After Paoli was victorious, he turned against Napoleon and the Bonaparte family, forcing them to flee back to France. Napoleon then turned his attention to a career in the army there. Upon his return from Corsica in , Napoleon made a name for himself and won a promotion by helping to defeat the British at Toulon and regain that territory for France.
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After being imprisoned for ten days on suspicion of treason and refusing assignment to lead the Army of the West, Napoleon was assigned to work for the map department of the French war office. His military career nearly ended, but when forces loyal to the king attempted to regain power in Paris in , Napoleon was called in to stop the Napoleon Bonaparte.
As a reward he was appointed commander of the Army of the Interior. Later that year Napoleon met Josephine de Beauharnais — , and they were married in March Soon the French troops were winning battle after battle against the Italians and Austrians. Napoleon advanced on Vienna, Austria, and engineered the signing of a treaty that gave France control of Italy.
Napoleon returned to Paris a hero, and he soon decided to invade Egypt. He sailed from Toulon, France, in May with an army of thirty-five thousand men. With only a few losses, all of lower Egypt came under Napoleon's control. He set about reorganizing the government, the postal service, and the system for collecting taxes.
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He also helped build new hospitals for the poor. However, at this time a group of countries had banded together to oppose France. Austrian and Russian forces had regained control of almost all of Italy.
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Then, in August , the British destroyed French ships in the Battle of the Nile, leaving the French army cut off from its homeland. Napoleon was named first consul, or head of the government, and he received almost unlimited powers. After Austria and England ignored his calls for peace, he led an army into Italy and defeated the Austrians in the Battle of Marengo This brought Italy back under French control.
The Treaty of Amiens in March ended the war with England for the time being. Napoleon also restored harmony between the Roman Catholic Church and the French government. He improved conditions within France as well by, among other things, establishing the Bank of France, reorganizing education, and reforming France's legal system with a new set of laws known as the Code Napoleon.
By the popular Napoleon was given the position of first consul for life, with the right to name his replacement. In he had his title changed to emperor. War resumed after a new coalition was formed against France.
In the British destroyed French naval power in the Battle of Trafalgar. Napoleon, however, was able to defeat Russia and Austria in the Battle of Austerlitz. In Napoleon's forces destroyed the Prussian army; after the Russians came to the aid of Prussia and were defeated themselves, Alexander I — of Russia made peace at Tilsit in June Napoleon was now free to reorganize western and central Europe as he pleased.
After Sweden was defeated in with Russia's help, only England remained to oppose Napoleon. His training as a craftsman made him more accomplished as an inventor. As a journalist his most important journalistic influence was his brother James who is considered the first fighter for journalistic freedom in America. This legacy is framed and hanged in many newsroom walls in America. Franklin was an ambitious entrepreneur , disciplined and industrious, working hard until late at night. He was against slavery as an institution. As a politician he was the first one to propose the union of the colonies for common defense.
He was accused as a royalist but when the time came he stood up for freedom becoming one of the Founding Fathers. Benjamin Franklin genius is centered on the use of his network of business and social connections. He leveraged this network to the benefit of his variety of interests from science and politics to business and journalism.
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On 21 March police killed 69 unarmed people in a protest in Sharpeville against the pass laws. Mandela and his colleagues in the Treason Trial were among thousands detained during the state of emergency. During the trial Mandela married a social worker, Winnie Madikizela, on 14 June They had two daughters, Zenani and Zindziswa. The couple divorced in Days before the end of the Treason Trial, Mandela travelled to Pietermaritzburg to speak at the All-in Africa Conference, which resolved that he should write to Prime Minister Verwoerd requesting a national convention on a non-racial constitution, and to warn that should he not agree there would be a national strike against South Africa becoming a republic.
After he and his colleagues were acquitted in the Treason Trial, Mandela went underground and began planning a national strike for 29, 30 and 31 March. In the face of massive mobilisation of state security the strike was called off early. In June he was asked to lead the armed struggle and helped to establish Umkhonto weSizwe Spear of the Nation , which launched on 16 December with a series of explosions.
He travelled around Africa and visited England to gain support for the armed struggle. He was charged with leaving the country without a permit and inciting workers to strike. He was convicted and sentenced to five years' imprisonment, which he began serving at the Pretoria Local Prison. Within a month police raided Liliesleaf, a secret hideout in Rivonia, Johannesburg, used by ANC and Communist Party activists, and several of his comrades were arrested. On 9 October Mandela joined 10 others on trial for sabotage in what became known as the Rivonia Trial.
While facing the death penalty his words to the court at the end of his famous "Speech from the Dock" on 20 April became immortalised:. Goldberg was sent to Pretoria Prison because he was white, while the others went to Robben Island. He was not allowed to attend their funerals. Kathrada joined them in October. When he returned to the prison in November after prostate surgery, Mandela was held alone. Justice Minister Kobie Coetsee visited him in hospital. Later Mandela initiated talks about an ultimate meeting between the apartheid government and the ANC.