Using negative selection, linkage drag between Bph3 and Wx a alleles was successfully broken resulting in ILs with broad spectrum BPH resistance and good quality Jairin et al. However, it may be impossible or extremely difficult to pyramid traits such as pest resistance where unique biotypes may be needed for screening as the presence of one gene may prevent phenotypic selection for others. Pyramiding of resistance genes or QTLs in rice has now become an effective method for developing lines with disease and pest resistance Divya et al. Using MAS based conventional breeding, progress has been made in pyramiding two or more major BPH resistance genes into susceptible cultivars.
The pyramided lines PLs carrying Bph1 and bph2 genes showed higher resistance than the lines with only bph2 Sharma et al. Qiu et al. Additionally, pyramiding BPH resistance genes and other resistances have become routine in rice breeding. Wan et al. In order to develop new cultivars with durable BPH resistance, we should not only use gene pyramiding, but exploit genetic diversity for ecological reasons.
Zhu et al. Similarly, we have pyramided Bph14 and Bph15 into several different rice hybrids, and experiments indicated that planting resistant pyramided hybrids around conventional susceptible hybrids significantly reduced the overall population of BPH over a large field area, thereby reducing the BPH threat and contributing to sustainable of rice production Hu et al.
In the recent years, significant progress has been made in molecular breeding of rice for yield, quality, biotic and abiotic stress resistances and certain agronomic traits Rao et al. Host—plant resistance is an effective environmentally friendly approach to control BPH and maintain yield potential of cultivars Jena and Kim, Future breeding approaches must focus on developing cultivars with durable, broad-spectrum resistance.
The first objective is to identify and characterize new resistance genes from diverse germplasm resources, particularly wild species. The second objective is to understand the molecular interactions between rice and BPH. We should not only accelerate research on map-base cloning of BPH resistance genes, but also pay attention to and the genome and genetics of BPH itself. The BPH genome was sequenced and genomes of BPH and its endosymbionts revealed complex complementary contributions for host adaptation Xue et al.
Recently, molecular breeding design MDB have become popular for molecular breeding in crop improvement and should contribute to future breeding outcomes Xu and Zhu, Molecular breeding designs for BPH resistance will involve three steps: 1 map all QTLs for BPH resistance by high-throughput genotyping and reproducible phenotyping; 2 evaluate and reconfirm allelic variation in these QTLs by development of NILs; and 3 conduct design breeding according to a bioinformatics platform and simulation studies.
The final objective is to develop new varieties that contain the best genotypic combinations to confer durable resistance. We thank Prof. Weiren Wu for valuable advice on this review. Competing interests.
JH and YQH wrote the manuscript. YQH acted as corresponding author.
All authors read and approved of the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Rice N Y v. Rice N Y. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Yuqing He, Email: nc. Corresponding author. Received Jan 9; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Brown planthopper BPH is the most devastating pest of rice.
Keywords: Gene pyramiding, Marker assisted backcross breeding, Nilaparvata lugens , Resistance genes, Oryza sativa. Open in a separate window. Genes and TFs associated with BPH resistance In addition to the traditional map-based cloning method, some genes and transcription factors TFs associated with BPH resistance have been identified through reverse genetics approaches such as T-DNA mutants and genes homology. Molecular breeding for BPH resistance Since the s, several BPH resistance genes such as Bph1 , bph2 , Bph3 and bph4 have been identified and transferred into elite susceptible varieties at IRRI, and a series of improved cultivars e.
MABC for BPH resistance It takes a minimum of 6—8 backcrosses to fully recover a recurrent parent genome using conventional breeding methods, but MABC enables the procedure to be shortened to 3 or 4 backcrosses Tanksley et al. Conclusion and perspective In the recent years, significant progress has been made in molecular breeding of rice for yield, quality, biotic and abiotic stress resistances and certain agronomic traits Rao et al.
Acknowledgments We thank Prof. Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Detection and analysis of QTLs for resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens , in a doubled-haploid rice population. Theor Appl Genet. Tagging and mapping of genes and QTLs of Nilaparvata lugens resistance in rice. Alien introgression in rice. Plant Mol Biol. Planthopper: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. The development of host-plant resistance to insect pests: outlook for the tropics.
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Development of elite breeding lines conferring Bph18 gene-derived resistance to brown planthopper BPH by marker-assisted selection and genome-wide background analysis in japonica rice Oryza sativa L. Mapping and marker-assisted selection of a brown planthopper resistance gene bph2 in rice Oryza sativa L. In theory, R genes can be found in rice germplasm in different rice production areas.
Stacking R genes with overlapped resistance spectra can lead to long lasting resistance. Knowledge of genetic identity of contemporary M. Effective blast management also requires unprecedented international cooperation. IRRI and research institutions worldwide have been coordinating their resources for both genotyping using next generation of DNA sequencing and phenotyping at different geographic locations. The knowledge gained by this massive collaborative effort ought to lead to more effective methods to reduce crop loss due to blast disease worldwide.
USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Wengui Yan. Edited by Sven Bode Andersen.
We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Introduction 1. The historical and contemporary aspects of rice blast disease Rice Oryza sativa L. Table 1. Yield losses due to blast. The biology of M. Mapped blast R genes Blast R genes are predicted to play important roles in the frontier of rice defense responses.
Table 2. Summary of blast R major and minor, mapped and cloned genes on rice chromosomes. Table 3. Table 4. No1 Table 5. Structure and function of blast R genes Among the mapped R genes Table 3 and 4 , 22 genes including 20 major and 2 minor R genes Pb1 and pi21 have been molecularly characterized Table 5. R gene-mediated signaling transduction pathways It is now commonly accepted that products of R genes in plants can specifically recognize avirulence genes from the pathogen directly or indirectly to initiate innate immunity system responses.
The management of blast disease-marker assisted selection Blast disease has been effectively managed by a combination of fungicides and R genes integrated into diverse cultural practices. Future prospects Blast disease is a moving target where the fungus can rapidly adapt to the host. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. Available from:. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions. More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.
Access personal reporting. More About Us. Name of R gene. Name of germplasm. Name of pathogenic Strains. RM, RM Pitp t. Pi14 t. Pi16 t. Hoko1, Ina72, TH, Ai PiDa t. Pid1 t. RG, RZb. Pig t. Piy t. Yanxian No. Chubu Pi10 t. Pi23 t. Suweon AP, AP RM, AP Pi8 t. Race Ken, 95Mu, Ina Pi22 t. Gumei 2.
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B10, R Pi40 t. IR O. Pi50 t. Pigm t. Gumei 4. C, C C, RG Pi17 t. Pi42 t. Pi33 t. RM72, C Pi55 t. Yuejingsimiao 2. PiGD-1 t. Sanhuangzhan 2. Pi3 t. Pi15 t. CHL , Hoku 1. Pi56 t. PiGD-2 t. R16, R14B. Pi18 t. Pi38 t. Pi44 t. PiCO39 t. R4, RZ IB54, IG1. Pi7 t. RG, RG Pi47 t. Xiangzi Pi43 t. Bengal, M Pikg t.
Pizy t. ZB13, ZE1. Pi19 t. Aichi Asahi. Tetep, Pi No. Pi6 t. Pi62 t. RG9, RZ Zhong Pi12 t. Pi20 t. Pi51 t. Pi41 t. Pi t. RG, RG9. Pi48 t. RG, RZ Pih1 t.