In Wither, the background is the foreground. In , he was back in jail, this time for publishing his Motto. Had the patent remained uncontested by the Stationers, Wither might have realized sales in the range of 90, copies over the next ten years. As it turned out, however, the booksellers not only persuaded Parliament to have the patent repealed, but they initiated a boycott against Wither that prevented normal publication of any new works of his for nearly ten years.
At their most inclusive, Drayton and Browne wrote about topics of national concern, about matters of Britain; but they still conceived of the poet not only as a privileged sage for Drayton, this view was practically selfdefining but also as still writing for a highly select audience of aristocrats and fellow poets alike—indeed, one not substantially different from the audiences of Donne or Jonson. Wither, too, could write the occasional courtly poem.
Being born as free as these, I will sing as I shall please, Who as well new paths may run, As the best before have done. I disdain to make my song For their pleasures short or long. After , however, Wither increasingly conceived of his audience in largely popular terms and his own role as that of preacher or prophet. The transition is sharply marked by the publication of his Juvenilia in To some degree, his shift from a predominantly courtly to a religious poet corresponds to the elevated status of the devotional lyric that began under James, and hence in Wither to an elevation of the pastoralist to the psalmist, with an increased emphasis on the virtues of the plain style—an emphasis on matter over manner.
In Wither published his translation of The Psalms of David. In thy prosperity, such was thy pride That thou the Countries plainnesse didst deride Thy wanton children would oft straggle out, At honest husbandman to jeere and flout. Their homely garments, did offend thine eyes: They did their rurall Dialects despise. Their neighbors notice took Of all their wants. Among them, were not many That had full families. Or if that any Of these had children sick; some good supplies Were sent them from the generall Charities.
The Wither who pleaded for unity and toleration could therefore be read sympathetically by John Lilburne, the Leveller. His verse participates in the revolutionary energies of his age, even performing, Norbrook argues, a critique of the politically conservative, closed couplets of a John Denham or Edmund Waller. Certainly Wither always bridled when in the company of either man. A poem like Westrow Revived, a Funeral Poem Without Fiction , for instance, will never satisfy on the basis of strict poetic merit; but as a work that reflects— and recirculates—problems of discursive instability more generally, an instability only fully exploited when it seemed to disappear into the creation of that new genre, the novel, Westrow Revived can make a strong claim on our attention.
But the claim is in many ways vestigial. Only Wither in Campo-Musae dedicated a work to the earl, and according to the Dictionary of National Biography, Quarles died supporting the crown, but it is easy to see superficial resemblances between the two men. Quarles was the paraphraser par excellence of his time. Martin Luther—and spiced with topical allusions, usually of a moderately conservative sort. For one thing, even if he conscientiously dedicated his work to aristocrats, he rarely attempted a complex thought.
The final poem in Argalus, in fact, reinforces this point exactly where we might expect. In Quarles, there is nothing special in a name: My sinnes are like the Starres within the skies, In view, in number even as bright, as great: In this they differ: These doe set and rise: But ah! Shine, Sunne of glory, and my sinnes are gone Like twinckling Starres before the rising Sunne.
III, p. An admittedly formulaic passage like the following, for instance, is not intellectually demanding. Quarles gives us the frills—literally, in the frontispiece—the set speeches, the swell of grand passions, the extended pictorialism associated with Sidney or Spenser, the sense that something significant is occurring; and so the poem served those without either the leisure, inclination, or energy for the original. The immediate success of the Emblems, on the other hand, ought to be traced to a slightly different source: to a convergence between high and low forms of art, pictures and scripture.
Under the Stuarts in general, but especially under Charles and following the lead of nobility like the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Arundel, England witnessed an extraordinary increase in interest in the visual arts among the wellto-do. England was clearly no longer the home of miniaturists only. At the same time, testifying to the diffusion of interest in the visual arts was a substantial increase in the number of treatises published during the first half of the century.
A theoretical work like that by the Dutch humanist Franciscus Junius the Younger, De pictura veterum , was now quickly brought out in an English version Over the same period, more specialized essays on architecture and the arts also began to appear. In the late s, this sometime poet and lifelong patron of the arts made his grand tour of the Continent. Besides putting himself in touch with much that was current in the arts in both the Netherlands and Italy, he also encountered two recently published, skillfully engraved, Jesuit emblem books: the Pia Desideria by Hermann Hugo and the Typus Mundi If not the only reason, this is surely an important one for its huge success.
An Embleme is but a silent Parable. Let not the tender Eye check, to see the allusion to our blessed Savior figured in these Types. In holy Scripture he is sometimes called a sower; sometimes, a Fisher, sometimes a Physician. And why not presented so as well to the eye as to the eare?
Before the knowledge of letters God was known by Hieroglyphicks: and, indeed, what are the Heavens, the Earth, nay every Creature but Hieroglyphicks and Emblemes of His Glory? I have no more to say. I wish thee as much pleasure in the reading, as I had in the writing. Farewell, Reader. The five books, essentially stitched together from the Typus Mundi largely underlying Books I and II and the Pia Desideria Books III—V ,55 unite illustrated text, Biblical inscription, poetry, relevant quotations from the Fathers, and a four-line epigram—always in that order—to give a collaborate perspective on a familiar topos: the fall of man, Job suffering, Paul in prison, the soul anticipating its welcome by the New Jerusalem, and so on.
The most significant alteration Quarles performed on the originals, whittling down the patristic commentary, gives the lyric—and hence the individual, private experience—greater prominence. The shift is appropriately Protestant, but the private utterance is also itself framed and thereby partly contained by a generalizing epigram. On doctrinal and artistic grounds, the emblems were intended to appeal to a wide audience.
English Lyric Poetry
Harry Rogers. He then proceeded to sever completely the relationship between visual and verbal texts by placing the engravings as a group after the poems. Through a variety of allusive techniques within the verse, Quarles insists that we have the illustrations in front of us while reading the poetry. As a recent critic has argued with considerable acuity, the poems are constantly dramatizing issues having to do with vision, even sometimes pointing to the deceptive and potentially idolatrous nature of sight itself and the dangers graven images might pose to the Protestant reader. But it does point to the integral and generative relationship between image and text beyond the didactic function the poems perform when they gloss a given illustration.
