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The brooding face of Jeremiah among the prophets that surround the ceiling is thought by some people to be his self-portrait. Raphael came to Florence from Urbino as a very young man. In Florence he absorbed the ideas of Leonardo and Michelangelo. By the time Raphael went to Rome to work in the Vatican, his style had become one of great beauty. He is especially beloved for his beautiful paintings of the Madonna and Child. These have been reproduced by the thousands and can be seen everywhere. His Madonna del Granduca is successful because of its complete simplicity.

Timeless in its peacefulness and purity, it is just as appealing to us as it was to the Italians of Raphael's time. Venice was the chief northern Italian city of the Renaissance.

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It was visited by artists from Flanders and other regions who knew of Flemish experiments with oil paint. This stimulated an early use of the oil technique in the Italian city. The Venetians also painted on tightly stretched canvas, rather than on the wooden panels commonly used in Florence. Giovanni Bellini ? He was also one of the first Italian painters to use oil on canvas.

Giorgione ? A master of the oil technique, Titian painted huge canvases in warm, rich colors. In his mature paintings he sacrificed details to the sweeping effect of the whole painting, as in the Pesaro Madonna. He used large brushes to make broad strokes. His colors are especially rich because he patiently built up glazes of contrasting colors.

Usually the glazes were put on over a brown tempera ground, which gave the painting a unified tone. Another great 16th-century Venetian painter was Tintoretto Unlike Titian, he usually worked directly on the canvas without making preliminary sketches or underpaintings. He often distorted his forms twisted them out of shape for the sake of the composition and drama of the scene. His technique, which includes broad brushstrokes and dramatic contrasts of light and dark, seems very modern.

Born on the island of Crete, which was occupied by the Venetian army, El Greco was trained by Italian artists. As a young adult he went to Venice to study. The combined influence of Byzantine art--which he saw all around him in Crete--and of Italian Renaissance art made El Greco's work outstanding.

In his paintings he distorted natural forms and used even stranger, more unearthly colors than Tintoretto, whom he admired. Later El Greco moved to Spain, where the grimness of Spanish art influenced his work. In his dramatic View of Toledo a storm rages above the deathlike stillness of the city. Cold blues, greens, and blue-whites cast a chill over the landscape.

The golden age of painting in Flanders now part of Belgium and northern France was the 15th century, the time of van Eyck. In the 16th century many Flemish artists had taken up the discoveries of Italian Renaissance painters. Some Flemings, however, continued the Flemish tradition of realism. They painted genre--scenes from everyday life, which were often charming and sometimes fantastic. Hieronymus Bosch ? He invented all sorts of weird, grotesque creatures for The Temptation of St.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder ? They did much to soften the grim realism of earlier German painting. From this experience he brought to German painting a knowledge of perspective, a feeling for color and light, and a new understanding of composition. Holbein absorbed even more of the Italian achievements. His sensitive drawing and ability to select only the most important details made him a master portrait painter. The 17th century is generally known as the baroque period in art.

In Italy the painters Caravaggio and Annibale Carracci represented two contrasting viewpoints. Caravaggio whose real name was Michelangelo Merisi always painted directly from life. One of his main concerns was to copy nature as faithfully as possible without glorifying it in any way. Carracci, on the other hand, followed the Renaissance ideal of beauty.

A Text-Book of the History of Painting by John Charles Van Dyke - Free Ebook

He studied ancient sculpture and the works of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Titian. Carracci's painting inspired Nicolas Poussin , a major French painter of the 17th century. An admirer of Titian's work, he was a master in the use of rich, harmonious color. No artist could better create the illusion of rich fabrics or human skin. The portrait of little Prince Phillip Prosper shows this skill to great advantage. His remarkable brushwork was much admired by the 19th-century French impressionists. The paintings of the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens are representative of the full-blown baroque style.

