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To prevent this happening, an oxygendiffusion barrier is built into fhe walls of 1 he pipe. Flexible pipes can be bent cold to a m i n i m u m radius o f eight times the pipe diameter. Use a pipe clip at each side of the bend to h o l d the curve, o r use a special corner clamp. It is easy to thread flexible pipe around obstacles o r r u n it under floorboards. It's possible to bend a rigid plastic pipe by heating it gently. Pass the flame of a gas torch over the area that y o u want to bend.

Keep the flame m o v i n g and revolve the pipe. H o l d it still till the plastic hardens again. Wear thick leather gloves when h a n d l i n g hot plasrie. Medium-density polyethylene MDPE T h i s plastic is widely used for underg r o u n d domestic supply pipes. Special adaptor couplings ate needed in order t o connect most types o f plasticpipe to copper or galvanized-steel p l u m b i n g.

To join polyburylcne pipe t o copper, insert a metal support sleeve, then use a standard brass compression joint; o r use a push-fit connector to join copper pipes to a polybutyleue run. Cut and deburr the copper pipe carefully before p u s h i n g it into the joint. CAP-NUT V Push-fit joints When the pipe is inserted, an O - r i n g seals in the water in the n o r m a l way and depending on the model a special plastic grab ring, o r a collet w i t h stainless-steel teeth, grips the tube securely to prevent water under mains pressure forcing the joint apart. J o i n t s fitted w i t h collets can be disconnected easily, but to d i s m a n t l e the l other type o f push-fit joint, it's necessary t o remove the retaining Lap and prise open the grab r i n g , using a special t o o l.

Push-fit joints are more obtrusive than their solvent-welded equivalents - but the speed a n d s i m p l i c i t y w i t h w h i c h you can assemble them more than compensates. Collet-type joints Coltel-lype push-fit joint A different type of joint incorporates a collet that grips the pipe.

C u t the end o f the pipe square, push it intu the socket until it comes up against the internal stop, then p u l l on the pipe to check that the j o i n t is secure. If you need to dismantle a joint, hold the collet in w i t h your fingertips 1 and pull the pipe out o f the socket. J o i n metal pipes the same way, but remove burrs and sharp edges to prevent tearing the O - r i n g. Provide extra grip by slipping a collet clip into the grooved collar 2. Push a metal s u p p o r t sleeve into the pipe 2. If you plan to surfacerun flexible pipes, consider ducting or boxing-in because it's dilficull to make I really neat installation 1 Cut pipe to length 2 Insert metal sleeve Dismantling a joint If you need to dismantle a joint to alter a system, unscrew the cap and p u l l out the pipe.

Slide off the rubber O ring, then prise off the grab ring, using a special d e m o u n t i n g t o o l see fight. Never try to reuse a grab ring. Push the pipe into the joint, using he technique described above. Never ry to assemble the fitting like a oinpression joint, o r it w i l l b l o w out inder pressure. Cutting plastic pipe Polybutylene pipe is easy to cut, using special shears. T h e examples o n the right illustrate c o m m o n methods for connecting plastic waste pipes a n d joints. A s they are assembled, solvent is introduced which dissolves the surfaces of the m a t i n g components.

A s the solvent evaporates, the joints and pipes ate literally fused together into one piece of plastic. Solvent-weld joints are sometimes used for supply pipes, but the technique is more c o m m o n l y employed for waste systems. Solvent-weld joint Solvent cement fuses the joint and pipe into a solid component Joints and fittings As well as the usual types of joint, waste systems also include easy-flow swept bends and lees for efficient drainage.

Compression joint A threaded joint pulls the pipe and fitting together. Types of plastic P l u m b i n g manufacturers nave a w i d e variety of plasties to d r a w u p o n , each w i t h its o w n special characteristics. It is resistant to most domestic chemicals, a n d is n o t affected by ultra-violet light w h e n used o u t d o o r s. It is slightly more flexible than u P V C , w h i c h is used for soil pipes w i t h push-fit a n d solvent-weld joints.