Both engraving and verse keenly register a dramatized moment of spiritual anxiety and fear that is neither present in the Scriptural gloss nor registered so emphatically in the original Latin verse in the Pia Desidera: O Whither shall I fly? Where shall I sojourn? Engraving for Book V, I. When not paraphrasing others, he was paraphrasing himself, modulating only the phrase and accent as he went.
The appeal is immediate, if not lasting, enabled in part by the illustrated engraving and by the paradoxically simple fact that Quarles is not himself a poet of strong lines. He sought instead to peregrinate around England in plain view to all and to record his thoughts in simple and often unabashedly clumsy verse: Thus have I been imployd, besides my trade is, To write some Pamphlets, to please Lords and Ladies, With Gentleman or others that will read them, Whose wits I hope not over much will heed them.
To all these services I am immediate Obedient, willing, at occasions ready at, My riches is my Lame Legge, let the blame lye Upon that Legge, because I have writ Lamelye. And yet, it would surely be a mistake to think of Taylor as having been deeply influenced by any single group of authors or a particular literary tradition.
He is easily the least Spenserian poet to be published by the Spenser Society. Here and elsewhere, the game in part is for his presumably motley audience to watch the Water Poet appropriate sophisticated forms for his own lowly purpose—to watch him bring into the common realm what is usually regarded as being the exclusive property of the sophisticated and learned. Hence, Taylor gives us many parodies and mock encomia—praises of Hemp-seed and clean linen—in turning an Erasmian tradition with purported antecedents in Homer and Virgil in a direction that might appeal to drapers and clothiers.
He even drags the idea of the book itself into the streets he likens it to both a whore and a thief in works with these titles but does so without registering a jot of Jonsonian outrage over its becoming common property. The sculler might have read his Homer or Ovid, and he certainly attempted a purple passage or two, often of a storm scene, but he never sought to erase from his work as Spenser, Jonson, and Drayton did , the signs associating him with trade. As he notes in his Motto, when he heard the muses sing, it was while rowing on the Thames. Some, like Sir Gregory Nonsense, His Newes from No Place , are purely fantastic—a gallimaufry of nonsequiturs that, like anamorphic paintings popular in the day or, more appropriately, the rhymes of Edward Lear, which they are sometimes said to anticipate , are meant to amuse by consciously distorting our perspective: It was in June the eight and thirtieth day, That I imbarked was on Highgate Hill, After discourteous friendly taking leave: Of my young Father Madge and Mother John.
These are very much steak-and-kidney-pie accounts of Britain, close-up reports of food and drink, spiced with the occasional anecdote and recorded acts of hospitality. On occasion, they also deliver a refreshingly practical perspective on seventeenthcentury life. Taylor on Thames his, in W, I: 26 This is Poly-Olbion with a fully Baconian slant to it—a vision of England potentially unified not by articulating a common ancestral myth but through a pragmatic effort to clean up its waterways: In common reason, all men must agree That if the river were made cleane and free, One Barge, with eight poore mens industrious paines, Would carry more than forty carts or waines.
If the travel narratives remain his most appealing works, it is partly because, as Samuel Johnson noted in another context and with a different emphasis,62 traveling performs a valuable regulating service on the imagination. But afterwards you were entertained with crambe bis cocta. There is only a little suspense within the narrative; the tone is usually comic and the countryside described as usually only too willing to welcome the traveler, who seems more often on a progress than a pilgrimage. So I this travell past, with cost and paine, And as I wisely went came home againe.
The Romantic critic, William Hazlitt, gave this view a conveniently precise formulation when he located Caroline verse within a larger narrative recording the decline and fall of English poetry from the Renaissance to the late eighteenth century. It is to mark a return, too, to the traditions and genres favored by Donne and Jonson, but with a difference. Amatory poems and verse epistles abound, as do epigrams, epitaphs, and brief translations from classical authors, especially those of late antiquity; and no poet worth his salt was without a song. But the range of the Caroline lyricist and there were many was distinctly narrower, decidedly less ambitious, both enabled and yet contained by the genteel culture for which dallying wantonly with words—and women—was almost de rigueur.
Thomas Randolph, a declared Son of Ben, lamented the loss of his little finger in what we might call a parody of imitative form one line, he complains, is now a foot too short. Virtuosic accomplishment was the order of the day, an order that even Milton to some degree observed in Poems , without, of course, fully obeying.
And yet, it is also a peculiar historical feature of the period that rarely have so many poets produced more than a few poems worth admiring, and occasionally imitating. Part of what is at work here might be simply chalked up to the law of averages. With a very active manuscript culture,7 and with so many more poets now willing to let their works appear in print—despite protests to the contrary— the harvest is bound to be richer. The example of Drayton alone might have been sufficient to steer them away from an Elizabethan reach of the imagination.
But being different from an elder poet was of great importance.
In this regard, the story of Caroline poetry is not Oedipal but fraternal; and if it is a story that at times makes us think refreshingly of a Drayton or a Taylor, if it seems at times too cozy, too concerned with who you know rather than what you write, it is also true that the pressure toward refinement, with its generating impulse coming from the most refined monarchy England had yet seen, was not incidentally precious. In the hands of Lovelace, a grasshopper could signal great things.
By , Carew had secured the post of Sewer-in-Ordinary to the king himself against the wishes of the whole Scottish nation if Clarendon is to be believed ,8 an appointment that had been preceded by service abroad Italy in —15 and the Netherlands in , under Sir Dudley Carleton; Paris in with Sir Edward Herbert , and by some notorious living.
Like Donne, Carew managed to offend his employer Carleton; for reasons yet to be fully understood, he was dismissed from his service in He also possibly paid for his libertine ways by eventually dying from a case of syphilis.
No Caroline poet who made his immediate debts so apparent made the act of assimilation so complete. In the process, Carew also created a significant if not substantial corpus of verse. In the s, poets as different from each other as Milton and Vaughan were to vary this formula. Carew did not feel as Herbert so powerfully did that he owed his gifts ultimately to God; nor did he view, like Milton, his talents as part of a larger, intensely personal drama of election.
