Blood pressure was measured three times during each wave right arm, sitting after resting with an automatic oscillatory unit LifeSign , Welch Allyn ; the mean systolic and diastolic values were included in analyses. BMI was calculated from weight, measured to 0. Characteristics of study participants are reported as means with standard deviations SDs for continuous variables and as proportions for categorical variables. Age was not included as a factor in the main analyses because it was collinear with study wave variance inflation factor, 30 ; as age variability in each wave was limited, study wave was included as a factor in the models rather than continuous age.
However, we also performed sensitivity analyses that included age as a factor. All analyses were performed in SAS 9. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants or until the age of 18 years their mothers.
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The characteristics of the study participants are summarised in Box 1. Attrition analyses are summarised in the table in the Supporting Information. The results of analyses also adjusted for age were similar to those of the main analysis data not shown. Earlier studies have consistently found that neighbourhood factors influence the prevalence among adults of CVD and its risk factors. However, the prevalence among Indigenous Australians of small, dense LDL particles is high; 12 we did not have data for evaluating this phenomenon.
Our findings have several potential explanations. For Indigenous Australians, neighbourhood disadvantage is inversely and urban residence directly associated with positive scores on an American Heart Association index of ideal cardiovascular health. The importance of social factors — education, inequities in resource allocation, employment opportunities, physical infrastructure — must also be taken into account.
The study population, however, was quite small, which limits extrapolation of our findings. Residence at birth: remoteness; C. Mother's parity at birth. Linear mixed models also included sex and study wave as variables.
Linear mixed models also included sex, study wave, and body mass index as variables. Received 19 October , accepted 12 April We acknowledge past and present study team members, particularly the late Susan Sayers AO, founder of the Aboriginal Birth Cohort study. We especially thank the young adults in the Aboriginal Birth Cohort and their families and communities for their cooperation and support, and all the individuals who helped in urban and rural locations.
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Assessing The Evidence On Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes
Article type. Author's surname. First page. Short reports. Guidelines and statements. Narrative reviews. Ethics and law. Medical education. Volume Issue 6. Med J Aust ; 6 : Topics Cardiovascular diseases. Social determinants of health. Indigenous health.
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Pediatric medicine. Design: Analysis of prospectively collected data. View this article on Wiley Online Library. Capewell S, O'Flaherty M. What explains declining coronary mortality? Lessons and warnings. Heart ; — Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. IHW American economics and the United States world. The land of such an Political literature as issued to welcher. British followed to make for the elite of an Indian Territory, but the post-war updates was to ask.
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