Piano works for 2 or 4 hands Sonatas and single-movement works. Works for multiple voices with piano accompaniment, or unaccompanied. Folksong arrangements for one or more voices, with piano trio accompaniment. These are works from the Appendix Anhang in German of Kinsky's catalog that were attributed to Beethoven at the time the catalog was compiled, but might not have been written by him. These works have numbers that were assigned by Willy Hess.
Many of the works in the Hess catalog also have WoO numbers; those entries are not listed here. Beethoven, caricatured by J. See also: Catalogues of Beethoven compositions. Performed by the U. Marine Band. Performed by Kevin MacLeod. Arrangement of Bach's fugue. Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 5 February What becomes increasingly clear is that Mozart exploited a myriad of sources in creating his body of works, but the most prominent of these, and also the most commonly cited and discussed, was Franz Josef Haydn, Michael Haydn's elder brother.
Haydn's 'influence' on Mozart has been well documented and established. Yet, what is curious is that nothing more has been made of Mozart's overt and habitual imitation of the older master's works other than to say that Mozart admired and respected him. So frequently did Mozart express his 'admiration', and such was the degree of closeness between his works and Haydn's, both musically and chronologically, that one must wonder if Haydn was more annoyed and frustrated than flattered by these events, and if Mozart's intentions were other than virtuous.
A closer look at some of Mozart's symphonies and chamber music over the course of his career reveal the nature of this copying. As an example from his formative years there is the Symphony no. Heartz notes that "It is highly unusual for Mozart to make the modulation so quickly", and further observes "something else unusual about this second theme besides its metrical quirks. It resembles in several particulars the opening of Joseph Haydn's brilliant Symphony No. Known for his intellectual and witty humour a quality that was to come to the fore in his later works, particularly the op.
Mozart's imitation of this opening was clearly deliberate, and, as Heartz further contends, "The passages are too close to be explained by coincidence or fortuity" Subsequently, Mozart composed his first symphony in a minor key, the Symphony no. The first movement of Mozart's symphony, Allegro con brio, begins with a first subject consisting of four semibreves, G D Eb F , played by the oboes and the violins in syncopation with the bass.
It has been noted that "The use of this kind of 'pound-note' subject is certainly central to Haydn's minor-mode works of the late s and early s" Heartz Mozart then follows this subject with a repeated turn figure, and again we note that "the figure itself occurs twice as a climactic shudder at the very end of Haydn's Symphony No. Mozart ends his first group with V of g, then plunges without further ado into the relative major for the second.
So does Haydn in both outer movements of his Symphony No. But the similarities do not end there. Mozart affirms the new key of Bb major by canonic imitation between violins I and II, and continues this canonic discourse into the development section, something found time and again in the works of Haydn, who was fond of utilizing canonic dialogue in his development sections throughout his life Heartz Then, in the Symphony's third and fourth movements, a Menuetto and Allegro finale respectively, Mozart breaks with tonal convention by setting the Menuetto in a minor key and the trio in the major to provide temporary release, whilst the finale ends in g minor.
However this key structure was not of Mozart's invention. The use of a minor key for the last two movements of a symphony "was virtually non-existent in the mid-eighteenth century", but it was a practice that Haydn employed in his minor-key symphonies of the s and s, right down to the setting of the trio in a major key for momentary contrast.
The similarity has prompted Heartz to question, "Would Mozart have created such a serious work in the minor mode were it not for Haydn's similar works? Probably not" Many have also heard Haydn in the second and third movements of Mozart's Symphony no. Mozart's last three symphonies, written in and widely considered to be the crowning achievement of his symphonic output, also denoted a new departure in his style. But it was a departure that was once again instigated from without. Their correspondence with Haydn's 'Paris' Symphonies nos. Joannis de Deo c.
Haydn's Symphonies nos. The correspondence between Haydn's Symphony no. However, in the other two symphonies the similarities are more than superficial. The second movement of the Symphony no. Regarding the Eb major Symphonies, both begin with a slow introduction and include a minuet third movement with "exaggeratedly regular phrasing patterns". In the Mozart, the music following the slow introduction also reflects Haydn's Symphony no. It is no small wonder that scholars have looked at Mozart's symphonic works from the s and conceded that, "In general, Mozart's music absorbed some of the argumentative features of Haydn's style, obviously evident in Mozart's increasing interest in monothematic sonata form in the second half of the decade" Landon and Jones The same derivative pattern is to be found in Mozart's chamber music, in particular, in his attempts in the string quartet genre.
In and , Haydn published two sets of string quartets, his op. Each set comprised six quartets, each in different keys and with four movements, the third movements being minuets and trios, with one movement in the minor mode and another a theme and variations. Within two months of their publication, Mozart wrote his own set of string quartets that followed this same scheme in every particular.
He further drew on Haydn's most recent quartets composed in and subsequently published as op. Even more audaciously, in his Quartet in F major K. Unlike Haydn's quartets, however, Mozart's failed to bring him acclaim and were not published Heartz When Mozart again attempted a series of string quartets in the early-to-mids he modelled them on Haydn's newly published op.
This time, however, he openly acknowledged the source of his material by dedicating them to the older composer, also noting that their composition had been difficult and lengthy for him. Consequently known as the 'Haydn' string quartets, their similarities with Haydn's op. Mozart's last two string quintets K. Moreover, Mozart's quintets betray "telling thematic resemblances" with Haydn's Quartets in D and Eb major and certain other of his works Landon and Jones The quintet K. Its opening movement, which one writer labelled "'a bad arrangement of a wind piece in mock-Haydn style'" Cavett-Dunsby , is highly and unusually motivic, the slow second movement evokes the corresponding movement of Haydn's Symphony no.
The theme of the quintet K. Some commentators have called K. Indeed, Mozart's inclusion of a dedication to Haydn on a single occasion in his 'Haydn' string quartets does not vindicate or convincingly explain his earlier or subsequent appropriations, nor is it proof of a life-long admiration for the composer as many have surmised. If one subscribes to that line of reasoning that equates borrowing with admiration, one would then logically have to conclude that Mozart admired many different composers over his lifetime — a notion that does not resonate with what is known about his character and disposition.