He wrote, instead, for his more worldly contemporaries: fellow poets and patrons, male and female alike, at court and in the country. That sense of vocational responsibility is most fully evident in the poems Carew wrote on Donne and Jonson. Both are powerfully, not incidentally, occasional. It was a common coterie act to write a poem to one or the other, slightly less so to write to both. Have we no voice, no tune? The Donnean idiom is fully sounded, in the abrupt beginning forcing the muse, no less , its wrenched syntax, and its relentless interrogation.
The poem to Jonson is decidedly less revering. The assessment, with its compact, subtle qualification at the end, seems nearly perfect. Great as he is, only Jonson would call himself greater than the wiser world, and in doing so he manifests the self-love that also limits his judgment.
The poems to Donne and Jonson show Carew at his most serious. As for pleasure, here is Carew operating within the suave confines of the courtly lyric: Give me more love, or more disdaine; The Torrid, or the frozen Zone, Bring equall ease unto my paine; The temperate affords me none: Either extreame, of love, or hate, Is sweeter than a calme estate.
Project MUSE - Strong-Stress Metre in Fourteen-Line Stanza Forms
And the significant place Carew allots in his verse to scene-painting of one kind or another gives it an added touch of finish. Albans with his arm round her neck;—he stumbled and put out the light;— Jermyn escaped; Carew never told the King, and the King never knew it. Perhaps too many: Carew has never been entirely free of charges of decadence of one kind or another.
It was not admitted into the Norton Anthology of English Literature until the fourth edition. To quench the burning Ravisher, she hurles Her limbs into a thousand winding curles, And studies artful postures. Drayton, were he still alive, yes, but Carew most certainly not. He greets the request as if struggling with a hangover: Why dost thou sound, my deare Aurelian, In so shrill accents, from thy Barbican, A loude allarum to my drowsie eyes, Bidding them wake in teares and Elegies For mightie Swedens fall?
A great many Caroline poems do not escape this fate. But with Carew, waywardness is a way of being, a poignant and at times powerful counterpoint to the predictable. The abundance of Penshurst is seen largely, strenuously, from within its secure walls. The sexual libertine was also the potential exile, spiritually and therefore culturally, a point given legendary significance by contemporary interest in Carew on his deathbed.
So, devout penitents of Old were wont, Some without dore, and some beneath the Font, To stand and heare the Churches Liturgies, Yet not assist the solemne exercise. Who knows? Prompted by thy example then, no more In moulds of clay will I my God adore; But teare those Idols from my heart, and write What his blest Sprit, not fond Love shall indite; Then, I no more shall court the verdant Bay, But the dry leavelesse Trunke on Golgotha; And rather strive to gaine from thence one Thorne, Then all the flourishing wreathes by Laureats worne.
Go birds of spring: let winter have his fee; Let a bleak paleness chalk the door, So all within be livelier than before. Aske me no more wh[i]ther doth stray, The Golden Atomes of the day: For in pure love heaven did prepare Those powders to inrich your haire. Aske me no more wh[i]ther doth hast, The Nightingale when May is past: For in your sweet dividing throat, She winters and keepes warme her note.
Aske me no more where those starres light, That downewards fall in dead of night: For in your eyes they sit, and there, Fixe become as in their sphere. Aske me no more if East or West, The Phenix builds her spicy nest: For unto you at last shee flies, And in your fragrant bosome dyes. If Carew will always be remembered as a poet who gave renewed expression to the voice of physical desire, who saw his later identity as a poet largely constituted in this light and that is one way of reading the poem to Sandys , it is so in part because this song seems to be a definitive act, a last word on the subject of beauty itself.
All the conceits of Petrarchan poetry are here, as John Hollander has pointed out in a remarkable reading of the poem: rosy cheeks, sunny hair, starry eyes, sweet voice, and fragrant bosom. All things have not, like the ladies of yesteryear, melted away with the snow. The revisions are done not merely to make the already aureate even more resplendent. John Suckling —42? With John Suckling, it is significant that the question does not even arise. During his short life, Suckling had posed for Van Dyck in full Caroline dress—with a copy of the Shakespeare folio opened to Hamlet, no less.
Suckling would seem to have had almost nothing in common with Sidney except a literary sister and an extreme case of sprezzatura. Suckling, naturally, had nothing so epochal in mind for himself. This has more to do with various acts of impersonation, with the nudge in the side, with the casual extension of syntax, than with any desire to mold a specific literary credo involving the proper relationship of sound to sense, rhyme to reason. Drayton would have been altogether beyond the pale.
When Carew writes, he writes, as Leavis emphasized, in a direct line of wit; indeed, as someone central to the formation of the line itself. Or of the not-so-great: Wat Montague now stood forth to his tryal, And did not so much as suspect a denial; Wise Apollo then asked him first of all If he understood his own Pastoral. Prithee why so pale? For a moment, thanks to the repetitions, he seems almost interested in the situation, at least long enough for the final jettisoning to have some force: Quit, quit, for shame, this will not move, This cannot take her; If of her selfe shee will not Love, Nothing can make her, The Devill take her.
And Surely the Company would have been content, If they could have found any President [precedent]; But in all their Records, either in Verse or Prose, There was not one Laureate without a nose. The loose syntax and casual rhymes are part of the undoing here. It also seems just right that not only should Suckling signal his presence in the poem and thereby mark his absence at the sessions improving upon the inevitably fashionable guest who comes late to a party but also that his absence should itself be marked by the buzz of gossip. At this session, busyness and the business of poetry are two sides of the same coin and not even Apollo, it turns out, is above taking a bribe.
Without ever doing very much, he seems to have anticipated, in remarkable ways, a number of significant stylistic and intellectual trends that became prominent in the Restoration, including, in his frequent use of the image of man as a clock, a Hobbesian materialism. But it is important to emphasize that the marginal posture represented in his verse was still a courtly one.
Suckling was the enfant terrible of an increasingly narrow circle and limited to a great degree by the few attitudes he chose to subvert. I tell thee, Dick, where I have been, Where I the rarest things have seen, Oh, things without compare! Her fingers were so small, the Ring Would not stay on which they did bring, It was too wide [by] a Peck: And to say truth for out it must It lookt like the great Collar just About our young Colts neck.