They are bursting with energy, color, and light. Rubens broke with the Flemish tradition of painting small, detailed pictures. His were huge canvases filled with human figures. He was given many more commissions for large pictures than he could possibly handle. Therefore he often painted only a small, colored sketch. Then his assistants transferred the sketch to a large canvas and completed the painting under Ruben's supervision. The accomplishments of the Dutch painter Rembrandt are among the most outstanding in history.

He had a remarkable gift for capturing human emotions. Like Titian, he worked long at building up a painting in many layers. Earth colors--yellow ocher, brown, and brown-red--were his favorites. His paintings are basically dark in tone and have many very dark areas. The rich values of these dark areas, created with many layers of color, make his technique unusual. Important sections of his paintings are dramatically illuminated by brilliant light. Jan Vermeer was one of a group of Dutch artists who painted the humble scenes of daily life.

He was a master at painting textures of every kind--satin, Persian rugs, bread crusts, metal. The overall impression of a Vermeer interior is that of a sunny, cheerful room filled with cherished household objects. In the 18th century, Venice produced several fine painters.

The most famous was Giovanni Battista Tiepolo He decorated the interiors of palaces and other buildings with tremendous, colorful frescoes representing scenes of wealth and pageantry Francesco Guardi and Antonio Canaletto painted scenic views, many of them recalling the past glories of Venice. Guardi was very skillful with a brush. With a few patches of color he could conjure up the idea of a tiny figure in a boat.

In France a taste for pastel colors and intricate decoration brought about the development of the rococo style in the early 18th century. Watteau painted visions of a dream life in which all is gaiety. There are picnics in the park or woodland parties where gallant gentlemen and elegant ladies amuse themselves. Other 18th-century painters portrayed scenes of ordinary, middle-class life. Like the Dutch Vermeer, Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin valued simple domestic scenes and still-life arrangements.

His colors are sober and calm compared to Watteau's. In the 18th century the English, for the first time, developed a distinct school of painting. It consisted mainly of portrait painters who were influenced by Venetian Renaissance artists. Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough are the best-known. Reynolds, who had traveled in Italy, was devoted to reviving the Renaissance ideals of painting.

His portraits, although charming and touching, are not particularly interesting in color or texture. Gainsborough, on the other hand, had a talent for brilliant brushwork. The surfaces of his paintings glow with shining color. The 19th century is sometimes regarded as the period during which modern art began to take shape. One important reason for the so-called revolution in the arts at this time was the invention of the camera, which forced artists to re-examine the purpose of painting.

A more important development resulted partly from the widespread use of manufactured paints. Before the 19th century, most artists or their assistants made their own paints by grinding pigment. Early commercial paints were inferior to handmade paints. Artists late in the 19th century found that the dark blues and browns of earlier paintings were turning black or gray within a few years. They began to use pure colors again. These artists used pure colors in order to preserve their work and sometimes because they were trying to capture the effects of sunlight in outdoor scenes more accurately.

Although France was the great center of art in the 's, the English landscapists John Constable and Joseph Mallord William Turner made valuable contributions to 19th-century painting. Both were interested in painting light and air, two aspects of nature that 19th-century artists explored fully. Constable used a method known as divisionism, or broken color. He put contrasting colors side by side in thick, short strokes or dots over a basic background color.

He often used a palette knife to apply the color thickly. The Hay Wain made him famous when it was shown in Paris in It is a simple rural scene of a hay wagon wain crossing a river. Clouds drift over meadows dappled with patches of sunlight. Turner's paintings are more dramatic than Constable's.

Introduction to Art History by Barry Stebbings

He painted the majestic sights of nature--storms, seascapes, glowing sunsets, high mountains. Often a golden haze partially conceals the objects in his pictures, making them appear to float in unlimited space. Francisco Goya was the first great Spanish painter to appear since the 17th century. As the favorite painter of the Spanish court, he made many portraits of the royal family. The royal personages are outfitted in elegant clothes and fine jewels, but in some of their faces all that is reflected is vanity and greed.