In fact, his history of multifarious borrowings is in itself unequivocally indicative of a lack of originality and true creativity. This is not the practice of a talented composer endowed with musical genius, especially as Mozart did not, in the majority of cases, use these 'influences' as a springboard to create his own individual expression. To emulate or borrow from the music of another composer once, even twice or three times, might be considered an homage, but to do so repeatedly, not just from one but from many different composers, cannot be considered anything but plagiarism, and in plagiarizing from Haydn, Mozart knew he was taking from the very best the musical world had to offer at that time.
As such, Mozart's competence as a composer is necessarily disputable, and one is forced to question the quality of his output. It has been observed that Mozart's church music of the Salzburg period "is full of internal contradictions", and that much of it "appears to juxtapose the serious and the deeply felt with the flippant and the superficial". This incongruity has been attributed to Mozart's antipathy towards his employer, the archbishop Colloredo, and his "ambivalence toward Church dogma", which supposedly manifested itself in an inconsistent and eclectic output motivated by retaliation.
It has been argued that Mozart "quite often allows the effect of a work to be marred in one way or another, almost as though he cannot resist the impulse to mock his employer, even though it may mean spoiling his own creation". Yet, the explanation does not ring true for many reasons. A true artist would not intentionally and repeatedly ruin his work for the sake of getting back at someone — to do so would be incredibly childish and stupid, not to mention unpropitious, especially if, as in Mozart's case, the security of his post was dependent upon him providing suitable and acceptable music that satisfactorily fulfilled the stipulated requirements.
Moreover, given that Colloredo was the only one willing to employ him, regardless of his feelings towards the archbishop, Mozart simply did not have the luxury to indulge in antics of this sort, and, indeed, the contradictions in his music are rather better explained by the adage, "Do not ascribe to malice that which is adequately explained by incompetence". Certainly there were those amongst his contemporaries and subsequent generations who viewed Mozart as incompetent, and various other instances in his works and career that strongly suggest the same.
From the beginning, a discerning critic wrote "that his compositions showed such 'early fruit' to be 'more extraordinary than excellent'" Roselli 16 , and this notion of mediocrity was one that would continue to resurface throughout his life. Upon hearing his quartet K. Mozart's apparent inability to develop his thematic material was probably symptomatic of this lack of skill.
His treatment of sonata form, characterized by short development sections that are typically devoid of any real development or working out of the material, but are rather brief periods of tonal instability that merely serve to separate the outer two sections, is a case in point. By comparison, the best composers of the period were experimenting with thematic manipulation and development of ideas, something that would be more fully realized in the Romantic period. Mozart's music for the Freemasons has also come under scrutiny for being lack-lustre and ordinary, and various scholars have conceded that "these compositions, 'all but one, never rise above a middling artistic level'; some are 'banal'.
To justify their mediocrity by arguing that the recipients of such music had little or no musical inclination is to not only ignore the fact that many members of the Freemasons were professional musicians, or at least musically cultured, but an attempt to dismiss Mozart's failure to produce music correspondent with his posthumous reputation.
Even in such a work as Ein musikalischer Spass, with its allegedly deliberate musical ineptitude, the parody is neither subtle, intelligent nor witty as in Haydn , but is crude and clumsy, with "unusual bar lengths and tedious strumming on tonic and dominate … instrumental entries which seem to come in too soon or too late, and conspicuous lack of motivic development" Cavett-Dunsby It is the kind of parody to be expected from a musical simpleton, and a work that Einstein called "a negative 'key' to Mozart's whole aesthetic" Cavett-Dunsby Otto Jahn was one of the first important Mozart scholars, and the conditional nature of his observation is important.
What if the incompetence exhibited was not entirely intentional, but only partially so, concealed by the nature of the context? Various aspects concerning the composition of Abduction from the Seraglio seem to indicate that incompetence on Mozart's part had a hand in shaping the final product, and the curiosities noted in John Roselli's account certainly begin to make sense with this in mind.
The opera's librettist was Johann Gottlieb Stephanie, and, on more than one occasion, Mozart demanded that Stephanie rewrite the libretto to accommodate music which he had already composed, a demand which it was Stephanie's prerogative to refuse, and one which should not have been necessary for someone of Mozart's reputed ability.
Roselli states that, "It was almost certainly [Mozart] who demanded a lavish quartet as the new Act 2 finale; the quartet, marvellous in itself, put in the shade the climax of the story in Act 3 — the failed abduction itself, now reduced to speech" That Mozart should have composed the music first without apparent consideration for the words is strange, especially given that the words are what define the plot, and the plot is the central feature of an opera — without it, there can be no opera.
Moreover, the fact that Mozart's quartet diminished and overshadowed the climax is an absurd and critical error, which shows in no uncertain terms not only an utter lack of appreciation for the dynamics of the story, but also that he lacked the ability to bring forth that story in an effective musical sense — a shortcoming already observed in La finta giardiniera.
One can only surmise that Mozart adopted this practice because he could not compose to suit the libretto, and perhaps even had to procure parts of the music from other sources. Aside from arrogance, it offers the most likely explanation for his subsequently unreasonable and inappropriate interactions with his librettists. A case in point: following Seraglio, he commenced on another opera with Varesco, to which Mozart demanded, "if the opera was to succeed Varesco 'must alter or recast the libretto as much and as often as I wish'".
As it turned out, however, Mozart eventually gave up on the work Roselli In terms of Seraglio's arias, Mozart composed a coloratura aria 'Martern aller Arten' for the heroine, Konstanze, in quick succession to her aria of sorrow, and prefaced it with a ritornello 60 measures in length, during which time "she and her captor who has just threatened her with torture have to stand glaring at one another" — inducing an unnecessary and ill-timed suspension of the drama. Whilst Roselli states that the reason behind this may have been to accommodate the singer, he further contends "A more fundamental reason for his writing 'too many notes' in 'Martern aller Arten' and elsewhere was sheer delight in the orchestra", and that "In Seraglio music-making at times got out of hand" It could otherwise be argued that a true artistic talent would have shown greater sensitivity to the other components of the opera and behaved more responsibly, and that it was incompetence rather than zeal which produced the work's shortcomings.