Her feet beneath her petticoat Like little mice stole in and out, As if they feared the light; But oh! Suckling made his niche as a versifying poet by playing himself off against Caroline high culture, with its aureate phrases and elaborate poses. But the game of caricature does not work the other way around, not at least when the speaker proclaims himself to be one of them. But the drift of the argument is clear, and it does not rely on exact numbers in any case: if Herrick had played his cards better, he could have been a major poet. He could have been a contender, a bit more like Milton.
But whether Herrick will ever answer to modernist worries about his artistic stature or to the larger question about the status of art in modern society is doubtful, especially since he seems to have positively luxuriated in his modest role as a latecomer: Ah Ben! Where we such clusters had, As made us nobly wild, not mad; And yet each Verse of thine Out-did the meate, out-did the frolick wine. Either way the store more than diminishes; it disappears.
But I doubt, too, whether anyone would regret the redirection for very long. But Herrick is, above all, a poet of sentiment, a poet of the familiar, not a poet of the sublime, or in his case, what would have been the hierophantic overreach. So, too, Herrick characteristically thinks of hospitality in local, household terms. A Hen I keep, which creeking day by day, Tells when She goes her long white egg to lay.
A fly might be of little significance, but how it is set, how it is framed, can tell an altogether different story. Next, when I cast mine eyes and see That brave Vibration each way free; O how that glittering taketh me! Strewings need none, every flower Is in this word, Batchelour.
By way of a false etymology, Herrick points to his bachelorhood as the very bread of life, even containing all its flowers and responsible for producing Hesperides itself. But it is a fare made poignant by touches of pathos throughout: I have lost, and lately, these Many dainty Mistresses: Stately Julia, prime of all; Sapho next, a principall: Smooth Anthea, for a skin White, and Heaven-like Chrystalline: Sweet Electra, and the choice Myrha, for the Lute, and Voice.
The elegiac can keep being touched on, and can keep being touched up. And the elegiac can itself be expanded, too, little by little: to incorporate, for one thing, notions of exile. Weak I am grown, and must in short time fall; Give thou my sacred Reliques Buriall. These qualities have long been considered among the most original and attractive features of Hesperides, but their full cultural import is difficult to assess. But the example of Drayton should remind us that not everyone who celebrated English customs and faery lore was necessarily doing so in support of the established ruling powers; and Drayton was a far more politically motivated poet than Herrick.
Neither is it clear that Herrick was as loyal a Laudian as is sometimes assumed. But in Herrick, the historical and polemical perspective is missing; so, too, is the causal connection that might link the economic with the festive in a consistent, ideological manner. It can, in short, be a little bit political without becoming frantic or repressive. But how much is another question. Take no care For Jewels for your Gowne, or Haire: Feare not; the leaves will strew Gemms in abundance upon you: Besides, the childhood of the Day has kept, Against you come, some Orient Pearls unwept: Come, and receive them while the light Hangs on the Dew-locks of the night: And Titan on the Eastern hill Retires himselfe, or else stands still Till you come forth.
Wash, dresse, be brief in praying: Few Beads are best, when once we goe a Maying. We shall grow old apace, and die Before we know our liberty. With sentiments like these, one can understand why Herrick never made it big in the church. Richard Lovelace —57 Carew, Suckling, and Herrick might well be thought of as a first wave of Caroline poets. As lyricists who came of age while Charles was on the throne, they reflected only indirectly on the political concerns either anticipating or generated by the Civil War, and of these, Herrick alone lived through the Civil War itself, indeed through the Interregnum and well into the Restoration.
But there is also a ring of truth in the distinction Phillips draws between poetic desire and fulfillment, between the aspirations for poetic sublimity and the absence of heroic argument, for as much as lapses in craft distinguish Lovelace from his Caroline contemporaries, so too does the reach toward sublimity. Neither Carew, Herrick, nor Suckling could—or would— have claimed so much for his muse. Phillips might have arrived at so generously qualified a judgment by taking any number of routes. And scattered among his verse, especially in the second volume entitled Lucasta: Posthume Poems , a number of poems take the Caroline fetish for small things in an overtly political direction.
So, too, is recognizing Lovelace as the epitome of the Cavalier poet: a third generation soldier his grandfather had been knighted by Essex for his efforts in the Irish campaign, his father by James and loyalist virtuoso whose knowledge of the sister arts—to say nothing about his quasi-scientific interest in natural lore—seemed an inevitable extension of his royalist sympathies.
Allusions to Italian masters like Raphael, Giorgione, and Titian dot the canvass of his writings. Of the Caroline poets discussed in this chapter, it is easy to regard Lovelace as the least in control of his muse, the least capable of assimilating the different poetic strains swirling about the s and s, and consequently, too, the least appreciated. But if he differs from Carew, Suckling, and Herrick in this regard, his poetry is also more profoundly and problematically royalist. She obeys!
The happy insect reported by Anacreon and his translators has, in more ways than one, been fully seasoned by Lovelace. The blending involves a generic upgrading of Anacreon by Horace and perhaps Pindar as recollected by Jonson in the Cary-Morison ode. And it includes a deepening of the mood of festive drinking often found in Anacreon and celebrated by Cowley and Stanley in their grasshopper poems by commemorating an ideal of friendship, made emphatic, as Earl Miner has remarked,57 in the shift of address exactly midway through the poem.
Beginning with the underlying Aesopic tale reported in Caxton and elsewhere of the aristocratic grasshopper who sings in the summer but fails to store up corn for the winter, the ode braids together a range of classical gestures and allusions to achieve a powerfully complex response to the experience of being ousted. Golden Eares are Croppt. As potentially apocalyptic as the image of the sickle is, it appears within a parable of the Fall as imagined from the perspective of someone who still believes he has a home, a place of retreat.
Indifference has a small place in this poem. If the Grasshopper ode redefines the kingly by pointing to an internalized heroics of Horatian play, the second volume points in more troubled ways to the illusory presence of the high mode as a form of representation itself. Instead of retirement, we get restlessness; instead of song, we get satire: a shift in generic emphasis that has encouraged critics to see in Lovelace an anticipation of some of the concerns of Dryden and Pope. There are no Altheas to celebrate, no stones walls to transcend, and Lucasta herself like England seems alien from the outset.
