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Sin-Wai Chan. Routledge Taylor and Francis. Discuss this Review. Translation technology is defined broadly to include both machine translation and computer-aided translation, as well as skills and tools related to these. The editor, Chan Sin-wai, argues that there have been no major reference works published on the subject since Therefore, this first edition of ''The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology'' is a major contribution to the rapidly-growing and rapidly-changing field.

Part I, ''General issues in translation technology'', covers the history of the field, defines key concepts, and introduces various approaches to machine translation MT and computer-aided translation CAT. Chapter 1, ''The development of translation technology: '' by Chan Sin-wai, reviews the history of the field. The field began with the first conference on machine translation in and the first demonstration of Russian-to-English machine translation in By the 's, it had become clear that ''fully automatic high-quality machine translation'' was several decades from being realized, and research shifted towards computer-aided translation, which would be ''better, quicker, and cheaper'' Sin-wai, 4.

By the mid 's, the limitations of computer memory and storage space posed less of a problem for machine translation, and both commercial and academic researchers took up machine translation research again. As personal computers, word processing, and the Internet developed in the 's, machine translation went through a period of rapid growth.


This growth expanded into more and more languages globally throughout the 's and continues to expand today. Chapter 2, ''Computer-aided translation: Major concepts'' by Chan Sin-wai, defines the key components of computer-aided translation systems. These include ''simulativity,'' ''emulativity,'' ''productivity,'' ''compatibility,'' ''controllability,'' ''customizability,'' ''collaborativity''.

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This chapter makes use of several diagrams, flowcharts, tables, and other visuals to aid in defining these concepts. These CAT systems match new words and phrases to previous translations, stored in memory as references, to suggest new translations. These matches can either be exact, verbatim matches or ''fuzzy'' matches, based on probabilities.

The chapter then describes several practical features of CAT systems, such as quality assurance controls, features for specific projects such as localization, management of large databases, and integration with other applications such as websites or word processing software. Chapter 4, ''Computer-aided translation: Translator training'' by Lynne Bowker, is targeted at translators and translation companies who may be interested in learning about the benefits of CAT.

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It discusses a variety of software options for translators and makes suggestions for training translators to use them. This chapter also considers some of the difficulties translators and translator trainers face when learning these technologies. It then provides a brief overview of various approaches to MT, including the interlingua approach, rule-based machine translation, example-based machine translation, statistical machine translation, and hybrid systems. The chapter also briefly covers methods of translation quality and accuracy evaluation.

Chapter 6, ''Machine translation: History of research and applications'' by W. John Hutchins, again reviews the history of MT. Unlike previews chapters, this review focuses on the theoretical background behind research decisions and gives more technical details about each major accomplishment made in the field. This chapter also delves into the details of corpus-based translation and modern speech translation applications.

Chapters 7 through 11 provide brief overviews of five different approaches to machine translation: ''Example-based machine translation,'' ''Open-source machine translation technology,'' ''Pragmatics-based machine translation,'' ''Rule-based machine translation,'' and ''Statistical machine translation.

Chapter 12, ''Evaluation in machine translation and computer-aided translation'' by Kit Chunyu and Billy Wong Tak-ming, explores methods for quantifying the effectiveness of translation technology systems. It again begins with a brief definition of terms, a brief history of the field, and a brief overview of various systems. It then recommends general evaluative criteria to use when comparing two or more translation technology systems, such as error analysis and the use of an intelligibility scale by human or automatic judges.

Chapter 13, ''The teaching of machine translation: The Chinese University of Hong Kong as a case study'' by Cecilia Wong Shuk Man, begins with a history of the field before detailing a case study in the teaching of translation technology. The chapter outlines the curriculum for two courses, including a list of topics covered, an overview of learning outcomes, and hands-on activities for each. Chapters 14 through 23 each provide a brief historical overview of the field as it developed in various countries. Early history in particular varied widely from country to country, but since the invention of the Internet, collaboration has become more commonplace.

Each country also faced unique challenges based on their native language s and the languages they chose to target. Part III, ''Specific topics in translation technology,'' focuses more on academic and technical issues encountered by people working in the field, such as corpora selection and part-of-speech tagging. Chapter 24, ''Alignment'' by Lars Ahrenberg, discusses the process of aligning the words and sentences from one language with the words and sentences of another language.

Languages rarely have a one-to-one mapping as there are differences in word order, affixes, and the number of words it takes to express any given concept. Whole sentences, words, and individual morphemes may need to be aligned for proper translation to take place.

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This chapter discusses some of the common notation used in alignment and several of the statistical methods, models, and other algorithms used when aligning texts. Similar to alignment or glossing, the translator takes chunks the size of words or phrases and places the original and the translation side-by-side to create a bilingual text, or ''bitext.

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Bitext is also useful since it can be presented in a number of visual ways. This chapter includes appendices which demonstrate the use of bitext in localization systems. Chapter 26, ''Computational lexicography'' by Zhang Yihua, describes the process of compiling digital bilingual dictionaries using computational methods. The chapter briefly describes some of the advantages of computer-aided lexicography, such as data storage, and then delves into the use of corpora and databases to generate dictionaries. Chapter 27, ''Concordancing'' by Federico Zenettin, describes the use of contextual information in machine translation.

A concordance usually provides the language surrounding a given word or phrase. Computer-generated concordances help translators understand the kinds of syntactic and pragmatic patterns in which a word occurs. This chapter also briefly covers the use of regular expressions to aid in searching corpora for concordances.

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Chapter 28, ''Controlled language'' by Rolf Schwitter, describes the use of restricted language to aid in language learning and in translation. A controlled language is a simpler subset of a language from which more complex concepts can be built. For example, the controlled language Basic English ''consists of only words'' p.

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One method of translation is to first translate the source language into its basic form, and then translate it into the basic form of the target language. This can ''limit lexical ambiguity'' p. The chapter goes on to discuss several examples of controlled languages and their various uses. Chapter 29, ''Corpus'' by Li Lan, discusses the history of corpora, which are bodies of texts. Machine-readable corpora became popular tools for linguists starting in the 's and today there are dozens of corpora ranging in size from a few hundred thousand words to billions of words. This chapter lists some of the larger corpora commonly used in various languages, then describes how they are used to inform translation technology, including both qualitative and quantitative research.

Chapter 30, ''Editing in translation technology'' by Christophe Declercq, looks into several aspects of editing. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology provides a state-of-the art survey of the field of computer-assisted translation. It is the first definitive reference to provide a comprehensive overview of the general, regional and topical aspects of this increasingly significant area of study.

The Encyclopedia is divided into three parts: Part One presents general issues in translation technology, such as its history and development, translator training and various aspects of machine translation, including a valuable case study of its teaching at a major university; Part Two discusses national and regional developments in translation technology, offering contributions covering the crucial territories of China, Canada, France, Hong Kong, Japan, South Africa, Taiwan, the Netherlands and Belgium, the United Kingdom and the United States Part Three evaluates specific matters in translation technology, with entries focused on subjects such as alignment, bitext, computational lexicography, corpus, editing, online translation, subtitling and technology and translation management systems.

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology draws on the expertise of over fifty contributors from around the world and an international panel of consultant editors to provide a selection of articles on the most pertinent topics in the discipline. All the articles are self-contained, extensively cross-referenced, and include useful and up-to-date references and information for further reading.

It will be an invaluable reference work for anyone with a professional or academic interest in the subject. Passar bra ihop. Ladda ned. Recensioner i media. Bloggat om Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Tec