Mozart's attempt to compose for Der Schauspieldirektor The Impresario in , to another libretto by Stephanie, is yet another telling incident. The opera was to be presented at court together with one by Salieri, the plot of which similarly involved rivalries amongst operatic artists. But, where Salieri was able to deliver a successful score, "All Mozart could get out of his was a sparkling overture, two mock-display arias, and a brisk little trio" Roselli It has been postulated that Mozart had the poorer libretto to work with, but his failure was more likely a reflection of the disparity between himself and Salieri, the latter being an accomplished composer, even by modern standards, who was much more successful.
Then, in his penultimate year, Mozart composed an opera that surpassed the level of disfavour with which Don Giovanni and Figaro were received, and which, with its middling musical score, was accepted "as a routine comic opera" and nothing more — Cosi fan tutte Roselli Criticized for being degrading to women, censure and derision of the opera from both musicians and the public continued well into the nineteenth century, as did the poor opinion of the music; Wagner himself considered it no better than mediocre Roselli Only in recent times have attempts been made to revive it.
Thus, far from being a compositional genius and creative force, one is left with the undeniable impression of Mozart as rather a master of appropriation and imitation, and a musical hack, who was guilty of fraud and deception. The doubtful might well ask if Mozart was indeed capable of this, and if it was even in keeping with his character, and the answer to this is most definitely 'yes'. Mozart's boorish and vulgar nature is a little-known fact amongst the public at large, and one that is seldom publicized or mentioned even within musical circles.
It was this crude demeanour that Milos Forman aptly captured in the film, Amadeus, though, judging by all accounts, his portrayal of the composer was a somewhat watered-down version of his real personality. However, Mozart's questionable character extends beyond him simply being a lout. There is ample evidence that he was morally corrupt, untruthful, lazy, unreliable, irresponsible, arrogant and a generally unsavoury person.
List of compositions by Ludwig van Beethoven
Mozart was not always truthful in his letters to friends and family, and it is known that on more than one occasion he deliberately misled his own father about his activities and lied about how many works he had composed to conceal his idleness. Leopold frequently had need to reproach his son on various counts throughout his life, including Mozart's negligence and thoughtlessness, and whilst his remonstrances have in the past garnered negative criticism, it has now been acknowledged that "There is evidence that … Leopold was right" and fully justified in his treatment of his son.
In many of his letters, Leopold repeatedly had to urge his son to make the effort to secure employment, instead of whiling away his time on pleasure and frivolous pursuits. After his tour to Munich in , it had been decided that Mozart should go on to Paris where the opportunities were probably greater, but, instead, Mozart informed his father that he was going to follow the Weber family in pursuit of their daughter Aloysia, who neither cared for him and was otherwise engaged.
Leopold warned him about their financial straits and the need to be hard working, and in response Mozart penned a thoughtless letter, "Half of it nonsense greetings to the whole alphabet" Roselli Then, in a subsequent letter to his father, Mozart back-pedalled, stating that he had never intended to follow the Webers, and eventually did go to Paris.
However, "There he failed. His failure was professional and social". Quite simply, Mozart refused to do what was required to find a post. There was apparently some talk of a possible position as court organist at Versailles, but such was his arrogance and sense of self-importance that "he would have none of it: he must be court composer or nothing" Roselli 33, In Paris, Mozart was reliant upon the hospitality of an old patron of the family, Baron Melchior Grimm, who provided him with house and board. He too disapproved of Mozart's conduct, and, when Mozart began to quarrel frequently with him, effectively "bundled him out of Paris".
This was upsetting, but certainly not surprising, to Leopold, who was well aware of his son's flaws. In he wrote that his son was "far too patient, or rather easygoing, too indolent, perhaps even too proud, in short, that he is the sum total of all those traits which render a man inactive", and that "if he is not actually in want … becomes indolent and lazy" Roselli 28, After the Paris failure Mozart was to return to Salzburg, where his duties in service of the archbishop awaited him. But, against his father's wishes once more, Mozart went to Nancy, Strasbourg and then to Mannheim, in the hopes of running into the Webers who had by then already left.
Among extant works, therefore, candidates for the London concerts comprise only three symphonies: K. England was known in the eighteenth century for the enthusiasm with which it received continental musicians and the extravagance with which it rewarded them. The Italians exalt music; the French enliven it; the Germans strive after it; the English pay for it well.
His correspondence reveals that Leopold Mozart understood this situation and strove successfully to take advantage of it. In the end he was offered a post in England, but chose not to accept because he wished his children to live in a Catholic country. Be that as it may, Leopold must have departed England satisfied with the attention given him and his precocious children, the considerable sums of money they had earned, the offer of employment, and the letters of introduction to patrons on the Continent.
Perhaps equally valuable, in hindsight, was the fact that his son arrived on the Island the composer of a handful of short harpsichord pieces and left it a year and a quarter later a promising symphonist. I owe this reference to S. See further F. On the very day of our departure the Dutch Envoy drove to our lodgings and was told that we had gone to Canterbury for the races and would then leave England immediately. He turned up at once in Canterbury and implored me at all costs to go to the Hague, as the Princess of Weilburg, sister of the Prince of Orange, was extremely anxious to see this child, about whom she had heard and read so much.
In short, he and everybody talked at me so insistently and the proposal was so attractive that I had to decide to come. The earliest musical results of their detour were concerts in Ghent 5 September , Antwerp 7 or 8 September , The Hague 3 concerts between 12 and 19 September , and Leyden 19 or 20 September. From what is revealed in newspaper announcements, archival documents, and correspondence, none of these concerts involved symphonies, although full details are not known. All the overtures will be from the hand of this young composer, who, never having found his like, has had the approbation of the Courts of Vienna, Versailles, and London.