She laughs again At our ridiculous pain; And at our merry misery She laughs until she cry. Here and elsewhere, the perspective ventured is meant to shock. Is self-crowning too, one wonders, a delayed response to the current situation of political impotence? But the poem also indicates some of the larger problems Lovelace faced in this second volume, and they involve issues of audience. With some poets of the period—and for different reasons both Milton and Vaughan come to mind—the experience of solitude was highly productive, an occasion for recasting the authorial self into an altogether different mode: the blind bard of Paradise Lost or the Job-like Singer of divine hymns in Silex Scintillans.
But in the case of later Lovelace, it is impossible, I think, not to feel that the experience of displacement was only partially productive. O Charls! A nobler monument then that, Which thou thine own Executor wert at. But in one important sense at least, the poem is deeply reactionary, deeply uncertain of its direction. Quitting both his deserts and all the opportunities that he had for worldly preferment, he betook himself to the Sanctuaries and Temple of God, choosing rather to serve at Gods Altar, then to see the honour of Stateemployments.
Sidney and the Countess of Pembroke had also translated the psalter, a translation which circulated widely in manuscript in Jacobean court circles and was commended by Donne and probably read by Herbert. It was eventually published in But not until the publication of The Temple had any poet in England written so persuasively and decisively of the devotional experience. Ah my deare angrie Lord, Since thou dost love, yet strike; Cast down, yet help afford; Sure I will do the like.
I will complain, yet praise; I will bewail, approve: And all my sowre-sweet dayes I will lament, and love. Herrick frequently writes of being sad or discontent. But the compressed anguish and the compulsion to particularize belong to a different register altogether, as if Herbert were wringing the sentimental out of Herrick in order to identify both the sweet and the sour as separate though related experiences that stem directly from the utterly special conditions of address.
That it did so is no doubt due in part to its subject matter. An increasingly literate culture that consciously linked learning and godliness as part of the legacy of the Reformation was likely to produce and consume a significant body of religious writings at many levels. And a good number continue to be so today, even if Herbert is well represented in the Episcopal Hymnal. Profanenesse in my head, Defects and darknesse in my breast, A noise of passions ringing me for dead Unto a place where is no rest: Poore priest thus am I drest.
Onely another head I have, another heart and breast, Another musick, making live not dead, Without whom I could have no rest: In him I am well drest. If we look at only the first line of each stanza, in which the transmutation of the speaker into Christ is progressively marked, we can see this drama enacted as a kind of silhouette on the horizon. The duplications are of a more exacting sort, as if Herbert were evaluating, appropriating, and putting on not merely trying out, as seems to be the case so often in Donne 10 the central doctrine of Reformed theology of salvation by faith alone.
With such a poem, it is difficult to know precisely where to draw the line between form and content. Or rather, it is difficult to know where the greater emphasis should be placed in the act of reading: on unfolding and admiring the intricacies of design and the pleasures they afford; or on responding enthusiastically to the dramatic immediacy of the conversion account.
The reader who has participated personally in this act of self-renewal, moreover, might even feel at the end the further surprise of being introduced to his or her other, better half. Otherwise, The Temple is perhaps most extraordinary because it invites us to respond to a devotional temper that seemed not at all limited by its subject matter, a point made graphically at least by the sheer profusion of different poetic forms visible to the eye.
With Herbert, however, we might begin a summary by noting his interest in both genres and the several uses made of each. Indeed, the only form Herbert returned to with frequency was the sonnet. He gives us some of the usual sonnet features, including endstopping the lines and using a modified Shakespearean rhyme scheme; and as far as punctuation is concerned, it is possible to speak of the poem as having quatrains.
By the time of The Temple, the sonnet was hardly a novel form. If The Temple is widely habitable, it is so because in his use of subject, forms, and language, indeed in his view of devotional poetry in general, Herbert is not narrowly sectarian. In general, his engines were reserved for the Almighty. Until Herbert, these issues were at best implied concerns of religious poets.
Even Donne only rarely attempted to define—or as we might say today, theorize about—devotional poetry as a particular form of verse. As part of a long tradition of Petrarchists, Donne simply extended his amatory language, witty conceits and all, in the direction of God; he did not rethink the premises of language itself. A Conversation with Jay Sanders. Against Type. The Silhouette Paintings of Edward Ruscha. Artful L. Space Travel with Trisha Brown. A Telephone Conversation in Chicago, October 21, Truth and Responsibility. A Conversation with William Kentridge.
Pun to Paradox. Bas Jan Ader Revisited. Collage and Program. Rise of the Readymetal Maidens. Brazilian Concrete Poetry. Rudy Burckhardt. A Short Biographical Sketch. The Reconstitution of Time Past. Richard Hawkins. Infinitly Desired. Magical Worlds. Amelie von Wulffen—Ruins Present. Malcolm Morley or Painting as Adventure. New York, 22 January The View from the Chryse Plain. Street and Interior. On the Work of Thomas Ruff. In Search of Lost Purpose.
I Am Always the Other. As American as Apple Pie. Securing Insecutity. On the Work of Dirk Skreber. Sensing and Witnessing World. The Speaking Image. Wegman contra Landseer. Some Answers by Francesco Clemente. Thinking in Film. In Between. On a New Publication by Barbara Bloom. The Best-Laid Plans. The Countermoving Concert. Description of an Installation. A Conversation with Boris Groys. Up Above My Head. Jeremy Deller and the Uses of Art. Not Knowing Bridget Riley. James Turrell: Living in the Big Light. Getting It Exactly Wrong. Concept and Fake.
Leviathan Thot: A Politics of the Plumb. Susann Walder. Alchemist of the Everyday. Humanity Transcended. Secrets of Sentence Building. Three Decades, a Reconstruction. The Statuesque. Art Remembers the Animal. New Places of Contemplation. Expanding the Kunsthaus Zug without Putting on Weight. The City as a Social Museum. Wanderer between the Worlds. Doubled Vision. A Unique Vision of Iceland. The Magic of the Why Not. Two Close Horizontal Moieties. Paths for Here and Now in Impenetrable Places. The Retechnization of Art. Pavel Pepperstein: The Artist as a Subculture.
