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Similarly, child-indexed pseudo-classes such as nth-of-type and nth-child may apply to one element but not the other. This represents a change from how style cloning was defined in previous versions of SVG. The following example demonstrates both the consistent and changed style-matching rules. The circle on the left is re-used to draw the circle on the right. The original circle has styles set in various ways:. In the SVG 1. The re-used circle therefore differs from the original in both fill color because it inherits from a different element and stroke color because the complex selector no longer matches.

Previous versions of SVG were not clear about how dynamic pseudo-classes such as :hover should apply to element instances. The shadow tree model requires that all such pseudo-classes are matched independently to the element instance or to its corresponding element , depending on which element the user is interacting with. Because visibility is normally inherited, hiding the use element will often hide the child content, but not necessarily.

Upon hovering or focusing the graphic, the hiding effect is removed. View this example as SVG. User agents that implement those features must ensure that all animations that apply to an element in a referenced document subtree also apply to instances of that element in a use-element shadow tree , as described in this section. Animation effects applied using CSS will be duplicated along with other stylesheet rules, following the procedure specified in the Style Scoping and Inheritance section. All animations within a use-element shadow tree operate in the same document timeline as for the corresponding use element , regardless of whether the referenced element is from the same or an external document.

For animation effects applied using a Web Animations API method [web-animations-1] , if the target of the animation is a corresponding element to an element instance in a shadow tree, the user agent must construct a ShadowAnimation whose source is that Animation object and whose target is the element instance. If there are multiple instances of the element in different trees, then there will be multiple shadow animations, one for each. The user agent must create such a ShadowAnimation for all Web Animations API animations in effect including pending and frozen animations at the time the shadow tree is generated, and for any new animations applied while the shadow tree exists.

The user agent must not create ShadowAnimation objects for CSS animations or animation elements as these are duplicated separately. As part of the interface definition, a ShadowAnimation is read-only, and must reflect any changes to its sourceAnimation. Any attempts to directly apply new animations to a target that is a read-only element instance or pseudo-element within a use-element shadow tree must throw a NoModificationAllowedError.

For each animation element [ svg-animation ] that targets an element in the referenced document subtree , the user agent must ensure that an equivalent animation element is in effect in the use-element shadow tree. If the animation element itself is part of the referenced document subtree, then this happens as a matter of course through the creation of an element instance for the animation element.

Otherwise, the user agent must generate an element instance for the animation element that has the same effect as if it was a node in the shadow tree. The effective document order for these generated animation elements must be the same as the document order for their corresponding elements. In this way, the one-to-one relationship between animation elements and target elements is preserved. This is consistent with how event listeners on a referenced element also listen to events on instances of that element, as described in the section on Event handling in use-element shadow trees.

At the time an instance of an animation element is generated within a shadow tree, if there is an active animation associated with the corresponding element including a frozen animation , and the timing event that initiated that animation would also have initiated the instance if it existed, then the animation for the element instance must be initiated, with its begin time adjusted backwards in the document timeline to match the timing of the corresponding element.

In many cases, the requirements of this section mean that the element instance and its corresponding element will animate synchronously. However, if the animation is triggered by a user interaction event on the targetted element implicitly , then only the element or element instance that receives the interaction event will display the animation. This is a change from previous versions of SVG, which required all animations on the corresponding element to be mirrored, regardless of user interaction, but which did not offer clear guidance for responding to user interactions with the element instances.

The change ensures that interactive animations declared with animation elements behave in the same manner as interactive CSS styles and CSS animations. Element in a use-element shadow tree can both listen for and be the target of DOM events. Event retargetting provides encapsulation, so that the details of the shadow DOM structure are masked when an event bubbles out of the shadow tree and into the light. Event retargeting is new in SVG 2.

It provides consistency with the Shadow DOM specification, with existing implementations, and with the expectations of authors who are only concerned with elements in the main DOM. Any event listeners defined on an element in the referenced graphics must also listen for the same event, at the same capture phase, on each instance of that element in a use-element shadow tree. This includes event listeners assigned using event attributes which would be duplicated as with any other DOM attribute and also event listeners assigned using the addEventListener method.

The user agent must ensure that the list of event listeners for each element instance is synchronized to match its corresponding element.

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An event listener cannot be directly assigned to a read-only element instance in a use-element shadow tree. Any attempt to add an event listener to such an element must throw a NoModificationAllowedError. Events in the use-element shadow tree are dispatched and bubble according to the shadow tree event path and event retargeting algorithm [ DOM ].

This would occur, for example, if focus moved from one element inside the shadow tree to another. Certain other event types are constrained to not propagate outside of the shadow tree in which they were created. In contrast, event listeners that process the event while it is propagating through the shadow tree because the listener has been added to a corresponding element will receive the event with its target pointing to a read-only element instance in the shadow tree. The correspondingElement and correspondingUseElement properties of that element instance can be used to connect it to the modifiable elements in the main DOM.