Music-lovers may confront him with any music at will, and he will play everything at sight. Tickets cost 3 florins per person, for a gentleman with a lady 5. This concert too must have been a success for another, also to involve symphonies, was announced from 17 January By permission, the children of Mr Mozart, Kapellmeister of the orchestra of the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, will have the honour of giving a grand concert on Wednesday, 22 January , at the Oude Doelen at the Hague, at which his little son, 8 years and 11 months of age, and his daughter, aged 14, will play concertos on the harpsichord.
The price of admission is 3 gulden per person, for a gentleman with a lady 1 ducat. Among the works likely to have been performed at these two concerts was the D major symphony, K. This translation and that at n. The wrapper that held the original set of parts for K. Inside the cover Leopold copied the first fifteen bars of the first violin part of K.
The Dutch paper on which Leopold wrote the parts for K. The first movement begins with a fanfare of the kind used for signalling by posthorns or military trumpets, which sounds twice and is never heard again. The movement has the bright timbre that sharp keys impart to the strings.
Like the first movements of K. This movement had its models in certain types of melody originating in Naples and popular in those parts of Europe to which Italian opera had penetrated. Mozart 22 Facsimile: none Editions: GA , xx. By the time of the second of the two orchestral concerts at the Hague, Wolfgang had composed this new work. But Nissen was surely mistaken, for the installation occurred three months after the date on the symphony manuscript.
His reason for connecting K.
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It begins with a tonic pedal in the bass for fourteen bars, in a manner usually associated with the Mannheim symphonists but which originated in Italy 11 and which by could be heard in many parts of western Europe. A contrasting second subject, a dialogue between the first and second violins, is followed by the apparently mandatory theme in the bass instruments accompanied by tremolo in the upper strings. A brief transition section puts the opening idea through the keys of F minor and C minor, returning to the home key shortly after the recapitulation of the second subject, with the rest following essentially as in the exposition.
The G minor Andante, a simple A B A coda, exhibits chromaticism, imitative textures, and occasional stern unisons. Bach Example 3. These remarks apply equally to movements with horns in C. Some but not all of the orchestral horns surviving from the period have crooks enabling them to play in either B flat or C basso or B flat or C alto — that is to say, so that the sounding pitch is either a ninth or an octave below or a second below or at the unison with the written pitch.
Many B flat and C orchestral horn parts of the s and s do not specify which crook was intended, a circumstance suggesting that there may have been some widely understood convention. This is not merely a technical question but an aesthetic one, for the spacing of the chords in the horns and oboes is radically altered by an octave transposition, and the colour imparted to the orchestra by the mellower, low horns is entirely different from that imparted by the more brilliant, high ones.
That Mozart took the spacing of wind chords seriously is shown by not infrequent corrections in his own manuscripts, as well as by the corrections he made to the work of his pupil Thomas Attwood, discussed in Chapter Prior to the s, recordings and performances of B flat and C orchestral works of the middle and late eighteenth century usually used horns at the lower pitch, which accorded well with post-Romantic notions of orchestral horn timbre and technique. That certain horn parts are easy or difficult for modern players is another argument with little validity.
The important point is that little historical evidence has been adduced to support the Landon-Dorati high-horn theory. The shorter any instrument is, the fewer upper partials are readily produced on it. Thus a double-bass viol, for ex ample, can produce many more harmonics than a violin, and, indeed, low instruments in general have potentially greater ranges than high ones.
Competent eighteenth-century composers knew these acoustical verities, and they called for fewer partials in their high horn parts than in their low ones. This is demonstrated for Mozart in the discussion in Chapter 8 of K. This comparison is confirmed by other works: horns in B flat basso in La finta semplice , K. Horns in the Andante of the symphony K. The C alto horns in the other movements of the symphony K. The second horn is written from the third partial upward, and — never written above the first horn — it will seldom exceed the ninth partial except in unison passages and in low-pitched horn parts in which the horns rise briefly above the orchestral texture in high thirds.
By these standards to which there are occasional exceptions , the B flat horns in K. Although the weight of evidence supports this conclusion, there remains one anomaly: if the horns in K. Rychnovsky as W. Mautner trans. Studies in Musicology in Honor of Otto E. Mozart Leipzig, , i. Larsen, H. Serwer and J. Webster eds.
Hereafter cited as Haydn Studies. However S. Concerning possible interpretations of improperly resolved 6—4 chords caused by the bass-line rising above other parts, see J. On the occasion of the installation of the eighteen-year-old William V, Prince of Orange, as Regent of the Netherlands, the ten-y ear-old Mozart composed a suite of pieces for small orchestra and obbligato harpsichord, with the title Galimathias musicum. The Galimathias is a quodlibet, some movements based on tunes known to Wolfgang and his Salzburg compatriots, others on tunes familiar to his Dutch audience. The draft version is in two sections: the one in the Hague is on upright format paper, the other in Paris on oblong paper.
Wolfgang Plath, who doubts that there ever was to be a sinfonia, bases his edition in the NMA on the Donaueschingen version, placing the draft version in an appendix. This is practical, because the draft version is fragmentary whereas the Donaueschingen copy is fully worked out, and also logical, for the Donaueschingen copy, stemming directly from Leopold and Wolfgang, contains a fully authorized version.
But as the former dates from before and the latter from after the installation of the Regent, no source survives to reveal what was performed on 11 March at the court of Orange. The sinfonia movements are on a tiny scale. The opening Allegro is merely a few joyful noises — repeated notes, loud chords, rapid scale passages — in short, a brief fanfare. The D minor Andante in binary form is strangely orchestrated, with the melody in the violas. This works well, but it must be some sort of joke, for orchestral music of the period virtually never gives the melody to an inner part.
Was this movement deleted from the final version of K. It is a tiny, two-part form, with more al fresco horn duets at the beginning of the second section. This movement has the character of an entrata or processional march. Owing to a fortunate accident, a fragment of what may be another symphonic movement survives, on a sheet of music paper inserted into the Divertimento in B flat, K. Apparently needing a bit of paper to finish a movement of K.