The Drawing Rescues Poetry. Supermarket History. Johan Grimonprez Interviewed by Catherine Bernard. Postcards to Sophie Calle from Joseph Grigely. With Baldessari's Marilyn. The Drawings of Patti Smith. Surface to Air. The Collage Paintings of Donald Baechler.
Great Day in the Morning. Parkett Is Ten Years Old. Sailing Alone around the World. Liam Gillick and Douglas Gordon. Dimensions Variable: Liz Larner. A Brief Account of UbuWeb. Dreaming in Cuban. Tania Bruguera. Spencer Finch: Measures and Pleasures. Missing Presences. Gerhard Merz. Barer Strasse 9. Speculations on Polke in Venice. Excerpted from a Speech. Variations on a Theme.
The Film Etudes of Christian Jankowski. Stories in T-Shirt Yellow. How Invention Derives from the Blot. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Richard Prince's Second House. The Decorative as Strategy. A Sociology Without Truth. Cheap Tricks. Literally No Place. An Introduction. Water, Sun, and Thinking Bodies. A Trip to Genoa. Style and Pastiche. A Conversation with Carol Bove. Painting: A Game of Relations. Mouse Domes at the Periphery of Peopledom. Garbage Clarified. Dieter Roth in Holderbank. One Light Feeds the Other. Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one should not be silent. Reinhard Mucha.
The Sense of the Whole. Eyeing Two Neons of In the Strangeness of Their World. Lack of Faith. On Thomas Ruff. Jorge Pardo and the Human Scale. Bilbao Song. Authentic Imitations of Genuine Replicas. Go West! An Energy Program for the History of Art. Kurt W. Forster, the Director of the J. The Difficulty of Dialogue. Purgatory of the Senses: Rudolf Schwarzkogler — In the Center of the Infinite. December, After the Fact. Go Fetch the New Yorker! The Late Twentieth Century. Gilles Deleuze — The Vampire of the Text. On Judith Barry's Writings.
Notes on Renewed Appropriationisms. Man Ray. Film-Maker or the Movement of Motionlessness. Laura Owens Paints a Picture. Will the Circle Be Unbroken. Given: 1. The Caprice, 2. Wolfgang Laib: More than Myself. Gilbert and George. Thank You, God. Thank You for Making This Possible. Thomas Ruff: Spectacle and Surveillance. Wants Both. Wolfgang Tillmans's Museum Presentation of his Photographs. Phases of a Monument. Meret Oppenheim. In Memoriam Martin Kippenberger — What's up with Hans Peter Kuhn?
Cinema, Messianism and Crime. Artists in Pursuit of the Teen Spirit. Rugs are Floor Covering. Articulatory Practice The Message as Medium. Rachel Whiteread. Found Form—Lost Object. Max Neuhaus. Invisible Sculpture—Molded Sound. From Art to Lifestyle and Back Again. Sculptural Laboratory Experiments. Fish Scales-Allan Sekula's Tsukiji. Material and Poetry. Cosima von Bonin—the First Ten Years. America: Yet Another Discovery. Mike Kelley in Video. Art et Politique. The Idiot of the Family.
We Are Not Afraid. An Impossible Comparison. The Finiteness of Freedom. An Exhibition in Berlin, Images, Things and Participation. Dan Graham. Artist, Maybe Architect. Am I Now Getting Sentimental? Keep Taking It Apart. A Conversation with Bruce Nauman. Satori among the Still Stills. The Gospel of Translucence According to Polke. Philip of Naples and the Evocative Geometry of History. Sense and Sentimentality. Ackermann Hallucinating Maps. A Conversation with John Waters. Statues, Furniture, and Generals, The Image against Imagination.
Twelve Notes on the Pursuit of Eden. Opinione Contraria. This Text Is a Work of Art. The Logical Work of Xavier Veilhan. A Minefield Named Desire. The Flip Side of Things. Quiet Afternoon. The Saturated Image. Of Rivers and Office Chairs. Seeing as an Act of Conquest. The Weight of a Grain of Dust. Mario Botta in Conversation with Bice Curiger. Edward Ruscha.
A Distant World. Alighiero e Boetti: Paradox and Its Double. Clemente and His Pictorial Symbolism. Harvesting Aspects of Literary History. Three Impromptus on the Art of Gerhard Richter. Ann Hamilton: A Sense of Imposition.
To be Innocent of Corruptions. Burning Is the Image in the Hour of the Eclipse. Diana Thater: On Location. A Conversation with Josiah McElheny. Different Subjects, Same Terrain. Rodney Graham: A Tale of a Hat. Tony Cragg: Darkling Light. Bill Woodrow: The Ship of Fools. Swetlana Heger—Capitalist Neo-Realism. Strip Fade Strike. Towards an Aesthetics of Disappearance. The Boy Who Loved Bubbles. Otra De Vaqueros. Mexiko City and Geneva, San Keller: Art as a Public Service. Sound as Duration in the Films of Tacita Dean. Art and Radical thinking in Times of Strategic Consensus. Through a Window, Darkly.
The Accidental Spectator. The Tyranny of the Avant-Garde. Baselitz in the Seventies. Representation and Abstraction. The Encounter with Reality. Damien Hirst. Battles or the Art of War. An Open Look at Blinky Palermo. Dance about Dance about Me about Us. Working with Success—Working with Unsuccess. Coexistence, Yes. Equivalence, No. Cute Futures. Not Cold, Not Too Warm. The Oblique Photography of Thomas Struth. A Man in a Room, Gambling. Troy Brauntuch: Life After Dark.
Sustaining the Antagonism. Wangechi Mutu: Re-Imagining the World. Oscillations—The Paintings of Ross Bleckner. Whatever by Whomever A Conversation with Philip Smith. Seven Notes on the Immaterial. A Grammar of Visual Delinquency. The Exhibition, the Work and Its Indications. Logic and Disruption in the Work of Alighiero e Boetti. Jenny Holzer and the Spectacle of Communication. Hanne Darboven or the Dimension of Time and Culture. Mark Wallinger: State Britain. Peter Doig: A Partial Record.