Besides portraits, Goya painted dramatic scenes such as The Third of May, This picture shows the execution of a group of Spanish rebels by French soldiers. Bold contrasts of light and dark, and somber colors pierced by splashes of red, bring out the grim horror of the spectacle. The period of Napoleon's reign and the French Revolution saw the rise of two opposing tendencies in French art--classicism and romanticism. They emphasized drawing and used color mainly to aid in creating solid forms. As the favorite artist of the revolutionary government, David often painted historical events of the period.

For Delacroix, color was the most important element in painting, and he had no patience for imitating classical statues. Instead, he admired Rubens and the Venetians. He chose colorful, exotic themes for his pictures, which sparkle with light and are full of movement. The Barbizon painters were also part of the general romantic movement that lasted from about to They worked near the village of Barbizon on the edge of the Fontainebleau forest.

They sketched out-of-doors and completed the paintings in their studios. Other artists experimented with everyday, ordinary subject matter. The landscapes of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot reflect his love of nature, and his figure studies show a kind of balanced calm. Gustave Courbet called himself a realist because he painted the world as he saw it--even its harsh, unpleasant side. He limited his palette to just a few somber colors, which he sometimes put on with a palette knife. People were shocked by his colorful contrasts and unusual techniques.

The surfaces of his pictures often have a flat, patternlike texture of brushstrokes. Manet's techniques and methods of recording the effects of light on form influenced younger painters, especially the impressionists. Working in the 's and 's, the group of artists known as the impressionists wanted to paint nature exactly as it was. They went much further than Constable, Turner, and Manet in studying the effects of light in color. Some of them worked out scientific theories of color. Claude Monet often painted the same view at different times of day to show how its appearance changed under different conditions of light.

Whatever the subject matter, his scenes are made up of hundreds of tiny brushstrokes laid side by side, often in contrasting colors. From a distance the strokes blend to give the impression of solid forms. Pierre Auguste Renoir used the impressionist techniques to capture the festivity of Parisian life. It was the great Florentine painter Giotto ? His fresco series in the Arena Chapel in Padua leaves Byzantine art far behind. In these scenes from the lives of Mary and Christ, there is genuine emotion, tension, and naturalism.

All the qualities of human warmth and sympathy are present. The people do not seem at all unreal or heavenly. Giotto shaded the contours of the figures, and he put deep shadows into the folds of their clothing to give a sense of roundness and solidity. For his smaller panels Giotto used pure egg tempera, a medium that was perfected by the 14th-century Florentines. The clearness and brightness of his colors must have greatly affected people accustomed to the darker colors of Byzantine panels.

Tempera paintings give the impression that soft daylight is falling over the scene. They have an almost flat appearance in contrast to the glossiness of oil paintings. Egg tempera remained the chief painting medium until oil almost completely replaced it in the 16th century. Early in the 15th century, painters in northern Europe were working in a style quite different from Italian painting. Northern artists achieved realism by adding countless details to their pictures. Every hair was delicately outlined, and each detail of drapery or floor pattern was faithfully set down.

The invention of oil painting made it easier to paint details. The Flemish artist Jan van Eyck ? When tempera is used, the colors have to be put on separately. They cannot shade into one another very well because the paint dries quickly. With oil, which dries slowly, an artist can achieve more intricate effects. All details, and even the mirror reflection, are clear and precise.

The color is strong and has a hard, enamel-like surface. The wood panel on which the painting was done was prepared in much the same way that Giotto prepared his panels for tempera. Van Eyck built up the painting in layers of thin color, called glazes. Tempera was probably used in the original underpainting and for highlights. At the same time that van Eyck was working in the North, the Italians were moving into a golden age of art and literature. This period is called the Renaissance, which means rebirth, or revival. Italian artists were inspired by the sculpture of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

The Italians wanted to revive the spirit of classical art, which glorifies human independence and nobility. Renaissance artists continued to paint religious subjects. But they emphasized the earthly life and accomplishments of human beings. Giotto's accomplishments in the early 14th century laid the foundation of the Renaissance. Fifteenth-century Italian artists continued the movement. Masaccio was one of the leaders of the first generation of Renaissance artists. He lived in Florence, the wealthy merchant city where Renaissance art began.