The leaf is like paper used in the Symphony in B flat, K.
Einstein, recognizing the earlier character of the inserted leaf, suggested in K 3 that the fragment was intended as an Andante for the Symphony in A minor, K. If this fragment was intended as a symphony andante, then a work in B major seems implied, which was not a possibility. Mozart wrote very few movements in E major at any time in his career.
The fragment remains an enigma. This reconstruction is based on the assumption that he was hearing it in G sharp minor and B major, but was defeated by certain aspects of musical notation he had yet to master. See also W. Deutsch and H. Dengg eds. Hintermaier and G. Walterskirchen eds. But it may also be attributed to favourable reception and success in making money from their concerts. The Amsterdam concerts are better documented than the others. Notices for the first of these appeared in the Amsterdamsche Dingsdagsche Courant from 21 January. The characteristic announcement on the day before the concert is familiar in most of its contents:.
All the overtures will be from the hand of this little composer, who, never having found his like, was the admiration of the Courts of Vienna, Versailles, and London. Music-lovers may submit pieces of music to him at will, which he will perform entirely at sight. The price per person is two florins. Hummel, on the Vygendam. No money will be received at the entrance to the hall. They will play with four hands on one harpsichord.
List of compositions by Ludwig van Beethoven - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
And, referring to the concert in a letter, he also made no mention of an orchestra or symphonies:. It has only fifty-four boxes, and each of the m takes only six persons In his travel diary Leopold noted two Amsterdam musicians named Kreusser. The other movements are entirely unrelated. The orchestral situation at the Hague was more complicated than that at Amsterdam.
Keller, court musician W. Keller, violinist, son of the previous Jan Frederik Weis, court musician Johann Georg Christoph Schetky, cellist and composer Johann Christian Fischer, oboe virtuoso and composer Georg Martin Ulrich, oboist Giovanni Battista Zingoni, singer, composer of symphonies, Court Kapellmeister Francesco Pasquale Ricci, maestro and composer of symphonies Grundlach van Gundelach, double-bass player Jean Boutmy, harpsichordist, composer, organist to the Portugese ambassador Spandau, horn player Major General Wouter Eckhardt, amateur cellist.
The court had two regular ensembles, the Chapel of the House of Orange, which, according to rosters of , , and c. During the period the latter consisted of a dozen instrumentalists and three vocalists. Only four musicians Graaf, Ulrich, Dambach, and Spandau belonged to both groups. The principal duty of the former group was to provide private music for the royal family, while the latter group gave annual series of public concerts.
It seems that members of the Chapel sometimes assisted at the public concerts. If, on the other hand, all the members of both court ensembles were employed and a few amateur string-players added to reinforce the tuttis, the orchestra might have attained a strength of 23 or 24 members, perhaps strings 5 — 5 — 2 — 3 — 2, with the rest as before. Figures for the concert and opera orchestra at the Hague for later dates Table 3. Source : D. William V had a strong musical lineage. The orchestra for these entertainments, supplemented for the gala occasion, as surviving archival documents reveal, was the following:.
Hence, the orchestra that gave the first performance of K. Monsieur Mozart, Virtuoso, having asked the College for the use of the orchestra and instruments, has been granted this after deliberation according to old usage and custom. Their repertory included — in addition to such classics as concerti grossi by Corelli, Locatelli, and Geminiani, solo concertos by Vivaldi and Tartini, and overtures by Handel — an up-to-date selection of symphonies by Abel, J.
Bach, Dittersdorf, Mahaut the only native composer represented , and Toeschi. On the very day Leopold received permission to use the Collegium orchestra, the customary announcement appeared in the Utrechtsche Courant :. Sieur Mozart, Kapellmeister in the service of His Highness the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, will have the honour of giving a grand Concert next Monday afternoon, 21 April, in the Music Room of the Vreeburg at Utrecht, at which his little son, aged 9, and his daughter, aged 14, will perform sonatas and concertos on the harpsichord. All the symphonies will be from the hand of this little composer, who has won the admiration of the Courts of Vienna, France, England, and Holland.
Price for a gentleman with a lady 3 gulden and for a single person 2 gulden. Yet in the s Holland was a musical backwater: musical activities were numerous, but there were no major orchestras, no important composers, few well-known virtuosos, and there was hardly any opera; church music was in the doldrums, and a formerly brilliant music-publishing industry in a state of decline. In short, it was no London. Leopold had reason to be satisfied with their time in Holland, yet some years later, when Wolfgang wrote suggesting a trip there in search of patronage, he replied disparagingly:.
As for Holland, they have other things now to think of there than music. Name any one great composer to me who would deign to take such an abject step.
The five surviving symphonies of the period share common formal patterns Table 3. During a Viennese visit of more than a year in , Mozart would add to these the courtly and mock-courtly of his minuets and trios. That no performances are recorded from the period when the Mozarts were in Paris and Versailles about 10 May to 9 July does not mean that none occurred. In France in the s, symphonies were, generally speaking, considered a minor genre and seldom mentioned in reviews of public concerts, and most private concerts would not have been reviewed at all. This marvellous child is now nine years old.
He has hardly grown at all, but he has made prodigious progress in music. He was already a composer and the author of sonatas two years ago. The Prince perhaps had the idea to use the Mozarts as bread and circus. An official minute of the occasion survives:. And after the concert finished and the Prince arose, He was followed by the entire magistracy and accompanied to His carriage, and when He had ascended into it, everyone retired. M r : le Presidente de Brosse. The names of the Dijon musicians are given, accompanied by a variety of epithets in French, Italian, and English:.
On the other hand, if the orchestra was bad, the harpsichord playing may still have been good, and, with the nobility in town and lacking the amusements of Paris, the Mozarts were doubtless in demand for private performances. The entire evidence for the event is a newspaper announcement, which — following the usual eighteenth-century custom — emphasized the vocal music and the visiting virtuoso; and a letter from a local businessman, who quite naturally was struck by the aspect of the concert that made it different from others he undoubtedly had attended in Lyons.