Autobiography of a Painting. A Conversation with Benjamin H. Every Artist Can Be a Man. Secondary material will be provided on blackboard. Seminar : Regular attendance; active participation; thorough preparation of the primary and secondary material; term paper pages to be handed in by 31 March In this course we will deal with plays that either claim or play with the claim that they show the truth, i. For the plays I recommend the Norton Shakespeare-edition of the complete plays edited by Stephen Greenblatt et al. Proceeding in this manner we shall not only be looking at some of the main themes and issues addressed in the play 'love', family, patriarchy, performativity, gender, etc.
We will work with the following edition: William Shakespeare. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Harold F. Interested students are kindly asked to make an appointment with Prof. Weidle to register for this course. On the occasion of the th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth and the th anniversary of the German Shakespeare-Society, the City of Bochum, the German Shakespeare Society and the English Seminar of the Ruhr-University Bochum are organizing a Shakespeare festival, the "Bochumer Shakespeare-Wochen", which will take place at various locations in Bochum from 20 October to 16 November In those four weeks more than 30 institutions and partners theatres, galleries, museums, orchestras, choirs, authors, musicians, literary societies, educational institutions will host and produce events that deal with the work and life of Shakespeare.
These events include, to name only a few, performances of Shakespeare's plays and poems, musical adaptations, readings, workshops, films, lectures, and exhibitions. The festival will be concluded by the autumnal conference "War and Commemoration" of the German Shakespeare Society from 14 to 16 November at the Kunstmuseum and the Schauspielhaus. The aim of the seminar is to produce the programme for the "Shakespeare-Wochen", containing information not only on the partners and locations involved, but also on the historical and literary background of the plays and poems.
In the seminar we will deal with Shakespeare's texts, contextualize and historicize them and also try to assess their contemporary relevance. Depending on the final number of events involved and the number of participants in the seminar your task will be to produce, as part of a group, an article on one of the events.
This will include contacting an institution, gathering and researching information, structuring and writing the article well as formatting and preparing the final layout. Students who are interested in registering for this course have to make an appointment with Prof. Seminar : Regular attendance; active participation; thorough preparation of the primary and secondary material; producing an article for the programme by the end of July ! British Drama of the s and s [Master ]. The fifties and sixties of the twentieth century were decades in which British drama underwent a profound change.
The plays written and performed in these years broke with traditions and conventions and constituted a new kind of drama that still influences today's playwrights. The seminar's aim is to look at some of the most influential plays and playwrights and to place them in their historical and cultural contexts. We will also have a closer look at the change of plot structures and dramatic conventions which took place during these years. A familiarity with the key terms of drama analysis will be expected. The Powerpoint Presentations will be made available on blackboard.
Bachelor students : Regular attendance; successful completion of the test in last session. Master students : Regular attendance; successful completion of a slightly extended test in last session. Proceeding in this manner we shall not only be looking at some of the main themes and issues addressed in the play politics, rhetorics, performativity, gender, rule etc but will also discuss aspects such as genre, staging and language.
Brian Parker. The Oxford Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford UP, Some of the genres, styles and aspects we will discuss are: different kinds and forms of the sonnet, Petrarchism, Anti-Petrarchism, Metaphysical poetry, religious poetry, Cavalier Poetry, pastoral, satirical and neo-classicist poetry. Seminar : Regular attendance; active participation; thorough preparation of the primary and secondary material; term paper pages to be handed in by 1 April Introduction to Narratological Key Concepts [Master ].
In this course we will familiarize ourselves with the main concepts and terms of structuralist narratology. The aim of the course is to be able to define, analyse and apply narratological concepts and terms in the analysis of narrative fiction. Even though all the material will be made available on Blackboard I recommend you obtain the following book:. Questions of genre, ideology, cosmologies, dramaturgy and staging will be addressed as well as the main themes and issues that are negotiated in the plays.
Although the plot of each play will be briefly summarized at the beginning of each lecture a general familiarity with at least some of the plays is expected. This research-seminar will serve two main purposes: to enable us to familiarize ourselves with some of the main theories on urban space and to investigate the specific ways in which early modern plays present the City of London. We will be asking questions such as:. The material for the course will be uploaded on Blackboard.
Please check my homepage for updated information! Seminar : Regular attendance; active participation; thorough preparation of the primary and secondary material; term paper pages to be handed in by 15 September Proceeding in this manner we shall not only be looking at some of the main themes and issues addressed in the play concepts of love, performativity, gender, kingship but will also discuss aspects such as genre, staging and language.
The theories and approaches discussed will include formalism, structuralism, deconstruction, Marxism, new historicism, cultural materialism, psychoanalytic criticism, gender studies, queer theory and postcolonial theory. The Powerpoint presentations will be made available on blackboard.
Master students : Regular attendance; successful completion of slightly extended test in last session. London in Early Modern Literature [Master]. This seminar deals with early modern literary texts on London. We shall be looking at a play, a prose text, civic pageantry, a pamphlet and a satirical poem. One of the aims of the seminar is to look at the different ways early modern urbanity is presented, discussed and assessed. The following texts will be discussed in this order :.
All these texts and the secondary literature are uploaded on Blackboard for password please contact my secretary or my assistants under annette. As we will begin with Eastward Ho! Selected Plays by Thomas Middleton [Master]. Thomas Middleton was one of the most prolific authors in the early 17th century. He wrote plays, civic pageantry, masques, pamphlets and poems and collaborated with a wide range of authors. In this seminar we shall be looking at four of his plays and familiarize ourselves with some of the themes, ideas and discourses Middleton engaged with in his time.
In analyzing the plays we will also consider questions of genre, urbanity and style. A basic knowledge of the terms and concepts in analyzing drama is expected. This is by far the best edition, but also quite voluminous and expensive ca. I therefore do not expect you to buy this volume.
The password needed to open the files can be obtained from my secretary or my assistants under annette. As we will start with The Roaring Girl , please make sure to have read the play by the first session! In the seminar we shall be looking at selected works by Oscar Wilde within the social and historical contexts of the Victorian Age Students are kindly asked to have read The Picture of Dorian Gray by the first session!