By the time of his death in his late twenties, he had revolutionized painting. In his famous fresco The Tribute Money he puts solid sculptural figures into a landscape that seems to go far back into the distance. Masaccio may have learned perspective from the Florentine architect and sculptor Brunelleschi ? The fresco technique was very popular during the Renaissance.

It was particularly suitable for large mural paintings because the colors dry perfectly flat. The picture can be viewed from any angle without glare or reflections. Frescoes are also available. Usually the artists had several assistants to help them. Work was completed by sections because it had to be finished while the plaster was still wet. Masaccio's full three-dimensional style was typical of the new progressive trend of the 15th century.

The style of Fra Angelico ? He was less concerned with perspective and more interested in decorative pattern. His Coronation of the Virgin is an example of tempera painting at its most beautiful. The gay, intense colors are set against a gold background and accented with touches of gold. The picture looks like a greatly enlarged miniature painting. The long, narrow figures have little in common with Masaccio's. The composition is organized in sweeping lines of movement circling about the central figures of Christ and Mary.

Another Florentine who worked in the traditional style was Sandro Botticelli ? Flowing, rhythmic lines link the sections of Botticelli's Primavera. The figure of Spring, carried by the West Wind, sweeps in from the right. The Three Graces dance in a circle, the fluttering folds of their dresses and graceful movements of their arms expressing the rhythms of the dance. The famous artist Leonardo Da Vinci studied painting in Florence.

He is known for his scientific studies and inventions, as well as for his paintings. Very few of his pictures have survived, partly because he often experimented with different ways of making and applying paint, rather than using tried and true methods. The Last Supper painted between and was done in oil, but unfortunately Leonardo painted it on a damp wall, which caused the paint to crack. Even in its poor condition the painting has the power to stir emotions in all who see it.

One of the distinguishing characteristics of Leonardo's style was his method of painting lights and darks. The Italians called his half-dark lighting sfumato, which means smoky, or misty. The figures in the Madonna of the Rocks are veiled in a sfumato atmosphere. Their forms and features are softly shaded. Leonardo achieved these effects by using very fine gradations of light and dark tones. The climax of Renaissance painting came in the 16th century. At the same time, the center of art and culture shifted from Florence to Rome.

Some of the most ambitious projects of the period were begun during the papacy of Julius II. Julius commissioned the great sculptor and painter Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and to carve sculpture for the Pope's tomb. Julius also invited the painter Raphael to help with the decoration of the Vatican.

With assistants, Raphael frescoed four rooms of the Pope's apartments in the Vatican Palace.

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Michelangelo, a Florentine by birth, developed a monumental style of painting. The figures in his painting are so solid and three-dimensional that they look like sculpture. The Sistine ceiling, which took Michelangelo 4 years to complete, is composed of hundreds of human figures from the Old Testament. To paint this tremendous fresco Michelangelo had to lie on his back on scaffolding. The brooding face of Jeremiah among the prophets that surround the ceiling is thought by some people to be his self-portrait.

Raphael came to Florence from Urbino as a very young man. In Florence he absorbed the ideas of Leonardo and Michelangelo. By the time Raphael went to Rome to work in the Vatican, his style had become one of great beauty. He is especially beloved for his beautiful paintings of the Madonna and Child. These have been reproduced by the thousands and can be seen everywhere. His Madonna del Granduca is successful because of its complete simplicity. Timeless in its peacefulness and purity, it is just as appealing to us as it was to the Italians of Raphael's time.

A Text-Book of the History of Painting

Venice was the chief northern Italian city of the Renaissance. It was visited by artists from Flanders and other regions who knew of Flemish experiments with oil paint. This stimulated an early use of the oil technique in the Italian city. The Venetians also painted on tightly stretched canvas, rather than on the wooden panels commonly used in Florence. Giovanni Bellini ? He was also one of the first Italian painters to use oil on canvas.

