phenomena, behind all this nothing which never changes, but is nevertheless alive and creative.
The Chinese also had this experience. They called it Zen, but would not express it intellectually, that is, partly, but only livingly, that is, wholly. Gettan has taken a step backwards, so that Mumon can take two steps forward. Gettan has given us a supposititious case, and also reduced us to a condition of negativistic, shadowy vacancy. The soul is placeless as well as timeless, in place and in time.
This is the meaning of Leaves of Grass. Why was this? These are again subdivided, smaller fleas on bigger fleas. We are told that Daitsu Chisho Buddha lived ,, asankhya kalpas. There is the world of cause and effect, from which we can never for a moment escape. There is the world of no-cause, no-effect, timeless, spaceless, devoid of beauty and ugliness, right and wrong, good and bad, from which we can escape whenever we will.
They are both right, both wrong. In chapters 16 and 17 of the Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law we are told that the Buddha pretended to die though in actual fact he was eternal and indestructible so that people should yearn after him. If they see the Tathagata stay permanently, and do not think that he will become extinct, they will be too familiar and satiated with him to see how rare the chance to see him and know how worthy of resnect he is Therefore the Tathagata says he will pass away, although he will never become extinct. It goes on: All the Buddhas, all the Tathagatas teach in the same way.
Their teachings are all true, not false, because they teach for the purpose of saving living beings. All this is disagreeably casuistical. Nevertheless he did not attain to it. He was asked to explain why Daitsuchishobutsu did zazen in a hall for ten kalpas and could not manifest the Law or attain Buddhahood. Jnanabhibhu means not receiving [not being attached to] any existence, complete lack of doubt and hesitation under all circumstances. The Ground of Being. Charity, M; purity, jR; patience, zealous progress, M; meditation, wisdom, adaptability, vows, force of purpose, ; and knowledge, Up.
Addressing the questioning monk. Daitsu Chishd 93 be the servant of things! When thoughts, [desires, likes and dislikes] arise, all the various things come into being. When the mind is not aroused, nothing has any harmful power. What people call Great Sayings, and Golden Words, is the provision of attractive medicine for children; they are only outward expressions of Greatness.
These Sayings are in themselves nothing. If you see and hear, dearly and spiritually, and before you with mirror-bright enlightenment, an undimmed lamp, you yourself decide the value of all lofty pronouncements. What does Rinzai mean by all this? Why is a circle round? It is the mind, Rinzai says, that gives longness and bushiness and circularity to things. Wordsworth is more exact: Both what they half create, and half perceive.
And Rinzai is making another point. Your mind, which gives length to things is itself the length; you are your- 5 This sentence comes irom the Shinjimmei, Suzuki translates it, "When the mind is not disturbed, the ten-thousand things oiler no offence. These are parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, and destroying the harmony of the fraternity of monks.
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This is the transcendental nature of all things, their own nature, but they also have a scientific, cause and effect nature, of themselves, not given by another. If you do not ask why a long thing is long, you are a fool. But if you cannot answer it, you are another kind of fool. Sometimes, when we feel like it, we answer questions. An ordinary man who really knows him is a sage, but a sage who has merely discursive knowledge of him is only an ordinary man. Saints do not comprehend 9 that they are saints. When saints comprehend things, they are ordinary people.
When ordinary people know things, they are saints. The next thought of illusion,—and we are just Tom, t ick, and Harry. Benevolence, righteousness, loyalty and fidelity, rejoicing in goodness and being unwearied in it,—this is the heavenly nobility. All questions are half foolish. See Vol. II, page Are not enlightened.
Understand intellectually. JNIumon seems to have grasped in the third line what he does not in the first, and which Donne, ante-dating D. Lawrence, expresses in: God made the first Marriage, and man made the first Divorce; God married the Body and Soule in the Creation, and man divorced the Body and Soule by death through sinne, in his fall. Whitman writes, in Leaves of Grass, I have said that the soul is not more than the body. And I have said that the body is not more than soul. Nevertheless, mind and body have also some kind of separate existence.