Polypropylene PP A slightly flexible plastic w i t h a somewhat waxy feel, used for waste systems. It's impossible to glue PP, so it is assembled w i t h push-fit joints. It c a n be either sol vent-welded o r compression-jointed. A captive rubber seal in each socket holds the pipe in place and makes rhe joint watertight. K e e p solvents a w a y from children. Y o u need t o key b o t h the outside o f the pipe and the inside of the socket w i t h fine abrasive paper before u s i n g some solvents check the manufacturer's instructions.

Before d i s m a n t l i n g e l b o w s and tees, scratch the pipe a n d joint w i t h a knife 4 , t o help you align them correctly when you reassemble the components. Use a clean rag to wipe the surface of the pipe a n d fitting w ith the r e c o m mended spirit cleaner. Paint solvent evenly o n t o b o t h c o m p o n e n t s S , then immediately push home the socket. Some manufacturers r e c o m m e n d that you twist the joint t o spread the solvent. A l i g n the joint properly a n d leave it for 15 seconds.

T h e pipe is ready for use w i t h c o l d water after an hour, liut d o n ' t pass hot water t h r o u g h the system until at least four hours have elapsed depending o n the manufacturer's recommendations or, preferably, longer. R e p a i r i n g a weeping joint If a joint leaks, leave it to dry out naturally. C u t the pipe to length w i t h a finetooth saw, a l l o w i n g for the depth of the joint socket. Revolve the pipe away f r o m you as you cut it.

S m o o t h the end w i t h a file 2 , Making push-fit joints Cut the pipe t o length and chamfer the end, as for solvent-weld joints. Push the pipe into the joint right up to the stop, and m a r k the edge of the socket on the pipe w i t h a p e n c i l 1. Withdraw the pipe about 9 m m Van 2 , to allow the pipe to e x p a n d when subjected to hot water. Push the pipe into the socket of the trap end tighten the compression nut. Dismantle the joint and check the condition oftho seal. Cisterns F r o m. Before buying, make sure the equipment carries the British Standard ' K i t e m a r k ' o r complies w i t h equivalent E C standards.

Standard low-level cistern M a n y people prefer a cistern mounted on the w a l l just above the W C p a n. A short flush pipe f r o m the base of the cistern connects t o the flushing h o r n o n the rear o f the p a n , while inlet and overflow pipes can be fined to either side o f the cistern. M o s t low-level cisterns are manufacrured from the same virreous china as the W C pan.

C o n c e a l e d cistern A low-level cistern can be completely concealed behind panelling. T h e supply and overflow connections are identical to those o f other types of cistern, but the flushing lever is mounted o n the face o f the panel. These plastic cisterns are utilitarian in characrer, w i t h no concession t o fashion or style, and are therefore relatively inexpensive.

D o n ' t forget that you w i l l need to provide access for servicing. C l o s e - c o u p l e d cisterns A close-coupled cistern is bolted directly to the p a n , forming an integral unit. Both the inlet and overflow connections are made at the base o f the cistern. A n internal standpipe rises vertically from the overflow connection w i t h the pan to protrude above the level o f the water. Low-level cistern This type of cistern is very common. It is made in plastic or glazed ceramic. Compact cistern Very slim plastic cistern, for use where space is limited.

A single-trap p a n has a narrow outlet immediately after the bend, t o slow d o w n the flow o f water f r o m the p a n. A double-trap pan is more sophisticated and exceptionally quiet. A vent pipe connects the space between t w o traps t o the inlet that runs between the cistern and p a n. A s water flows a l o n g the inlet, it sucks air from the trap system t h r o u g h the vent pipe. A v a c u u m is formed between the traps, and a t m o s p h e r i c pressure forces the water in the pan into the soil pipe.

W a s h d o w n pans W a s h d o w n pans w o r k by simple displacement o f waste by fresh water falling from the cistern. T h e y are inherently more reliable than siphonic pans, but make considerably more noise when flushed. Concealed cistern Plastic cistern for hiding behind panelling.

