The minuet contrasts two ideas, giant leaps and tiny intervals, then splits the difference with a lyrical trio based around the interval of the third. The quartet closes with an Allegro vivace rondo, whose theme transforms simple thirds into flashy, fully arpeggiated sixteenth notes. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart first heard the newly invented clarinet at age seven while on a visit to Mannheim, and his fascination with its mellow sonority and wide range stayed with him throughout his life. He was one of the first composers to use the clarinet in a symphony, and the instrument figures prominently in such important late works as his Symphony No.
The strings have the first theme of the Allegro, and the clarinet soon enters to embellish this noble opening statement. The second subject, presented by the first violin, flows with a long-breathed lyricism, and the movement develops in sonata form. The Larghetto belongs very much to the clarinet, which weaves a long cantilena above the accompanying strings.
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The five variations are sharply differentiated, and the quintet concludes with a jaunty coda derived from the first half of the original theme. Yet the trouble seems not to have rubbed off much on this cheery sonata. Its first movement involves the violin integrally, which was uncommon in violin sonatas prior to Mozart. A sudden minor-mode excursion leads to a turbulent exchange, but the more upbeat character of the rest of the movement quickly returns. The Andantino sostenuto e cantabile maintains a clear texture, allowing its simple yet insistent melodies to breathe.
It is one of three concertos he wrote at that time to make money through a Lenten performance series, following on the heels of his success with The Abduction from the Seraglio. To make them marketable in a published form, he wrote them to be playable two ways — with strings, oboes, and horns, or with only a string quartet or quintet , known as a quattro. The Allegro first movement begins with a graceful first theme and a more playful second, elaborated by the piano. Mozart wrote a total of eight piano cadenzas for the concerto in its published edition, giving two options for each of four locations, though he improvised his own cadenzas in performance.
The slow movement, a stately Andante, begins with a sincere solo in the first violin, setting the tone for a serene and lyrical exchange between strings and piano. Mozart quotes a theme by Johann Christian Bach, his mentor, who had recently passed away. That marriage, of course, did not take place, and the composer remained a bachelor until wedding Constanze Weber the following year. Josepha, however, did receive this work as a consolation prize. This composition, a bright and jovial sonata, showcases both virtuosity and grace, and each piano part is equally matched in difficulty and showmanship Mozart himself played the second part.
The jury is out on the validity of these studies, but we should be grateful to Josepha in either case! Carl Czerny, though his name is not as immediately recognizable as those of Beethoven, Chopin, Liszt, or the Schumanns, was among the most important figures in the history of piano music. Perhaps the greatest pedagogue of his century, his books of etudes are still used today, and his students included none other than Franz Liszt. As a friend and student of Beethoven and a teacher to later generations, Czerny provided a crucial link in the pianistic lineage.
His music could be played in a variety of contexts, at home or in concert, and met the growing demands of middle-class music connoisseurs, many of whom acquired parlor pianos in the nineteenth century.
Few composers could make the piano sound as symphonic as Czerny does here, and he clearly paves the way for the remarkable, virtuosic symphonic transcriptions of his student Liszt. Forgot your password? Close Window. His trip would be a more than four-year long Grand Tour. From Naples he sailed to Marseille, continuing up to Paris, where he stayed for a full two years. His return, despite alleged plots against him, marked the beginning of a busy, successful time for Kraus.
All this should have been more than enough to fill his working day, so the sheer volume of new music he composed must have required many a late night and early morning. The King had been playing high politics during the s until the fateful masked ball in , the theatre of his assassination.
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As a Catholic, one may assume that Kraus could not be buried in a Swedish church, for his wish was to be interred on lands belonging to Count Nils Bark. Bark selected for him a burial site on a promontory in Brunnsviken bay that would be one of the most beautiful in the area. Joseph Martin Kraus completed three main operas, none of which he lived to see staged at the theatre where he was the artistic director.
Proserpin proved something of a breakthrough for him at its performance at Confidencen in The opera has two overtures, the one preceding the prologue, the other the first act. The secco recitatives song accompanied only by harpsichord and possible a basso continuo have been completely replaced by strings that sometimes contain a wind ingredient.