Again, it is a question whether peace of mind as such is a desirable thing. The more sensitive we are the better, and this excitability is relative to our control over it. Blake says that people control their passions because they are weak enough to be controlled. Passion is perhaps the one thing that is above Zen. Sermons, , No. Daitsu Chisho 97 standing. I and My Father are one, and I and my father are two.
Ice and water are the same thing, but ice is icy, and water is watery. One of the most interesting anecdotes concerning Sozan is the following. The mystery of life is grasped when we misplace something or lose some money, when it comes on to rain unexpectedly. I beg you to bestow upon Sozan and Poor Seizei 99 me the alms of salvation. Some take the monk who asked the question to be different from Seizei. Some take the wine to be Zen. Some take the monk to be boasting of his spiritual poverty. Perhaps the best way to take it is an example of the universal greediness of mankind.
People drink and drink, and eat and eat, and are never satisfied. People want salvation and enlightenment and deification, and never enjoy what they already have and are. The world must progress, it is true, but it must also stand still. So Whitman says: I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. But however this may be so, just tell 1. Acarya means teacher, master, and is here a term of respect. Case X me, where and why does Acarya Seizei drink this wine?
In the New Testament wine is often used in a good sense, and here Mumon seems to be asking when Seizei drank this wine, that is, attained the enlightenment of absolute poverty. He means that we must not answer, that is, ask such questions. Though he has no commercial system, They are quarelling about riches. Hanzen, a man of the 2nd century A. Fish increasing in the cauldron, Han of Raibu. Kou, of the 3rd century B.
When he was defeated, and in imminent danger of death, he sat carousing in his tent and singing the song which afterwards became famous: Strength, to drive through a mountain! Spirit, to cover the whole earth! Now, all is over. Sui, not yet dead; Gu! Oh, Gu! What is to happen to you? As for your livelihood, you have not a penny, you say, But you are fighting with the master about wealth. More to the point is what Eckhart says about a truly poor man: Das ist ein armer Mensch der nicht will und nicht weiss und nicht hat His real aim is to arouse our minds.
We have to think, however, about the kind of monk that Joshu went to see. Zen monks leave home, enter a monastery, and, after becoming regular monks, undergo training for ten years and upwards. When this is completed, and they have attained a certain degree of enlightenment, they leave the monastery and usually settle down in some temple, living more or less alone, or gathering disciples according to their temperament, ability, and reputation. It is this kind of monk that Joshu visited. These religieux are to be taken as people on the road to Bodhisattva-hood.
Why did Joshu visit them? The incident must have taken place during his angya, which is the journey monks took in the same spirit as 18th century musicians, who travelled, mostly in poverty and on foot, to different countries to learn by listening to various virtuosi. In the following translation the monks are taken as two, not as one monk at two different times. Anything here? J, Testing Master Question. We are reminded of something that Thoreau wrote in his Journal in If thy neighbour hail thee to inquire how goes the world It is Freudian, sexually symbolic, like everything else in the world, but the question remains, how is it done?
In Indian symbolism, musti, Case XI the meditation fist, shows meditation with the left, and wisdom with the right. Hitler also, I suppose, like Joshu, could distinguish between the real thing and the false. What is the water that is too shallow? Too little water means too much earth and rocks, that is, too much Mr Hermit. What is the boat? Rather than Joshu himself it is free moving, ever-changing truth. The second hermit, asked the same question, does the same thing.
Both Inoue and Kato think there is only- one hermit, interviewed at two different times. Of course the meaning is the same; Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,—were they two persons, or one? Just say, where is the'source of confusion between the two? Now he raises up, now he dashes down, in perfect freedom. But though this is so, remember that the two hermits also saw through Joshu. Further, if you imagine that there is a comparison of superiority and inferiority to be made in regard to the two hermits, you have not an open eye.
Mumon is trying to get us to make the mistake of judging that one monk was wrong, the other right. The difference between the two hermits is the difference between an ordinary man and a Buddha, between confusion and clarity. But whether the leaves of autumn are tossed high in the air, or lie dejected on the ground, they all obey the laws of nature, the laws of their own being. To the musician a note in tune is in tune; a note out of tune is out of tune,—but it also is out of tune.
