Volunteer work carried out through organizations is also included, but its full-time equivalent amount is included in the count of NPI workers and those cooperatives and mutuals that are also NPIs. For a description of this project and its methodology, see Salamon et al. For an analysis of its results in the light of prevailing theories, see Salamon et al. An update of this report was prepared in preliminary form and presented to the European Economic and Social Committee in June of , but a final report with final estimates was not available as of the time this volume went into production.
Based on the preliminary data, however, the basic estimates presented here would only be marginally affected by the updated estimates. Included here are the following sources: Miranda, V. Stuttgart 5. Den frivillige sektor i Danmark.
Omfang og betydning Rapport Budapest: Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Nonprofit institution profile based on census results. Rome: Istituto nazionale di statistica.
These estimates do not include any payments for direct volunteer action, which, if any, we assume to be insignificant. We furthermore assume that all income of cooperatives and mutual societies and social enterprises comes from market activities, and thus is considered to be fee income. Unfortunately, the data do not permit us to estimate the monetary values of these revenue streams at this time. For more information about this estimation methodology, see Annex 1.
As previously noted, organization-based volunteering is treated here as an attribute of the organizations through which this work is mediated. We are indebted to Karl-Henrik Sivisend for assistance in assembling the data reported here. For a complete summary of sources, see Appendix 2. This section draws heavily on Lester M. Salamon, S. Edward Banfield.
The Moral Basis of a Backward Society. New York: Free Press. New York: The Free Press. Burton Weisbrod. The Voluntary Independent Sector. Lexington: Lexington Books; Henry Hansmann. Powell ed. New Haven: Yale University Press. Lijphart, Arendt. Robert Putnam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Sivesind, and P. Alapuro and H. Stenius Eds. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. Prior to revisions of the System of National Accounts in , NPISH was the only portion of the entire nonprofit sector visible in official economic statistics guided by the System of National Accounts.
Formally, NPISH covers organizations that receive all or most of their income from philanthropy, though some countries apply it more broadly. Email communication from Ms. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Skip to main content Skip to sections.
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Previous research Salamon et al. In developing the measures of these five dimensions of the TSE in the European Union and Norway, we utilize the following data sources: 1. Open image in new window. A second striking characteristic of the European TSE Sector is its engagement of volunteers in addition to paid employees. To gain some insight into the activities and functions that the European TSE sector performs, we classified the activities of the TSE sector workforce into three major categories: service, expressive and other functions. Direct volunteer action, which by definition involves help to other households, is considered a service activity in this report.
The expressive function comprises activities in culture and recreation, membership organizations—including labor unions—business and professional organizations, environmental organizations and religious congregations. Finally, the other function includes activities of charitable foundations, international organizations, as well as activities not elsewhere classified. Given the limitations of the existing data, more detailed classification of TSE sector activity by industry is not possible at this time.
As Fig. At the same time, a substantial 24 percent of the activity goes into expressive functions. The revenue structure of the civil society sector differs markedly from what many observers tend to believe. While charitable giving attracts the most public and media attention, it turns out to account for a relatively small share of TSE sector revenue. Thus, as shown in Fig. By contrast, private fee income, which includes private payments for goods and services, membership dues and investment income, accounts for a much larger 54 percent of income on average.
Finally, government support , which includes grants, contracts and reimbursements for services rendered to eligible private parties in such fields as health care or education, make up the balance of about 37 percent of TSE sector revenue. Figure 3. One final notable dimension of TSE activity has been its recent dynamism.
Although we have longitudinal data on only one TSE institutional component, the nonprofit institutions NPIs , and on only 12 EU countries, these limited data show that the TSE sector has recently been in the midst of significant growth in these countries—growing at a rate that exceeds the growth of overall employment in the economy. By comparison, as also shown in Fig.
Defining the third sector in Europe
To make sense of these variations, it is useful to examine them at the regional level. Table 3. To be sure, significant variations exist within these regional groupings as well, and even within particular countries, but our data do not at this stage permit us to go below the regional level. Countries differ, of course, in the size of their populations, so it is natural that larger countries will have larger TSE sector workforces than do smaller ones. To draw valid comparisons, therefore, we focus not on the absolute numbers, but on the share that the TSE sector workforce represents of the total number of people employed in each region.