Removing the old pan and cistern Remove the f i x i n g screws t h r o u g h the back o f the c i s t e r n , o r lift it off its support brackets and remove t h e m. If the pan is screwed to a w o o d e n floor, it w i l l probably have a P-trap connected to. Remove the pan's floor-fixing screws and scrape out the o l d putty a r o u n d the pipe joint. Protect your eyes w ith goggles. Work carefully, to preserve the soil pijic.

Smash an S-tr. C h o p out the broken fragments as before, and clean up the floor w i t h a c o l d chisel. Cutting a soil pipe Use a chain-link cuttet to cute hroken soil pipe square. Double-trap siphonic pan Air is sucked out from between the two traps to create a vacuum. W h e n you buy a pushfit pan connector see below , make sure it is l o n g e n o u g h to reach the severed pipe.

Wall-huug pan A waif-mounted pan, connectedlo a concealed cistern, leaves the floor clear tor cleaning. Unless it is built intolhe masonry, the pan is supported by a metal bra cketf stand. Pan to soil-pipe connection Before you install the new suite, choose a push-fit flexible connector t o join the pan to the soil pipe.

There arc connectors to suit most situations, even when the t w o elements are slightly misaligned. You may need an angled connector to join a modern horizontal-outlet pan to an o l d P-trap branch pipe see opposite. W h e n selecting a connector, make a note o f the f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s : the external diameter o f the p a n outlet, the internal diameter o f the soil pipe, and the distance between the outlet and the pipe when the p a n is installed.

T h e shredder will even p u m p vertically, to a m a x i m u m height o f about 4m 12ft. The unit is designed to accept any conventional P-trap W C p a n. It is activated by flushing the cistern, and switches off about 18 seconds later. It must be w i r e d to a fused connection u n i t - via a suitable flex outlet if it is installed in a b a t h r o o m. A W C waste pipe must be connected to the soil stack at least nun Sin above o r below any other waste connections.

Before you install a small-bore waste system, check that these systems are approved by your local water supplier. Fitting and plumbing the suite Push rhe plastic connector o n t o the pan outlet. C h e c k that the inside of the soil pipe is clean and s m o o t h , then slide the pan into place, p u s h i n g the connectot firmly into the pipe. Level the pan o n a bed o f silicone sealant, using scraps o f veneer o r v i n y l floorcovering as p a c k i n g.

T r i m the p a c k i n g flush when the job's complete. You may have to use tap washers as p a c k i n g behind the cistern to provide a clearance for rhe lid. Fit special protective sleeves into the p a n - f i x i n g holes and screw the pan to Plumbing a WC 1 Overflow-pipe connector 2 22mm Kin overflow 3 Cistern 4 Float valve 5 Tap connector G 15mm 14in supply pipe 7 Flush-pipe connector 8 Flush pipe 9 Push-fit flexible connector 10 WC-pan outlet 11 Flexible outlet connector 12 Soil pipe the floor, tightening the screws carefully in rotation t o avoid c r a c k i n g the pan.

Y o u can buy kits that provide all the necessary fixings for fitting W C s. R u n the new 15mm Siri supply pipe to the float valve, fit a tap connector and tighten it w i t h a wrench. D r i l l a hole through the nearest outside w a l l where an overflow is likely to be detected promptly. Slope the pipe a few degrees d o w n w a r d s , and let ir project from the outer face o f the w a l l at least 1. If there isn't an external w a l l nearby, run the pipe t o a combined waste a n d overflow unit o n the b a t h.

Alternatively, fit a t u n d i s h see left and r u n the overflow to the flush pipe o r via a trap t o a d r a i n. T u r n on the water supply and adjust the float valve. Tun dish A special funnel known as atundish allows you 10 detect an overflow from a cistern. Fit a flow restrictor in the pan inlet if splashing water is a problem. When situated ins bathroom, the unit must be wired to a flex outlet. Select the taps at the same time, to ensure that the basin o f your choice has holes at the required spacing to receive the taps - or no holes at all if the taps are to be w a l l - m o u n t e d.