All notes are either in tune or out of tune, this is sabetsu, difference; but all notes are equally in or out of tune; this is byddo, sameness. Joshu was seen through by the two hermits, since what he said to both of them showed his own state of mind. In human affairs, nothing is one-sided. The students examine the teacher; his questions show more than their answers. The important point to grasp is that this is not an examination by Joshu of two hermits, but an examination of the reader of the Mumonkan.
When we judge, ordinarily, we give intellectual and moral marks, and, in addition are either indifferent emotionally, or feel attraction or repulsion to the words or the action. Joshu does not do this, implies Mumon. One monk fails, the other passes, but Joshu has no contempt for the one or patronising feeling for the other. He is a death-dealer, A life-giving sword. Our eye must be too quick to distinguish life and death, too quick to affirm or deny. It is almost too quick even for a word, let alone a definition. Whatever is asserted it is only a stuffed bird whose glass eye stares at us meaninglessly.
Shakespeare shows us everywhere that the first hermit, the first clown, is as good as the second, or as the hero, for poetic purposes. His dates of birth and death are Unknown, but he was the spiritual son of Ganto, and was also taught by Kassan, Ganto comes in the next, the 13th Case. He died in at the age of sixty. The first meeting of Zuigan and Ganto is given in Vol. When he resided in Zuiganji Temple he governed the monks with great strictness. In any case, Zuigan did not make the mistake we all make of looking for the Buddha outside himself, in some person or book or church or messiah or philosophy or creed.
He consulted himself, Himself, the Buddha nature, the Nature of the universe, his original, fundamental living principle. But who calls? It is God the creator calling to God the created. It is the Father speaking to the Son. The echo is not something new, something different from the voice; it is the continuation of it. Tchaikovsky and Brahms could see no good in each other. We can see something good in both. There remains the question of ambition. This seems to me wrong. We must wish to be understood.
We must wish to be loved, even though we know that to love is everything and to be loved is nothing, because for the other person to love is at least as important as for ourselves to love. Zuigan wishes to be master, not slave of things. He has a lot of puppets of gods and devils that, he plays with. For what reason? Look and see! And imitating others [e. Zuigan] is only the mental disguise of a fox. Buying and selling the same things oneself means Case XII making no profit. The puppets are at bottom what Thomson talks about in his Hymn: These as they change, almighty Father!
He is always coming and going out of your six senses 5.
Those who have not yet seen him,—look! Any human being. Undefined because indefinable, illimitable. That is, what sees and is seen, what hears and is heard, etc. See Case XXI. This speaking must be both extempore and deliberate. Profuse strains of unpremeditated art. He lived in a monastery in Chosa, hence his name.
He was a fellow- disciple with Hyakujo of Nansen. One may say that any theological nonsense or superstition is compatible with Zen. I do not think so. In Buddhism there are eight parjnana, AftSI, kinds of cognition. These are the five senses, to whjsh is added the intellect. These eight kinds of cognition are what Mumon, that is, Chosa calls the origin of our eternal transmigration. It may be thought that when these eight layers have been peeled off nothing remains.
This is not so. He lived in very troublous times. In , when he was sixty-six years old, more than 40, Buddhist temples were destroyed, and , monks and nuns returned to secular life, by the order of the 15th Emperor of the Tang Dynasty. At this time Tokusan retired to a hermitage in Dokufu Mountain, Under the next Emperor, Buddhism was once more in favour. Tokusan, now 68, was again persuaded to appear in the world, and a temple was built for him, Tokusan Zen-in, fSlhifK, from which he took his name. He was known for his sharpness and sagacity. At first Ganto lived by himself, but later he made a hermitage but monks increased like rabbits, and it became a large temple.
Just as Tokusan had especially studied the Kongokyo, so Ganto read the Nirvana Sutra, that is to say, they both endeavoured to relate sufficient Buddhist background to Zen to save it from eccentricity and excessive individualism. He was a man of extreme persistence. That which gushes out from your own heart—that is what embraces all Heaven and Earth!