If the given attribute is not specified, then a true value is assumed.

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When an element is excluded because of conditional processing, it is treated as if it had a used value of none for the display property. Previous versions of SVG included a third conditional processing attribute, requiredFeatures. This was intended to allow authors to provide fallback behavior for user agents that only implemented parts of the SVG specification. Unfortunately, poor specification and implementation of this attribute made it unreliable as a test of feature support.

All others will be bypassed and therefore not rendered. For more information and an example, see Embedding foreign object types. Language extensions are capabilities within a user agent that go beyond the feature set defined in this specification. Each extension is identified by an URL reference. The value is a list of URL reference s which identify the required extensions, with the individual values separated by white space.

Determines whether all of the named extensions are supported by the user agent. If all of the given extensions are supported, then the attribute evaluates to true; otherwise, the current element and its children are skipped and thus will not be rendered. If a given URL reference contains white space within itself, that white space must be escaped. If the attribute is not present, then it implicitly evaluates to "true".

Evaluates to "true" if one of the language tags indicated by user preferences is a case-insensitive match of one of the language tags given in the value of this parameter, or if one of the language tags indicated by user preferences is a case-insensitive prefix of one of the language tags given in the value of this parameter such that the first tag character following the prefix is "-".

Note: This use of a prefix matching rule does not imply that language tags are assigned to languages in such a way that it is always true that if a user understands a language with a certain tag, then this user will also understand all languages with tags for which this tag is a prefix. Implementation note: When making the choice of linguistic preference available to the user, implementers should take into account the fact that users are not familiar with the details of language matching as described above, and should provide appropriate guidance.

As an example, users may assume that on selecting "en-gb", they will be served any kind of English document if British English is not available. The user interface for setting user preferences should guide the user to add "en" to get the best matching behavior. Multiple languages may be listed for content that is intended for multiple audiences. For example, content that is presented simultaneously in the original Maori and English versions, would call for:.


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An example would be a beginner's language primer, such as "A First Lesson in Latin," which is clearly intended to be used by an English-literate audience. Adding 'lang' resolved at Rigi Kaltbad face-to-face. Removed text that limited number of 'desc' and 'title' elements. The user agent must select the element of each type whose language best matches language preferences set by the user.

A descriptive element with an empty-string language tag indicating no language, for example a text alternative consisting of emoji symbols is a lowest-priority match for any user, ranked below all user-specified language preferences. If multiple equally valid matches exist, the first match should be used.

If no match exists for either 'title' or 'desc', the first element of that type must be selected. The following example shows alternative language titles on a re-used star icon, inline in an HTML document. The example assumes that the HTML document as a whole has a correctly-declared language of en English without a specified country code. The first title element inherits the language of the document en ; the others have explicitly-declared languages for each element. If the user's preferred language out of those provided is American English, the icon title is the American spelling "Favorite".

If the user's preferred language is Dutch, the icon title is "Favoriet".


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If the user's preference list includes generic English ranked higher than Dutch, the title is "Favourite" with British spelling. If the user does not understand either Dutch or English, the title will be the star symbol character—which is not ideal most screen readers will read it as a localized version of "black star" , but better than no text alternative at all. Authors should be aware that SVG 1.

SVG 1. Inclusion of any 'title' or 'desc' elements as a direct child of a rendered element indicates that the rendered element is of semantic importance in the graphic. Authors should not, and SVG generators must not, include empty 'title' or 'desc' elements with no text content or whitespace-only text content, as this will result in a nameless object being presented to assistive technology users. If an individual graphic element has no meaning on its own, alternative text should instead be provided for the nearest container element that describes a meaningful object.

Conversely, if a container object is used simply to apply styles or layout, and neither defines an object nor provides meaningful grouping structure, it does not need alternative text. Descriptive text elements whose parent is not rendered may be used by authors or authoring tools as reference information; authors are warned that this data is not normally available to end users viewing the graphic through assistive technologies. Nonetheless, a non-rendered element may be referenced as part of the accessible name or description of a rendered element as defined in SVG-AAM , and the recursive computation will use descriptive child elements of the referenced element.

Description and title elements may contain marked-up text from other namespaces, using standard XML mechanisms to indicate the namespace. However, authors should not rely on such markup to provide meaning to alternative text; only the plain text content is currently required to be exposed to assistive technologies. On a link, this could be the title or a description of the target resource; on an image or drawing object, it could be a short description of the graphic; on interactive content, it could be a label for, or instructions for, use of the element; and so forth.