Giorgione ? A master of the oil technique, Titian painted huge canvases in warm, rich colors. In his mature paintings he sacrificed details to the sweeping effect of the whole painting, as in the Pesaro Madonna. He used large brushes to make broad strokes. His colors are especially rich because he patiently built up glazes of contrasting colors.

Usually the glazes were put on over a brown tempera ground, which gave the painting a unified tone. Another great 16th-century Venetian painter was Tintoretto Unlike Titian, he usually worked directly on the canvas without making preliminary sketches or underpaintings. He often distorted his forms twisted them out of shape for the sake of the composition and drama of the scene.

His technique, which includes broad brushstrokes and dramatic contrasts of light and dark, seems very modern. Born on the island of Crete, which was occupied by the Venetian army, El Greco was trained by Italian artists. As a young adult he went to Venice to study. The combined influence of Byzantine art--which he saw all around him in Crete--and of Italian Renaissance art made El Greco's work outstanding.

In his paintings he distorted natural forms and used even stranger, more unearthly colors than Tintoretto, whom he admired. Later El Greco moved to Spain, where the grimness of Spanish art influenced his work. In his dramatic View of Toledo a storm rages above the deathlike stillness of the city.

Cold blues, greens, and blue-whites cast a chill over the landscape. The golden age of painting in Flanders now part of Belgium and northern France was the 15th century, the time of van Eyck. In the 16th century many Flemish artists had taken up the discoveries of Italian Renaissance painters. Some Flemings, however, continued the Flemish tradition of realism. They painted genre--scenes from everyday life, which were often charming and sometimes fantastic. Hieronymus Bosch ? He invented all sorts of weird, grotesque creatures for The Temptation of St. Pieter Bruegel the Elder ? They did much to soften the grim realism of earlier German painting.

From this experience he brought to German painting a knowledge of perspective, a feeling for color and light, and a new understanding of composition. Holbein absorbed even more of the Italian achievements. His sensitive drawing and ability to select only the most important details made him a master portrait painter.

The 17th century is generally known as the baroque period in art. In Italy the painters Caravaggio and Annibale Carracci represented two contrasting viewpoints. Caravaggio whose real name was Michelangelo Merisi always painted directly from life. One of his main concerns was to copy nature as faithfully as possible without glorifying it in any way.

Carracci, on the other hand, followed the Renaissance ideal of beauty. He studied ancient sculpture and the works of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Titian. Carracci's painting inspired Nicolas Poussin , a major French painter of the 17th century. An admirer of Titian's work, he was a master in the use of rich, harmonious color. No artist could better create the illusion of rich fabrics or human skin. The portrait of little Prince Phillip Prosper shows this skill to great advantage. His remarkable brushwork was much admired by the 19th-century French impressionists.

The paintings of the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens are representative of the full-blown baroque style. They are bursting with energy, color, and light. Rubens broke with the Flemish tradition of painting small, detailed pictures. His were huge canvases filled with human figures. He was given many more commissions for large pictures than he could possibly handle. Therefore he often painted only a small, colored sketch. Then his assistants transferred the sketch to a large canvas and completed the painting under Ruben's supervision. The accomplishments of the Dutch painter Rembrandt are among the most outstanding in history.

Hans Holbein. Hopper Drawings. Edward Hopper. Leonardo Drawings. Leonardo da Vinci. Sargent Portrait Drawings: 42 Works. John Singer Sargent. Old Master Portrait Drawings: 47 Works. James Spero. Picasso Line Drawings and Prints. Pablo Picasso. Schiele Drawings: 44 Works. Egon Schiele.

Michelangelo Life Drawings. Amy Lusebrink. Madeleine Orban-Szontagh. Ancient Greek Designs. Art Nouveau Motifs and Vignettes. Authentic Chinese Cut-Paper Designs. Dragons: A Book of Designs. Celtic and Old Norse Designs. Courtney Davis. Decorative Flower and Leaf Designs. Richard Hofmann. Traditional Chinese Designs. Stanley Appelbaum.


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