When Seppo was 47, he went on a pilgrimage to the grave of his first master, built a hermitage there and afterwards a temple, and monks gradually collected round him. He is said to have had never less than fifteen hundred monks. II, pages One day Tokusan came towards the refectory from the Meditation Hall, carrying his bowls. Saying nothing Tokusan took leave of him. The next day, ascending the rostrum, Tokusan was different from before.
The old man has got hold of the last word of Zen. From now onwards nobody will be able to take a rise out of him! Zen begins where the intellect leaves off, and we must be clear to that exact point. We must jump off from the top of a foot high pole, according to Case XLVI, not from a heap of straw or cotton wool. Tokusan called Ganto, the latter told him he was slack and at fault. But, we may ask, where is the Zen in all this? But this makes the story useless, especially as we are not told what Ganto said. If Hamlet soliloquises in silence, we had better stay at home.
Taniguchi Masa- haru, in his makes a moral story of it, teaching us not to make a fool of old people. Kato Totsudo, in his gjgMckMg. XIII, quotes a large number of conflicting ancient commentaries on this Case, but seems to have no very definite opinion himself. Jida Toin, in his , explains the matter in the following way. Seppo thinks, he has made a fool of Tokusan because he appears feeble, and does not reply to his rhetorical question. Ganto whispers to Tokusan the play-acting he has planned.
The next day Tokusan gives a sermon out of the ordinary by saying nothing at all, or by some other means and Ganto then says, with his eye on Seppo that no one will ever be able to make a fool him again. It is not necessary after all to decide between these and other interpretations. Mumon knew as well as we do, and better, that the Case is obscure. We have three great monks with their various idiosyncrasies, ages, and inter-relations. They are more or less enlightened, and what is of far greater importance, more or less human.
The problem for Zen has always been, how to win without defeating others, and no doubt what Mumon wants us to do is to be fed by the same-and-different spirit of Tokusan, Ganto, and Seppo, not to award prizes or medals to any of them. Fire cannot burn fire. A sword cannot cut itself. These two are the same; they are one word. It is true that they are one, but not true as we say it, only true as it is lived. So Tokusan and Ganto have no idea of the last word of Zen. Mumon says that these two words are not one word, they are two words.
This is also true. The two are two, not one. Why does Mumon choose the latter of the two equally true, contradictory facts? Because it is more true than the equally true former. But after all this we must come back to the variety of life, every leaf different, no two the same. He studied under Nangaku, especially the Ryogakyo and the Kegon- gyo. He was enlightened by Baso and set up his own dwelling in when he was forty eight.
He died in , aged 87, after 58 years of monastic life. We may compare this rule with that of The Ancrene Rixole, where the two nuns may have one cat only, and no other animal. I myself think that -to have a cat is more important than to have a Bible. Not only the cat. But the leaders of both parties. If any of you can speak a word of Zen I will spare the cat, otherwise I will kill it!
Joshu thereupon took off his shoe, put it on his head, and walked off. The Western Hall was for the teaching monks, those of the Eastern Hall engaged in practical matters. This was in imitation of the court practice in regard to civil and literary affairs. It is easy to imagine the differences that occurred between them. What the monks were quarrelling about is left to the imagination.
Inoue says it was the parentage of the cat, which seems a problem that only God could solve. Kato says it was about whether it has the Buddha nature or not. What is a cat? Under what circumstance is it right to kill a cat? Thus the deepest Buddhist and deepest Christian and deepest human point of view will be after all the Zen point of view. This is the teaching of Buddhism. God is not a God of the unborn, for unto Him all are born. Concerning the question of the rightness or wrongness of killing cats, we may distinguish four stages. The first is that it is right, all right, to kill a cat.
This is the non-moral, primitive attitude often seen in children and sometimes in adults. It is a kind of Zen, or pre- Zen. The second is that it is wrong to kill a cat, as a humane person. The point of the story is not that the death of a cat of a thousand cats is nothing compared to the salvation of a human soul which is in any case more than debatable , but that any activity as saviours or saved or unsaved is to be beyond relativity. We are in a world which requires us, of strict and unavoidable necessity to kill other creatures in order that we ourselves may live. They could not say a word of Zen.