Since users often consult documents out of context, authors should provide context-rich titles. Thus, instead of a title such as "Introduction", which doesn't provide much contextual background, authors should supply a title such as "Introduction to Medieval Bee-Keeping" instead. However, this is typically done through other means than the tooltips used for nested SVG and graphics elements, e. This is typically exposed to assistive technologies to provide more detailed information, such as a description of the visual appearance of a graphic or help to explain the functionality of a complex widget.

It is not typically available to other users, so should not be used for essential instructions. SVG 2 removes the recommendation to structure metadata elements in any particular way. Here is an example of how metadata can be included in an SVG document. The example uses the Dublin Core version 1.

Note that the base element will affect all URL values in the document, including e. However, when processing URL references to identify a specific target element, the user agent must always compare the generated absolute URL against the current document base URL to determine whether it is a same-document URL reference. In this way, target-fragment only references to elements in the same document remain valid, regardless of any changes to the document base URL.

In general, the SVG user agent must include the unknown foreign-namespaced elements in the DOM but will ignore and exclude them for rendering purposes. Also see the handling of unknown elements in the SVG namespace, which are treated differently. Authors should be aware that unknown namespaced elements and attributes will not be parsed as such by the HTML parser.


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  8. Instead, the namespace prefix will be included in the tag or attribute name, elements will be placed in the parent element namespace and attributes in the default namespace. For example, a business graphics authoring application might want to include some private data within an SVG document so that it could properly reassemble the chart a pie chart in this case upon reading it back in:. Valid XML 1. If these attributes are omitted from an element, then the language of this element is the same as the language of its parent element, if any.

    Its value must be a valid BCP 47 language tag, or the empty string. Setting the attribute to the empty string indicates that the primary language is unknown. Deprecated XML attribute to specify whether white space is preserved in character data. The only possible values are the strings 'default' and 'preserve' , without white space.

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    New content should use the white-space property instead. This content attribute allows authors to control whether an element is focusable, whether it is supposed to be reachable using sequential focus navigation , and what is to be the relative order of the element for the purposes of sequential focus navigation. The name "tab index" comes from the common use of the "tab" key to navigate through the focusable elements.

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    The term "tabbing" refers to moving forward through the focusable elements that can be reached using sequential focus navigation. All SVG elements support custom data attributes , which are those in no namespace whose names begin with the string "data-". See the requirements for custom data attributes in the HTML specification. Any renderable element may have an ARIA role attribute specified; the role attribute is ignored on non-rendered elements. The attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a set of space-separated tokens representing the various WAI-ARIA roles that the element belongs to.

    These tokens are role values defined in Definition of Roles [ wai-aria ], section 5. A valid role is a recognized, non-abstract role that is allowed for the element type. The role value is a set of white-space separated machine-extractable semantic information used to define the purpose of the element. To be valid and useful, many element roles require additional information to be provided in the form of an accessible name or explicit state and property values. The requirements for each role are indicated where the role is defined, e.

    The attributes are animatable; if animation is used to change the state of the graphic, or to change its content in a way that alters the correct alternative text description, the same method of animation should be used to update the corresponding ARIA state or property attribute. They are not always meaningful, however, and in such cases user agents might not perform any processing aside from including them in the DOM.

    For many graphics elements, an implicit role is only assigned if the author provides information that indicates semantic importance. The complete inclusion criteria for the accessibility tree are defined by the SVG Accessibility API Mappings specification for user agents [ svg-aam For authors, the preferred means of indicating semantic importance is to provide an accessible name for the element.

    Authors should use one of these methods to provide an accessible name for any content that is essential to the comprehension of the SVG, and especially for any interactive content. The first DOM hierarchy will be for the referencing document e. This attribute is deprecated, and may be removed in a future SVG specification. Authors are encouraged to use the documentElement attribute on Document instead.

    The x , y , width and height IDL attributes reflect the computed values of the x , y , width and height properties and their corresponding presentation attributes, respectively. The currentScale and currentTranslate IDL attributes represent the transform applied to the document in response to user magnification and panning operations, as described under Magnification and panning. The document's magnification and panning transform is a 2x3 matrix of the form [currentScale 0 0 currentScale currentTranslate.

    On getting currentScale , the following steps are run:. On setting currentScale , the following steps are run:. See the rules for assigning to a DOMPoint for how modifying the current translate point object affects the document's magnification and panning transform. Whenever the document's magnification and panning transform changes in response to user interaction or whenever the outermost svg element changes, the following steps are run:. Regardless of the value of that attribute, the current scale and translation can be changed by modifying currentScale and currentTranslate.

    The suspendRedraw , unsuspendRedraw , unsuspendRedrawAll and forceRedraw methods are all deprecated and defined to have no effect. When the suspendRedraw method is called, it must return 1. The getIntersectionList , getEnclosureList , checkIntersection and checkEnclosure methods are used to perform geometry operations on graphics elements to find those whose or check whether their graphical content lies partially or completely within a given rectangle.