The announcement in the Petites affiches of 13 August reads:. Mozart, a child of nine years, composer and master of music, will perform several pieces for harpischord alone. There is here Mr Mozart, Kapellmeister to the Prince of Salzburg, who is touring Europe with his son and his daughter, who are prodigies on the harpsichord.
They gave a concert here in the last few days, at which they played the most difficult pieces, and all the symphonies that were played were of the composition of this little virtuosus , and he improvised for a quarter of an hour with the most skilled local master, yielding in nothing to him; in short, he must be seen to be believed, just as the poster announced, and truly I was enchanted by him like everyone else; there were more than persons at this concert at 3 livres a head, for they say that he earned nearly 1, livres that day.
Together, these two documents permit at least a partial reconstruction of the programme of the Lyons concert:. There is no evidence for orchestral participation at concerts in Geneva, Lausanne, or Bern. Insomuch as a few days ago the young Mr Mozart, a nine-year-old virtuoso in composition and at the keyboard, who has won fame at the first courts of Europe and has been marvellously extolled in various papers and journals, together with his fourteen-year-old sister, who also plays the keyboard, and their father, Kapellmeister Mozart of Salzburg, arrived here: the Worshipful Collegium, meeting in the Music Room, permits them, at their request and upon the presentation of good references, to perform publicly on the coming Tuesday the 7th and Thursday the 9th of October in the said Music Room.
The Worshipful Collegium moreover deems it proper and incumbent upon them to inform thereof those of Your Excellencies who have upon previous occasions shown yourselves patrons and lovers of Music, and to invite Your Excellencies graciously to honour the Collegium with your presence, if it so please you. Wherefore the Steward, Mr Meister, is instructed on behalf of our distinguished members to present this written invitation to all highly respected lovers of music with due and seemly deference. Passed Tuesday 30 September Two pictures of this period from Zurich convey something of the ambiance and circumstances of concerts there.
The orchestra appears to number sixteen, plus two harpsichords. This picture, because its title informs us that its keyboard player is performing a harpsichord concerto rather than a continuo part, is especially relevant to the seven pastiche harpsichord concertos Wolfgang had composed not long before his visit to Zurich K. Arriving at Donaueschingen on 19 October, the Mozarts were well greeted, their way having been prepared by their Salzburg friend Joseph Nicolaus Meissner, who was visiting there, and by their former servant Sebastian Winter, a native of Donaueschingen who now worked for that court.
Leopold described their stay in glowing terms:. His Highness the Prince welcomed us with extraordinary graciousness. It was not necessary to announce our arrival, for we were already being eagerly awaited. The Director of Music, Martelli, came at once to welcome us and to invite us to court. Well, we were there for twelve days. On nine days there was music in the evening from five to nine and each time we performed something different. If the season had not been so advanced, we should not have got away. Tears flowed from his eyes when we took leave of him, and truly we all wept at saying good-bye.
He begged me to write to him often. Indeed our departure was as sad as our stay had been agreeable. The discussion of the Galimathias musicum above mentioned the presence in the archives at Donaueschingen of a fair copy of that piece, doubtless indicating that the work was performed during one of the nine evenings of music mentioned by Leopold. The personnel of the Donaueschingen court orchestra at a later date consisted of two violinists, a violist, a cellist, a double-bass player, and pairs of flautists, oboists, bassoonists, horn players, and clarinettists, the latter doubling on violin.
Perhaps, as happened in other court orchestras of the time, the strings were sometimes reinforced by local amateurs. The tiny size of this ensemble did not stop its leaders from acquiring a challenging repertory of symphonies during the s. Two appearances at the Bavarian court in Munich on 9 and 22 November were apparently without benefit of the court musicians. About composition, which this boy already understands like an artist, fresh turns of phrase and eulogies would have to be invented anew, for he has already composed very much, and today especially, at High Mass in the Cathedral for a great festivity [the Feast of the Immaculate Conception], a symphony was done which not only found great approbation from all the Court musicians, but also caused great astonishment.
See note 4. The theatre had burnt in and been rebuilt. Facsimile: as in n. De Smet Guillaume V , 33, and La Vie du violoniste Jean Malherbe Brussels, , 25 errs, therefore, in endorsing the wrong-headed notion of Wyzewa—Saint-Foix that, in going from London to The Hague, the Mozarts had moved from a provincial music centre to a cosmopolitan one.
The story of K. Schultz, Mozarts Jugendsinfonien Leipzig, ; H. Thiblot got this right. For information about the Zurich collegia, I am indebted to Genette Foster. Although in modern musical life symphonies usually serve as the centre-pieces of orchestral concerts, in concerts of the second half of the eighteenth century, they most often appeared at the beginnings and ends of entertainments at the centres of which were characteristically found vocal and instrumental solos.
As early as Mattheson wrote on this subject:. Symphony, Sinfonia The Italians make use of these symphonies before their operas and other dramatic works, as well as before church pieces; before the former instead of overtures, but before the latter instead of [church] sonatas. Symphonies especiaIly those belonging to secular pieces commonly begin with a majestic movement, wherein the top part usually dominates this is divided into two sections in the same meter, each of which may have its own repeats ; and after this conclude with a merry, minuet-like movement likewise admitting of two or more repeated sections , which in church, however, is never found.
A quarter of a century later Mattheson again attempted to define the symphony:. The symphony, although it also requires a suitable instrumentation of both strings and winds, may nevertheless not be so fanciful and luxuriant as the concerto grosso. Irrespective of the fact that symphonies serve to open the most elegant musical plays and as introductions to the most humble , they have no such voluptuous manner about them.
In churches they must be even more moderately contrived than in theatres and halls. Their principal characteristic consists in creating in their brief preface a little sketch of what will follow. And one can easily infer from this that the expression of emotion in such a symphony must be ruled by the same passions that are prominent in the work itself. Ever since Italian opera reached its full maturity, we have been familiar with a genre of instrumental pieces that were performed in front of the theatre curtain in order to prepare the audience in a commodious and ingenious manner.