However, this action of his is not in the least symbolical. Follow your intuitions about both and let your intuitions change as they will, with them. If you can express the meaning of his words and actions, they were not in vain, but if not, you are in danger. If I had come back and Nansen had told me what had occurred, what would I have done or said? It was a cosmic gesture.
He would have snatched away the knife, And Nansen would have begged for his life. This is very good. Nansen wanted more or less the cat saved, but the folly, indecision, attachment to words, and indolence of the monks won the day. If Christ and Thoreau and Bach and Shakespeare had not been born His anecdotes those easy to translate occupy twenty eight pages of Volume II of this Series. Like Bach and Shakespeare and Christ, he was too much for his followers.
He was enlightened by Bokuju, If- ih, whose quality can be seen in two episodes. This is excellent. What did Bokuju do then? Did he push out the broken leg and shut the door properly? Did he apologise? Did he piggy-back him to the hospital? As Byron says, speaking of death and marriage, The future states of both are left to faith, For authors fear descriptions might disparage The worlds to come of both, or fall beneath.
So the episodes of Zen all end with a satori or a continued stupidity. We sometimes want them to begin where they leave off. What did I do wrong? What did you come from Kozei and Konan for? The has various explanations. I doubt it. It is better to think that Tozan was actually struck, and spent a sleepless night pondering on the indignity of it.
In India, during this time there is the rainy season, when the monks cannot go out and preach. They therefore gather this is from the time of Sakyamuni in a certain place for religious devotion, mild austerities, and religious exercises. It is not so much our sins, which are obvious weakness and vulgarity, as our virtues that we need to be delivered from. The most dangerous thing in the world is to think you understand something.
Running all over China, or all through the Bible is no help. The beating that Tozan received was different from ordinary beatings; he did not feel Ummon was doing it to teach him something, or for his good. It was just Nature beating him. All night Tozan wallowed in the waves of the sea of Yes and No until he could get nowhere, and, when long-awaited dawn broke, again went to Ummon, and had his" eyes opened by him, and was suddenly enlightened, but he was not a seasoned man yet.
If it was right, then everything Case XV in the universe should be beaten; if it was wrong, then Ummon was a swindler. If you understand this clearly, then you and Tozan breathe the same air. On the other hand, every thing in the world must be beaten, and is in fact always being beaten. This is the meaning of what Pater says in Marius the Epicurean, the double feeling we have which is deeper than the Zen resolving of it: He could not kill the snakes, for they already suffered, in being what they were.
This was what Tozan experienced in his enlightenment, but we must always go back from the poetical to the unpoetical: Tasks in hours of insight willed Must be in hours of gloom fulfilled. Intending to urge them on she kicks them away, And they soon redress themselves and charge back. Heedlessly he came back to Ummon but was checkmated; The first arrow was only a scratch, but the second one went deep. If any monk comes to him drivelling of eternity and infinity, he will soon let him have the taste of a very finite and temporal stick.
When we put on our clothes, as Carlyle says in Sartor Resartus we put on the clothes of the universe. The Art of Tea is to drink the universe, past, present, and future, in each sip.
Mumonkan Zen Masterpiece
On the one hand, every hair of our head is numbered, every thread of our clothing. On the other, we have thoughts that wander through eternity. Each is nothing without the other. Alternately, also they are still nothing. Though through hearing a sound there may be realisation, or from seeing the form of an object the mind may be enlightened, nevertheless this is the ordinary way of things.
Especially you Zen monks do not understand how to guide sound, use form, see clearly the value of each thing, each activity of the mind. But though this is so, just tell me! Does the sound come to the ear, or does the ear go to the sound? But when sound and silence are forgotten, are both forgotten, what can Case XVI you say of this state? If you listen with your ear, it is hard to hear truly, but if you listen with your eye, then you begin to hear properly, Mumon speaks first about taking sights and sounds as such, and not craving or abhorring them.
However, to hear something unusual in the sound of a stone striking a bamboo, or in the sight of a flower blooming is a kind of mistake. Everything is as natural as it possibly can be. Does the sound come from the ear, or the ear go to the origin of the sound? If it does not go [one way or the other] there is no hearing. For this reason, it must be understood that hearing and sound are neither special. We mistakenly put hearing and sound in two [different] places. Originally it is not a matter of cause and effect or of natural law 1.