During the last ten years of his life, Kraus would continue to put the finishing touches to his mammoth opera, which contained upwards of six hours of music, but it was not premiered until after his death in a heavily truncated version under J. Amongst nine titles of works containing incidental music are a great many individual pieces of varying character.
There is also the diversiform music to Fiskarena by the renowned Danish choreographer, Bournonville. A symphony in C major contains a solo-esque obbligato violin part like a sinfonia concertante. The first measures clearly cite the overture to that opera. It appears that Kraus enjoyed an industrious collaboration with Carl Michael Bellman. Its inception is obscure, but it is likely that one of the two friends had noticed a short burial announcement in Stockholms Posten. Bellman set immediately to work on a poem, specific details of which carry traces of the article. It is worth noting that Kraus spurned a mournful minor in favour of an E-sharp major.
Kraus also chose lyrics by other poets for his solo songs. The lettered and polyglot composer Kraus also chose poems from other languages. Twenty-six songs with German lyrics form one obvious group, and are joined by five in French, five in Italian, one in Danish and one in Dutch. His 18 concert arias also constitute a significant part of his vocal music. The forms vary and sometimes include virtuosic passages. Kraus was apparently urged, as was customary at the time, to give the leading singers of the opera stage an opportunity to demonstrate their vocal talents, and delivered magnificent examples of the kind of music that was expected and that could be generously adorned with artistic lustre.
He was also able to furnish star singers with desirable show-pieces on his overseas trip. Kraus, like other important composers of his time, was a passionate pianist. The violin was the other natural instrument of choice at the music schools Kraus attended. Most important of his seven piano works are two grand piano sonatas. The first of these, in E-flat major, was written probably in Paris in as either a reduction of, or indeed the source of a longer violin sonata such reworking being common practice at the time. The next interesting group is the five violin sonatas, then not a widely practised musical form in Stockholm.
Boer maintains that Kraus intended to offer violin sonatas to Traeg, a Viennese publisher, who indeed included two of them in his catalogue. The first of these, in E-flat major, was composed both as a duo and for solo piano. The piano is given a minor variation in a short cadence, and a final, discreet valedictory pirouette at the end. In all the commotion surrounding the regicide, meticulous arrangements had to be made for the funeral in accordance with the dictates of what were often time-honoured traditions. Everything gives pause for deep reflection and grief, with the exception of the odd note of solace.
The piece continues with violin syncopations that enhance the sense of distress, and in spite of the more consoling tones, the rhythm remains disquieting. Inside the church, the liturgy segues into a Larghetto , with the following movement a funeral psalm no. Kraus adds yet another personal greeting by citing in the final Adagio movement the first movement of his own C minor symphony. Kraus certainly executed such a commission in magnificent fashion.
A month after the body was lain in state, the King was buried in Riddarholm Church to a musical backdrop that needed to be even greater in format and duration. This said, it took a long time for Kraus to be rediscovered, and it was not until the s that music scholars in Germany and Sweden began to search for sources and scores. That both these great men lived contemporary and equally short lives might be true, but otherwise they are not even alike in their music.
Von dem Menschen, doctoral dissertation in philosophy, , manuscript in Mainz. Tolon, tragedy, Utkast till ett musiklexikon, manuscript, Musik- och teaterbiblioteket, Stockholm. Boer Jr. Van : The sacred works and symphonies of Joseph Martin Kraus , diss.
Musikaliska akademiens skriftserie no. Musikaliska akademien, Uppsala Forskningslogen Carl Friedrich Eckleff. Riedel ed. Jahrhundert , Friedrich W. Joseph Martin Kraus in seiner Zeit. Riedel, Friedrich W. Cole has noted that the K. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mozart First page of the autograph manuscript. Allegro , 4 4 Andante Variations in C minor , 3 8 Allegro, 6 8. London, Cassell. London Faber. Music Theory Spectrum. Summer The Musical Quarterly. Retrieved The Journal of Musicology.