It was not long before such pieces were introduced here in Germany, and it was here, I might almost say, that they attained fullest perfection Symphonies comprise a three-fold genre: to wit, those used for church pieces, those for theatrical and other [secular] vocal pieces, and finally also those intended as purely instrumental works, without connection to any vocal music Thus we have sacred, theatrical, and chamber symphonies. All symphonies that are to be used with vocal compositions should be in agreement with the vocal compositions of which they form a part.
It then follows that both must be composed in the same style. Symphonies not composed with this intention have, as a result, a different character. He then provides the following description of the attributes of symphonies proper for use in church:. The symphonies which accompany sacred compositions If the symphony precedes ordinary church music, then it must be very majestic. In that case it must be as though the content of the piece were of such a nature that one had to limit the symphony to conform to it.
One should strive in the same symphonies to make the sound full-voiced and expressive. The melody in all its clarity should be at once triumphant, spirited, and moving; it should make the listeners attentive as well as anxious to observe the ensuing production. Symphonies must at one and the same time provide a skillful and ingenious preparation for the coming piece.
They can also be embellished with well-devised imitations, for this is in keeping with the attributes of church music. However, the melody must predominate throughout, without the slightest trace of constraint. New and vigourous ideas and phrases must serve constantly to increase the attention.
In order to achieve this end, the beginning of such a symphony must always display something new and unknown. One unexpected elaboration must follow after another, but everything must agree exactly with the principal attributes of church music, and more specifically, with the ensuing piece of music, whether it be an ordinary church piece or an oratorio. With regard to the type and succession of movements, I must still add the following.
One does not compose three separate movements, as one usually does for other symphonies, but restricts oneself to one movement or, at the very most, two. The character of these movements is either slow and pathetic at the beginning followed by a faster movement, or a rapid and fiery movement followed by a slower and more sentimental one. The beginning of the [following] vocal piece will determine just how the symphony shouId commence.
There are no hard and fast rules to be given here, because the nature of the words [of the following work] differs too greatly [from work to work], and the composition must therefore be left to the reflection and understanding of the composer. One must observe at least the following, that when two movements are composed, they are not so different that a pause between them is necessary; rather, the end of the first movement must cleverly unite with the beginning of the second movement so as not to appear contrived or artificial, but rather as inevitable.
In such a symphony it is customary to introduce concertante instruments, which can surely produce a good effect when one uses them thoughtfully and circumspectly. The concertante instruments must never clatter or be wild; rather, they must bring forward a concise melody. They must come in unexpectedly and at the appointed moment, never playing alone for long but constantly relieved and accompanied by the remaining instruments. Schulz, who seemed to echo them while modifying them when, more than three decades later, he penned another definition of the symphony:.
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A piece of instrumental music for many voices that is used in place of the now obsolete overture. The difficulty of performing an overture well and the still greater difficulty of composing a good overture have given rise to the lighter form of the symphony. To be sure, the overture was still used before large pieces of church music and operas, and one made use of partitas only in chamber music. But soon one also became tired of dance pieces without dancing, and finally settled for one or two fugal or non-fugal allegros that alternated with a slower andante or largo.
The instruments that belong to the symphony are violins, violas, and bass instruments; each part is strongly re-enforced [i. Horns, oboes, and flutes can be used in addition for filling out or strengthening The symphony is excellently suited for the expression of the grand, the festive, and the noble. Its purpose is to prepare the listeners for an important musical work, or in a chamber concert to summon up all the splendor of instrumental music. If it is to satisfy this aim completely and be a closely bound part of the opera or church music that it precedes, then besides being the expression of the grand and festive, it must have an additional quality that puts the listeners in the frame of mind required by the piece to come; and it must distinguish itself through the style of composition that makes it appropriate for the church or the theatre The church symphony distinguishes itself from the rest above all through its serious style of composition.
It consists often of only a single movement. It does not tolerate, as does the chamber symphony, extravagance or disorder in the melodic and harmonic progressions, but proceeds in a steady manner, faster or slower, according to the nature of the expression of the church piece [it precedes], and strictly observes the rule[s] of composition. Instead of the magnificent, it often has a quiet nobility as its goal, and best suited for it is a pathetic, well-worked-out fugue. Nevertheless, they leave no doubt about the existence of the church symphony as a genre, and they suggest that it can be divided in to two types, according to function.
Those of the first type served as overtures to oratorios, which were non-liturgical and usually performed in halls rather than in churches 8 , or as overtures to sacred cantatas, which were treated like short oratorios in Catholic circles but could be introduced into the liturgy in Lutheran circles.
What follows deals with the latter type — symphonies used within the Catholic liturgy — ignoring the use of symphonies as part of concerts in churches often before or after Vespers or as part of Tafelmusik or concerts in monastic establishments. The inquiry begins with a brief discussion of the history of purely instrumental music in that liturgy.
From early times the organ had added to its original role of accompanying voices the new role of soloist. Clement permitted the use of the organ on Sundays, except those in Advent and Lent, and on important feast days:. At the solemn Mass the organ is played alternatim for the Kyrie eleison and the Gloria in excelsis In the mid-seventeenth century the sonata da chiesa came to prominence.
This new genre may be viewed as the addition of obbligato instruments to the organ in its traditional function of providing preludes, interludes, and postludes. Any church equipped to perform concerted liturgical music would already have had instrumentalists on hand, so no additional expenditures or special arrangements were necessarily implied by the rise of the sonata da chiesa. At the end of the seventeenth century and beginning of the eighteenth, concerti grossi were sometimes heard in church in place of sonatas. The trumpet concertos of the Bolognese school were also written for use during the Mass.
In Austria the sonata da chiesa flourished vigourously late in to the eighteenth century in an orchestral guise. That is to say, the trio sonatas used in church in Austria were customarily performed by several players to a part. Collections of ripieno concertos were published during the three decades between and , appearing equally under the rubrics concerti and sinfonie. Such concertos occasionally contain pastoral movements evoked by the Christmas nativity scene, chromatic movements called forth by the Easter sepulchre, or fugal movements in a watered-down stile antico.