All sounds and sights have the same because infinte value, and to single out one above all others is just what the common run of people do in their attachment to particular things and people. Mu- 1. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller 2.
Published by Hokuseido, Tokyo From: Bij tij en ontij Kloosterburen, NL, Netherlands. About this Item: Hokuseido, Tokyo, The dustwrappers a bit yellowished. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Condition: Muy bien.
Tokyo, The Hokuseido Press, New edition. Seller Inventory fa49cf0cddded. More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. Leather Bound. Lang: - English, Pages , Print on Demand. Seller Inventory LB More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Published by Hokuseido Press, Japan About this Item: Hokuseido Press, Japan, Condition: Poor.
Dust Jacket Condition: Poor. Poor in Poor jacket in protective mylar. Some wear to corners and bottom board edges; some slanting to spine; water staining to covers; some splaying to boards; foxing to edges of pages; pages browning; some staining to first page of chapter one; former owner's name penned to front end paper; book store importer sticker to last endpaper; some smoke smell. Jacket with numerous long tears that have been taped; front panel missing 1" triangle near bottom fore edge corner; heavy creasing to panels; chipping to edges of panels; chipping to corners; soiling to panels; staining to panels; scuffing to edges of spine panel; some sunning to spine panel;.
More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Dustjacket damaged, book itself very good. Japanese characters, pronounciation, translation and explanation, illustration. More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Cloth, met stofomslag, 19 cm, pp. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. Published by Hokuseido Press. About this Item: Hokuseido Press. Condition: Very Good. First Edition. Dust jacket missing.
First edition, seventh printing. Minor shelf and handling wear, overall a clean solid copy with minimal signs of use. Stated Seventh Printing. The binding is tight; pages are clean and unmarked. Secure packaging for safe delivery. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. We found this book important for the readers who want to know more about our old treasure in old look so we brought it back to the shelves.
Seller Inventory SD More information about this seller Contact this seller Condition: Fair. Hardcover, no jacket. Third printing. Hardbound in very good condition in a very good dust jacket. Dustwrapper a bit sleazy. Published by Hokuseido. About this Item: Hokuseido. Condition: very good. Hardcover with DJ.
DJ is all intact but a little worn at edges. Book is very good. Slight foxing on endpaper, otherwise no marks and no damage. First edition. From: Bolerium Books Inc. San Francisco, CA, U. Translations and explanations in English; verses included in the original Japanese. Published by The Hokuseido Press. About this Item: The Hokuseido Press. Condition: Good. Shelf and handling wear to cover and binding, with general signs of previous use.
Interior pages clean and unmarked though age-toned. Published by The Hokuseido Press About this Item: The Hokuseido Press, Dust Jacket Condition: Fair. Seller Inventory 2 ASN m. Pictorial dustjacket and endpapers patterned with crests from the Edo period, dustjacket spine trifle discoloured with light wear at edges. Very good condition. In his brief outspoken preface Professor Blyth rails against the many Japanese scholars whom he sees writing in to be in denial of the satirical verse written in Japan in the 18th century.
In this in-depth study six collections of verse are presented Mutamagawa; Mankuawase; Yanagidaru; Suetsumuhana; Kawasoe Yanagi; Yanagidaru Shui with Professor Blyth's hope "May this book add to the real, unmilitary, poetical power and glory of Japan. Condition: Gut. Volume 1: From the Beginnings up to Issa. Innen ansonsten in sauberen , guten Zustand. Buchschnitt leicht angedunkelt, bei Band am seitlichen Buchschnitt mit kleinem Fleck.
Wir versenden versichert mit Hermes. Seller Inventory F. Published by The Hokuseido Press, Japan Dust Jacket Condition: Good. Not only the life and character of the Japanese, but our own life and character are to be seen in this book, which is thus not merely a picture, but a mirror. Look well in it! Decorated endpapers. Tissue-protected colour frontisplate. Book clean with light wear. Pencil underlining and marginalia to some pages. Moderate lean to spine. Binding tight.