Space lor a basin Allow extra elbow room lor washing hair-a space mm I3fi Sin x mm 2tt 4in should be sufficient. To suit most people, positioo the rim of a basin mm 12ft 8ln from the floor. Pedestal basins The hollow pedestal provides some support for the basin and it conceals the unsightly supply a n d waste pipes. Wall-hung basins Older w a l l - h u n g basins are supported on large screw-fixed brackets, but a modern concealed m o u n t i n g is just as strong provided the w a l l fixings are secure.

Check that you c a n screw into the studs of a timber-frame w a l l or hack off the lath-and-plaster and install a m o u n t i n g b o a r d. If you want to hide pipes, consider some form of panelling. Wall-liung, basin ' Corner basins Handbasius that fit i n t o the corner o f a room arc space-saving, a n d the pipework can be run conveniently t h r o u g h adjacent walls o r concealed by b o x i n g rliem m across the corner.

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A l s o , you can recess a standard basin to conceal the- p l u m b i n g. Cupboards below provide ample storage for towels and toiletries, while also hiding the plumbing. Rising-spindle tap Traditional taps are Tiadewith a rising spindle. W h i l e capstan-head taps are still manufactured for use in period-style bathrooms, most modern taps have a shrouded head made of metal o r plastic.

A lever-head tap turns the water from off to full o n w i t h one quarter turn only. This type is convenient for the elderly or disabled, who may have difficulty in manipulating other taps. In a mixer tap, hot and water c o l d are directed t o a c o m m o n spout. Water is supplied at the desired temperature by adjustment of the two valves. W i t h a single-lever m i x e r tap, flow rate and temperature are controlled by adjusting the one lever. A series of interlinked. Single-lever mixer tap Moving the lever up and down turns the water on and off.

Swinging it from one side to the other gradually increases the temperature, by mixing more hof water with the cold. N o r m a l l y , the body o f the tap which connects the valves and spout rests on the upper surface o f the washbasin. But it is also possible t o m o u n t it in its entirety o n the w a l l above the basin. A n o t h e r alternative is for the valves to be mounted o n the basin and divert hot and c o l d water t o a spout mounted o n the w a l l above.

Tap mechanisms O v e r recent years there have been some revolutionary changes in the design of taps that have made them easier t o operate and simpler to m a i n t a i n. It is a simple, rugged mechanism that lasts for years. N o n - r i s i n g - s p i n d l e taps Theoretically, these taps s h o u l d e x h i b i t fewer problems rhan rising-spindle taps, because the m e c h a n i s m imposes less wear o n the washer.

In p r a c t i c e , however, the spindle's fine thread is prone t o wear, and there is p o t e n t i a l for m i s a l i g n m e n t caused by the circlip that holds the mechanism in place. C e r a m i c - d i s c taps W i t h these taps, precision-ground ceramic discs are used in place o f the t r a d i t i o n a l rubber washer. O n e disc is fixed and the other rotates until the waterways t h r o u g h them align and water flows.

There is m i n i m a l wear, as hard-water scale o r other debris is unlikely t o interfere w i t h the close fit of the discs. However, if a p r o b l e m docs develop, the entire inner cartridge and the lower seal can be replaced. Thesetaps will not work efficiently if they are connected to a low-pressure tank-fed supply.

Non-rising-head tap A spindle that doesn't revolve reduces west on the washer. Apply some penetrating o i l to the tap connectors a n d to the back-nuts that clamp the tap to the basin. W h i l e the oil takes effect, shut off the c o l d and hot water supply t o the taps. If necessary, apply heat w i t h a gas torch to break d o w n the c o r r o s i o n — hut wrap a wet cloth a r o u n d nearby soldered joints, o r y o u may melt the solder.