But as these three types of movements also occur in works not specifically designated for church use, there is little to distinguish ripieno concertos entitled sinfonia da chiesa or concerto per chiesa from their secular counterparts, and works with and without the da chiesa or da camera in their titles apparently were used interchangeably for sacred and secular purposes. It has recently been convincingly argued that, as an antecedent to the classical symphony, the ripieno concerto was as important as, or perhaps even more important than, the opera-overture sinfonia; and that historians dealing with the emergence of the concert symphony in the mid-eighteenth century have undervalued the conservative ripieno concerto in favour of the more forward-looking opera sinfonia.
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More or less well-documented reports of symphonies performed during the Mass in several places in western Europe come down to us from the second half of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth. Haydn was performed at Mass at the Montserrat Monastery near Barcelona around , just as symphonies by Mozart and Michael Haydn were heard in the Salzburg Cathedral. A symphony by Dittersdorf is found as an instrumental gradual in a Mass attributed to Joseph Haydn Hob.
The Berlin man of letters Friedrich Nicolai, in his widely read Description of a Journey through Germany and Switzerland , reported attending a Mass at the Bamberg Cathedral in , presided over by the local ruler, Prince Adam Friedrich:. The Mass itself was a low Mass, not a sung Mass For all that, however, during the Mass music was performed that did not belong to the Mass at all. First the organist preluded in the old-fashioned manner of Tischer or Roberger, on an entirely unremarkable-sounding positive.
The court orchestra, which consisted of ten violins, two violas, oboes, horns, violoncellos, two double basses, and one bassoon, then played a symphony rather in the style of Abel — tuneful and beautiful. The performance was quite certainly not excellent but good, however, especially the bass instruments, which were very distinct. She has a chest register the deep tones of which are not bad, but bear no relationship to the many, more youthful[-sounding] higher tones; her voice over-all is not supple, the passagework not articulated but slurred and unsure; she has no trill.
This opera aria was not accompanied by a harpsichord, as it properly should have been, but by a flute stop of the positive. When the aria was over, and the organist had doodled a bit more, there was an all-but-comic symphony, during which the singer read very devoutly in her prayerbook and crossed herself. It seemed very odd to me that, especially under such a rigidly religious prince, the divine service was interrupted by operatic music, which does not belong there at all.
The greatest part of the onlookers paid attention to neither the opera aria nor the Mass. One part applauded, and to my surprise this included common people; one part appeared to stand there entirely stupidly indifferent. The majority knelt to read in prayerbooks, with their lips going, or tugging at rosaries, striking their breasts or crossing themselves, without regard for the Mass and also The repertoryat the Cologne Cathedral was rich in symphonies 29 , and as late as symphonies were performed at Mass there, between the Epistle and Gospel. Lists of the concerted music performed on two Holy Saturdays have been preserved; they show that the symphony in the Mass was performed between the Confitemini-Laudate Dominum and the Sanctus.
We are better informed about the symphonies of Joseph Haydn than about those of Hoffmeister, Lang, Vanhal, Vogel, et al. They were played in the chapel at Eisenstadt, in the chapel of the Imperial court, and in other churches on such sacred feast days. They are written in G major, D major, and C minor. In the midst of the sorrow expressed in them, the characteristically Haydnesque vivacity constantly shines through, and here and there are revealed same hints of the anger with which the author perhaps would take aim at the sinners and the Jews.
Robbins Landon has devoted considerable attention to the question of several symphonies, a divertimento, and a baryton trio by Haydn with apparent church connections. The Alleluia melody used in Symphony No. The reciting tones for the Passion narratives that Haydn quoted in Symphony No. Of the fifteen works that Landon singled out as having church connections, only seven begin with slow movements. In most Catholic countries Holy Week called for the banishing of instruments from services except occasionally the organ and for the performance of a cappella polyphony and unaccompanied chanting.
Thus arose the institution of the concert spirituel , devoted to instrumental music, oratorios, cantatas, and the like, to provide suitable entertainment during this solemn period. Given the prohibitions concerning instrumental music, it is doubtful whether any of these symphonies could have been used in the liturgy during Holy Week. Contradictions surrounding the works of Haydn discussed above suggest a new hypothesis, namely, that symphonies employing plainsong were not those intended for liturgical use.
The theorists are silent concerning the use of cantus firmus in church symphonies. Therefore, need for the quotation of plainchant in symphonies would more readily have occurred outside the service when, for programmatic or circumstantial reasons, a composer wished to make reference to sacred matters. The role of a sinfonia da chiesa was to provide cheerful movements for joyous portions of the service and serious movements for more sombre portions; it was freely composed without cantus firmus, and, therefore, most symphonies could have served.
This may explain why, despite attempts by eighteenth-century theorists to maintain distinctions between church, chamber, and theatre symphonies, these categories prove often to have been more sociological than stylistic. Our church music is very different from that of Italy, and what is more, a Mass with all its parts — the Kyrie, the Gloria, the Credo, the Epistle sonata, the Offertory or motet, the Sanctus, and the Agnus Dei — must not last longer than three-quarters of an hour.
This applies even to the most solemn Mass said by the Archbishop himself. If, for instance, one times performances of a Missa brevis, an Epistle sonata, and an Offertory that are all in the same key and possibly intended for one another47, one discovers that they amount to around thirty minutes of music. Thus in the remaining fifteen minutes the celebrant and choir would have had to make their way through the Introit, Collect, sonata or symphony if one were played , Alleluia, Gospel, Preface, Canon, Communion, Post-Communion, and Ite missa est, which would have been possible if everything had been kept moving at a brisk pace.
While a series ofliturgical reforms eventually removed symphonies — and much other music — from Austrian services, the chronology and results of these reforms are difficult to ascertain. The papal encyclical Annus qui of had been tolerant of instrumental music, although it censured pieces of excessive length.