Attention : There will be no sessions on the 13th and 20th of December! The material and assignments for the missed sessions will be uploaded on blackboard. The lecture will attempt to provide the students with an overview of the main poetic genres of the English Renaissance The first sessions will sketch the cultural, historical and economic background of the period and thereby prepare the ground for an engagement with poetic genres such as the sonnet, the epic, the epyllion and the satire, to name only a few.
Each session will also focus on one particular poem or passages from it in order to illustrate some of the discussed features. Course Requirements: Bachelor students : Regular attendance; successful completion of quiz in last session. Master students : Regular attendance; successful completion of slightly extended quiz in last session. In this course we will take a closer look at Shakespeare's romances, a hybrid genre, containing features of tragedy and comedy. These Jacobean plays which were all written between and toward the end of Shakespeare's career differ decidedly from the playwright's previous plays in their use of supernatural, magical, musical, masque- and pastoral elements.
We will devote approximately 3 sessions to each play which will allow us to analyze some of these elements in more detail. In every session we will also try to allow some time for reading parts of the plays, willingness to partake in these readings is therefore expected. As we will begin with Pericles it is absolutely necessary that you will have read this play by the first session.
I recommend any of the standard editions of the plays Arden, Oxford, Cambridge, Studienausgabe , preferably in the latest editions. Seminar : Regular attendance; active participation; preparation of primary and secondary texts for each session; short presentation; term paper to be written in either English or German 15 to 20 pages; to be handed in by 1 April Compared with Ian McEwan, who almost churns out a new book every year, Graham Swift is not a very prolific and a much less public writer.
Swift rose to fame with his third novel, Waterland, which is a clever metafictional engagement with the narrative construction of history and identity. His later novels seem to be much more traditional, and some would even say conventional. Last Orders for example was regarded by some critics as a novel celebrating male camaraderie and propagating a nostalgic view of England. Out of this World and Tomorrow feature female narrators whose outlook and ideological set up is quite at odds with Swift's previous interest in postmodernist techniques.
In this seminar we shall look at some of these issues and the interesting contradictions in the writer's narrative style. We will begin with Out of this World , so please make sure to have read this novel by the first session. All of the novels are easily available in paperback editions Picador, Vintage.
Reading Hamlet [BA]. Proceeding in this manner we shall not only be able to look at some of the main themes and issues negotiated in the play early modern subjectivity, kingship, performativity, power, authority, gender etc but also attain a better understanding of Shakespeare dramatic and linguistic strategies. I strongly suggest that everyone use the Deutsch-Englische Studienausgabe of the play published with the Stauffenburg Verlag Ed.
This edition offers not only very good notes and collations but also a literal translation of the playtext and an extensive, insightful scene by scene commentary. British drama of the 20th century is characterized by a variety of trends and genres that distinguishes this period clearly from previous epochs. The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview over the most important developments that took place on the British stage s.
We will begin with late Victorian drama and move on to George Bernard Shaw, Edwardian plays, the political theatre of the s, modernist drama, the well-made play and verse drama, the "New English Drama" of the s and s, the theatre of the absurd, farce, the political drama of the s and s, feminist theatre, metadrama, in-yer-face theatre, documentary theatre, Irish theatre and lastly some of the current dramatic and theatrical trends.
The main aim "Arbeitsauftrag" of this seminar will be to assist this production dramaturgically. Our task will therefore be to supply the creative team and the actors with the necessary cultural, historical and literary contexts they need to transfer the play from the page to the stage. In more concrete terms this will include, among other things:. Also, as we go along there will be a regular exchange between THE EDNAS and our seminar to make sure that both sides of this joint venture will keep pursuing the same end. It is absolutely necessary for all students to have read The Tempest by the first session.
We will use the following edition: William Shakespeare. The Tempest — Der Sturm. Englisch-Deutsche Studienausgabe. Margarete and Ulrich Suerbaum. New edition in print; copies to be ordered through me! Shakespeare's two tetralogies consist of eight history plays that cover the struggle between the Houses of York and Lancaster for the English crown between and Shakespeare thus first dealt with the ending of the wars and then covered the beginning. This is the second of two seminars covering the tetralogies and we will mainly focus on the changing concepts of kingship, power and politics, but also on concepts of national and personal identity, ethnicity and gender.
We will also trace and discuss Shakespeare's changing dramaturgy as regards plot development, characterization and language. All students are expected to have read Richard II by the first session. Course Requirements: Regular attendance; active participation; preparation of primary and secondary texts for each session; hosting of a session; term paper 15 to 20 pages; to be handed in by 15 September In the last 15 years British drama has seen a variety of trends: the explicitness and provocation of "in-yer-face theatre", the political and documentary stance of "verbatim" and "factual theatre", the violence of "cruel theatre" and the rawness of "rough theatre", to name only a few.
In this seminar we will look at selected plays from playwrights that shaped the theatrical landscape in the late s and the new millenium. We will discuss the following plays in this order [Although all texts will be provided as pdf-files on blackboard I would strongly recommend obtaining them in print]:.
All students are expected to have read McPherson's The Weir by the first session. Course Requirements: Regular attendance; active participation; preparation of primary and secondary texts for each session; term paper 10 to 15 pages; to be handed in by 15 September We will mainly focus on aspects relating to the final thesis developing of hypothesis, research, composition, style, time management etc.
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There will not be, however, detailed discussions of individual works or authors of the period. The Tragedies of Christopher Marlowe [Master]. Students are kindly asked to obtain the plays in the New Mermaids series Edward II may be out of print, so you would have to look for another edition OR — which is cheaper but contains fewer annotations and comments — the Oxford World's Classics, which contains all of the plays c.
Course Requirements: As 'Seminar' : regular attendance, active participation, preparation of primary and secondary texts for each session, short presentation "Impulsreferat" , term paper 15 to 20 pages; to be handed in by 1 April Shakespeare's First Tetralogy [Master] Shakespeare's two tetralogies consist of eight history plays that cover the struggle between the Houses of York and Lancaster for the English crown between and In this and the seminar to be held the following term we will mainly focus on the changing concepts of kingship, power and politics, but will also look at concepts of national and personal identity, ethnicity and gender.
All students are expected to have read The first part of Henry VI by the first session. In order to discuss the poems in class it is absolutely necessary that students thoroughly prepare each text. That includes looking up words one does not know and translating the poems into German.