Take care that you do not damage plasric fittings a n d pipes, a n d protect flammable surfaces w i t h a ceramic tile. T r y not t o play the flame onto a ceramic basin. Remove any fixings h o l d i n g the basin to its support brackets o r pedestal, and lift it f r o m the w a l l. A p p l y penetrating o i l to the brackets' w a l l fixings, in the hope that y o u ' l l be able to remove rhem without damaging the plaster - but as a last resort, lever the brackers off the w a l l. Take care not to break cast-iron fittings, as they can be quite valuable. Slip the plastic washer supplied with the tap onto its tail, then pass the tail through the hole in the basin.

If no washer is supplied, spread some silicone sealant around the top o f the tail and beneath the base of the tap. W i t h the basm resting on its r i m , slip a second washer o n t o the tail then hand-tighten the back-nut t o clamp the tap o n t o the basin 2. C h e c k that the spout faces into the b a s i n , then tighten the back-nut carefully w i t h a cranked spanner see left. Cranked spanners It is not always possible t o engage the nuts with a standard w r e n c h.

Instead, hire a special cranked spanner designed to teach into the confined spaces below a basin o r bath. Y o u can apply extra leverage to the spanner by slipping a stout metal bar or wrench handle into the other end. Removing a stuck tap Even when you have disconnected the pipework and back-nut, you may find that the taps are stuck in place w i t h putty Break the seal by s t r i k i n g the tap tails lightly w i t h a w o o d e n mallet.

Clean the remnants of putty f r o m around the holes m the basin, then fit new taps. If the tap tails arc shorter than the o r i g i n a l s , buy special adaptors designed to take up the gaps. For a pedestal basin see right , place the pedestal in p o s i t i o n , then sit the basin o n it and mark the f i x i n g holes. Lay the basin and pedestal t o one side while you drill and p l u g the holes 4. Releasing a lap connector Use a special cranked spanner to release the fixing nut of a tap connector. There arc various ways o f connecting the boss, one of the simplest being t o c l a m p it w i t h a strap.

M a r k where the basin waste meets the soil pipe, and use a hole saw to cut a hole o f the recommended diameter 1. S m o o t h the edge o f the hole with abrasive paper. Strap the boss over the hole and tighten the bolt 2. Insert the rubber l i n i n g in the boss, in preparation for the waste pipe 3. The basin itself maybe supplied with a rubber strip to seal the joint with the counter top. Typical pipe runs Red: Hoi water Blue: Cold water 1 Cut a hole in the pipe with a hole saw Fitting trap and waste Fit the waste outlet into the b o t t o m of the basin as described for taps, using washers o r a silicone sealant to form a watertight seal.

T h e basin w i l l probably have an integral overflow r u n n i n g t o the waste, in which case ensure that the slot m the waste outlet aligns w i t h the overflow, l ighten the back-nut under the basin, while h o l d i n g the outlet still by g r i p p i n g its grille w i t h pliers.

If you can use the existing waste pipe, connect the trap to the waste outlet and to the end of the pipe. A two-part trap provides some adjustment for a l i g n i n g w i t h the o l d waste pipe. R i m the pipe, w i t h sufficient fall - 6 m m! Fix the waste pipe to the w a l l w i t h saddle clips. They c a n be bent by h a n d t o allow for any slight m i s a l i g n m e n t between the s u p p l y pipes and tap tails, and they arc easy t o fit behind a pedestal.

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Connect the corrugated pipes to the tap tails, leaving them hand-tight only. T h e n run new branch pipework to meet the corrugated pipes, o r connect them to the existing p l u m b i n g. M a k e soldered o r compression joints t o connect the pipes. Use a cranked spanner to tighten ihe tap connectors. T u r n o n the water supply and check the pipes for leaks; i f you need to repair a weeping soldered joint, drain the system.

Pick up runs immediately, a n d w o r k q u i c k l y to keep wet edges fresh. Selecting a bath You can purchase reproduction o r even restored V i c t o r i a n baths in cast iron from specialist suppliers, but they are likely to be expensive, i n practical terms, a cast-iron bath is far too heavy for one person t o handle - even t w o people w o u l d have difficulty c a r r y i n g one to an upstairs b a t h r o o m.