These overall disparities in the relative size of the TSE sector among regions are overshadowed, moreover, by the much larger disparities in the composition of the third sector in the different European regions. This is fully consistent with our discussion of regional variations in Chap. By contrast, employment in NPIs—both paid and volunteer—accounts for a much smaller 22 percent. This contrasts sharply with Northwestern Europe, where 60 percent of the TSE sector employment is in NPIs, much of it in paid positions, while employment in coops accounts for about 12 percent, social enterprises for less than 1 percent, and direct volunteering a relatively small 27 percent.
Southern Europe is different again, with an exceptionally high 16 percent of TSE sector employment in cooperatives, 1 percent in social enterprises, a similarly quite high 33 percent in direct volunteering, and a relatively low 50 percent of employment in NPIs. Other dimensions of the European third sector—the scope of activity by field and the revenue structure—also vary considerably by region.
Due to data availability limitations, however, we can only examine these variations on a much smaller set of European countries and on a smaller set of institutions—that is, only for the NPI components of the TSE sector and only for the 20 countries covered by the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project.
Thus, in the Scandinavian region, 57 percent of nonprofit FTE employment is devoted to expressive functions and only 40 percent to service ones. By contrast, in Northern and Southern Europe, these proportions are reversed, with over 60 percent of TSE sector effort devoted to service provision and a much smaller 31—35 percent devoted to expressive functions.
The Third Sector as a Renewable Resource for Europe | SpringerLink
This reflects the much greater reliance on government for service provision in the Scandinavian lands and the long-standing tradition of nonprofit involvement in advocacy and sport activities there. Lacking both substantial government and fee income, NPIs in Central and Eastern Europe rely disproportionately on philanthropy, which accounts for 19 percent of NPI income, twice the share that it provides to the much larger NPI sectors in Scandinavia and Northern Europe.
Because the welfare state took care of many tasks such as child care and elderly care, the families got more time to participate and volunteer in the culture, sports and recreation areas, which grew rapidly from the s as the welfare state matured and a leisure society emerged The social origins theory also explains why the government share of nonprofit revenue is considerably higher in Northern Europe than elsewhere in Europe Fig. See Appendix 1 for the methodology used in this estimation.
See Appendix 2 for the values for individual countries. Banfield, E. The moral basis of a backward society. Google Scholar. Fukuyama, F. Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity.
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Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. This book presents contemporary research into this emerging area, exploring the contribution of this important sector to European society as well as the key ch The role of the Third Sector within European society is an extremely topical subject, as both governments and the EU continue to consider the role these organizations can play in providing essential public services.
Get A Copy. Kindle Edition , pages. Socialization and institutionalization approaches compared, "Dag Wollebaek and Per Selle, " 4. Welfare architecture and voluntarism. The Third Sector and the social inclusion agenda: the role of social enterprises in the field of work integration, "Marthe Nyssens, "Delivering public services, 7. The Third Sector and the delivery of public services: an evaluation of different meta-theoretical perspectives, Taco Brandsen, 8.
The innovative capacity of voluntary and community organizations: exploring the organizational and environmental contingencies, "Stephen P Osborne and Celine Chew, "Co-production, Co-governance and co-production: from social enterprise towards public-private co-enterprise, "Francesco Manfredi and Mirella Maffei, "Third Sector - governmental relationships, Hybrid organizations. Background, concepts, challenges, "Adalbert Evers, " Should social enterprise be a core element in the provision of public services or is it a distraction?
The economic analysis of non-profit organizations' management, "Marc Jegers, " The state of our knowledge and future challenges, "Markku Kiviniemi". This book presents contemporary research into this emerging area, exploring the contribution of this important sector to European society as well as the key challenges that the sector and its components organizations face in making this contribution.
This volume brings together for the first time a range of challenging perspectives upon the role and import of the Third Sector for European society from a variety of disciplines - including economics, sociology, political science, management and public policy. Areas covered include the Third Sector civil society and democracy, relationships with government, its impact on social and public policy, the growth of social enterprise and of hybrid organizations as key elements of the sector and the future challenges for the sector in Europe.