A l s o , while a cast-iron bath c a n look splendid when left freestanding in a r o o m , it may be virtually impossible t o clean behind it, and panelling-iii the curved and often tapering shape is rarely successful. Nowadays, the majority of baths are made from enamelled pressed steel, acrylic or glass-reinforced plastic. T w o people can handle a steel bath w i t h ease, and you could carry a plastic bath on your o w n. A l t h o u g h m o d e m plastic baths are strong and durable, some are harmed by abrasive cleaners, bleach and especially heat.

It is not advisable to use a gas torch near a plastic bath. So far as style and c o l o u r are c o n cerned, there's n o lack o f choice in any material, although the more unusual baths are likely to be made o f plastic. Nearly every bath comes w i t h m a t c h i n g panels, and o p t i o n a l features such as hand grips and dropped sides to make it easier to step in and out.

Taps d o not have to be mounted at the foot o f the bath. M a n y manufacturers offer alternative corner- o r s i d e - i n o i u l t i n g facilities, and some w i l l even cut tap holes to your specification. Y o u can order bath tubs that double as a jacuzzi - but the p l u m b i n g is somewhat complicated, so you w i l l need t o have them professionally installed.

Rectangular bath A standard rectangular bath is still the most p o p u l a r and economical design. Baths vary in size from 1.

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C o r n e r bath A corner bath actually occupies more floor area than a rectangular bath o f the same capacity, but because the tub is turned at an angle to the r o o m it may take up less w a l l space. By virtue o f its design, a corner bath usually provides some shelf space for essential toiletries. Restoring an enamel surface Use a two-part paint system to restore the enamel surface of an old bath. T h e parts need t o be assembled before the bath is fitted into place. Some bath mixers are designed to supply water to a sprayhead, either mounted telephonestyle on the mixer itself or hung from a bracket mounted Dn a wall above the bath.

Removing an old bath Have a s h a l l o w b o w l ready to catch any trapped water, then use a hacksaw to cut through the o l d pipes. The overflow pipe from an o l d bath w i l l almost certainly exit t h r o u g h the w a l l , so saw t h r o u g h the overflow at the same time. If the bath has adjustable feet, lowet them and then push d o w n on the bath to break the mastic seal between the b a t h r o o m walls and the r i m. Pull the bath away from the walls.

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If a cast-iron bath is beyond restoration and therefore worthless, it is easier to break it up i n the bathroom and carry it o u i in pieces. Drape a dust sheet over the b a t h ; then, wearing gloves, goggles and ear protectors, smash it w i t h a heavy hammer. Flack the o l d overflow from the wall with a c o l d chisel, then fill the hole with m o r t a r and repair the plastcrwork. L o w e r the tails t h r o u g h the holes in the r i m , then slip top-hat washers o n t o t h e m and tighten b o t h back-nuts to c l a m p the m i x e r securely to t' Fit a flexible 2 2 m m pipe similar to tho for washbasin taps onto each tail These flexible pipes allow for the easy adjustment that w i l l be necessary if the joints are slightly misaligned.

Alternatively, attach short lengths of standard 2 2 m m Jim copper or plastic pipe w i t h tap connectors, in preparation for jointing to the pipe ran. Compression unii Runs lo the cleaning Bye on the trap. Installing a new bath Either run new 2 2 m m pirn supply pipes or attach spurs to the existing ones, ready for connection ro the flexible pipes already fitted on the bath taps.

Slide your new bath into position a n d adjusl the height o f the feel with a spanner. Adjust the flexible tap pipes and join them to the supply pipes. Connect a 40mm 1 hiii waste pipe to the trap and run it to the external hopper or soil stack, as for a washbasin. Before fixing the bath panels, restore the water supply and check for leaks. Banjo unit Slips over the tail of the waste outlet. Fitting waste and overflow F i l a c o m b i n e d waste and overflow unit to the bath.

A flexible plastic hose takes water f r o m the overflow outlet at the foot o f the bath to the waste outlet o r trap. If y o u use a ' b a n j o ' u n i t , you m u s l fit the overflow before the trap; but the flexible pipe o f a compression-fitting unit connects to the trap itself see left. Spread a layer o f silicone sealant under the r i m of the waste outlet, or f i l a circular rubber seal. Before inserting its tail into the hole in the b o t t o m of the bath, seal the thread w i t h P T F E tape.

O n the underside, add a plastic washer; then tighten the large back-nut, bedding the outlet d o w n onto the sealant or the rubber seal. Wipe off excess sealant. Connect the bath trap see left to the tail of the waste outlet w i t h its o w n compression nut. Fir a banjo overflow unit at the same time. Pass the threaded boss o f the overflow hose through the hole at the foot of the b a t h. Slip a washer seal over the boss, then use a p a i r o f pliers to screw the overflow outlet grille o n. If you're using a compression-fitting overflow, connect the nut located on the other end o f the hose to the cleaning eye of the trap.

Typical lank-led bathroom pipe runs Red: Hot water Blue Cold water. Shallow-seal trap Use this type of trap when space is limited It musl discharge to ayard gully or hopper, not loa soil stack. Improvements in technology have m a d e a v a i l a b l e a v a r i e t y o f powerful, controllable showers. Pressure and flow When c h o o s i n g a shower, it s h o u l d he borne in m i n d that pressure and flow are not the same thing. F o r example, an instantaneous electric shower delivers water at high mains pressure, hut a relatively low flow rate is necessary to allow the water t o heat up as it passes through die shower unit.

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A conventional gravity-fed supply system delivers hot water from a storage cylinder under comparatively low pressure, but often has a fairly high flow rate when measured in litres per minute. A d d i n g a p u m p to this type of system can increase the pressure and flow rare. It is then possible to alter the flow and pressure ratio by fitting an adjustable showerhe. Gravity-fed showers In many homes c o l d water is stored in a t a n k , f r o m which it is fed t o a hotwater c y l i n d e r situated at a lower level.

Provided there is at least one metre-. Jft between the b o t t o m o f the tank and the showerhead, y o u s h o u l d have reasonable flow rate and pressure. If flow a n d pressure are insufficient for a satisfactory shower, it may be possible t o improve the s i t u a t i o n either by r a i s i n g the tank o r by i n s t a l l i n g a p u m p in the system.

Mains-pressure showers Y o u c a n supply some types o f shower directly f r o m the mains. In fact, one of the simplest t o install is an instantaneous electric shower, which is designed for use w i t h mains pressure. A n o t h e r alternative is to install a thermal-store cylinder. Yet another o p t i o n is t o store hot water in an unveiucd cylinder - w h i c h w i l l supply high-pressure water to a shower w i t h o u t the need for a booster pump.

Nowadays showers are often supplied Iroin c o m b i n a t i o n boilers, though these often need to run at full flow to keep the boiler firing properly. Before buying a shower, check w i t h the manufacturer o f your boiler to ascertain whether there's likely to be a problem. The tma I-store cylinder Mains-fed water pauses through a rapid heat exchanger on its way to the shower.

However, there are are a number of screens and plumbing options, which make an over-the-bath showct almost as officiant. If it is not possible t o run the waste pipe between the floor joists or along a w a l l , then you may have t o consider relocating the shower. In some situations it may be necessary t o raise the shower tray on a plinth in order t o gain enough height for the waste pipe to fall slope towards the d r a i n.

A n o t h e r way to overcome the problem is to install a special p u m p to take the waste water away from the shower.


S h o w e r traps W h e n r u n n i n g the waste pipe t o an outside hopper, you c a n fit a convent i o n a l trap - but these are relatively large, which can make for difficulties w h e n i n s t a l l i n g the shower tray. Y o u c o u l d cut a hole in the floor, o r substitute either a smaller, shallow-seal trap or a c o m p a c t trap that includes a removable grid and d i p tube for easy cleaning.

A shower trap that is connected t o a soil stack must have a water seal not less than 5 0 m m 2in deep. T h e easiest s o l u t i o n is t o fit a c o m p a c t trap, which is s h a l l o w enough to fit under most m o d e r n shower trays, bur is designed to provide the necessary water seal. O r you c o u l d fit either a r u n n i n g trap o r a self-scaling valve, as mentioned above. Section through a compact shower trap Thisshowerhead provides a choice of spray panerns Cleaning compact traps Compact traps for showers have a lift-out dip tube for easy cleaning.

I n c o m i n g water is heated w i t h i n the unit, so there is no separate hot-watet supply to balance. T h e shower is thermostatically c o n t r o l l e d to prevent fluctuations i n pressure affecting the water rcmpcratiire - i n fact, it switches off completely i f there is a serious failure o f pressure.

Y o u can even buy an instantaneous shower w i t h a shutd o w n facility: when you switch off, the water continues to flow for a little while t o flush any h o t water out o f the pipework. T h i s ensures that someone stepping i n t o the cubicle immediately after another user isn't subjected to an unexpectedly h o i start to their shower. Thermostatic mixers A thermostatic shower m i x e r is s i m i l a r in design to a m a n u a l m i x e r but it has an extra control incorporated, to preset the water temperature.

If the flow rate d r o p s o n either the hot o r c o l d supply, a thermostatic valve rapidly compensares by reducing the flow o n the other side. This is p r i m a r i l y a safety measure, to prevent the shower user being scalded s h o u l d someone run a c o l d tap elsewhere i n the house. Consequently, you c a n supply a thermostatic shower by means o f branch pipes from the bathr o o m p l u m b i n g — but try to join them as near as possible t o the cold tank and hot cylinder.

T h e m i x e r can't raise the pressure o f the supply, so you still need a booster p u m p if the pressure is low. T h e r m o s t a t i c m i x e r mechanisms are usually based o n wax-filled cartridges or bimetallic strips. Brand-new thermostatic valves respond extremely q u i c k l y to changes o f temperature, but you can expect the rate to slow d o w n as scale gradually builds up inside the mixer.

A t such high temperatures the hot-water ports arc almost fully closed and the cold-water ones almost w i d e o p e n , so there is very little margin for further adjustment. It is connected to the existing 2 2 m m Mitt hot and eold pipes i n the same way as a standard bath mixer, and the bath's waste system takes care of the drainage. O n c e y o u have obtained the right temperature ar the spout by adjusting the h o t and eold valves, yon lift a button o n the m i x e r to divert the water to the spray head v i a a flexible hose.

If the pressure is insufficient, fit a booster p u m p.

Complete Plumbing and Central heating

The electrical circuit A n instantaneous shower requires its o w n circuit from the consumer unit. A ceiling-mounted double-pole switch is connected t o the circuit to turn rhe appliance o n and off. Just looking for a boiler installation? You can get a brand new Worcester Bosch installed at ridiculously low prices from BOXT, in less than seconds, by filling out this form. This includes a branded combi boiler, copper pipework and labour. Prices will increase or decrease depending on the size of your property, and the type of boiler you choose. Electric boilers, whilst popular, are certainly not cost-efficient.

You could end up paying x the amount in your annual energy bills with an electric boiler, when compared with a gas boiler. That includes an existing, pipework, or simply starting from scratch. This is the most important question to answer. It can mean the difference between saving and spending thousands of pounds. Installing new pipework from scratch is time consuming and incredibly costly. You need a whole new central heating system. The pipework for your central heating is already there.

Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 7 to 10 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! The definitive, easy-to-follow guide to plumbing and heating repairs in your home. An extension of the international bestselling Collins Complete DIY Manual, this brand-new edition is packed with user-friendly photos and is fully updated with the latest information about tools, products and regulations.

Whether repairing a leaking tap or installing a new shower, Collins Complete Plumbing and Heating is the indispensable tool to help you get the job done well — and keep costs to a minimum. In Stock.