Early Christianity covers the period from its origins c. This period is typically divided into the Apostolic Age c. The first Christians were Jewish Christians, either by birth or conversion "proselytes" in Biblical terminology. Eventually, the inclusion of Gentile God-fearers lead to a departure from Jewish customs, and the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. A variety of Christianities developed throughout the 2nd and 3rd century, alongside a developing proto-orthodoxy, which eventually defined orthodoxy and heresy.
Proto-orthodoxy developed in tandem with the growing number of Christians, which necessitated the development of ecclesiastical st. Athanasius of Alexandria was traditionally thought to be the author of the Athanasian Creed, and gives his name to its common title. The Latin name of the creed, Quicunque vult, is taken from the opening words, "Whosoever wishes". The creed has been used by Christian churches since the sixth century. It is the first creed in which the equality of the three persons of the Trinity is explicitly stated.
It differs from the Nicene-Constantinopolitan and Apostles' Creeds in the inclusion of anathemas, or condemnations of those who disagree with the creed like the original Nicene Creed. Widely accepted among Western Christians, including the Roman Catholic Church and some Anglican churches, Lutheran churches it is considered part of Lutheran confessions in the Book of Concord , and ancient, liturgical churches generally, the Ath.
First page of John's Gospel from the Coronation Gospels, c. The verse has been a source of much debate among Bible scholars and translators. The phrase "the Word" a translation of the Greek word "Logos" is widely interpreted as referring to Jesus, as indicated in other verses later in the same chapter. They also set the stage for the later development of Trinitarian theology early in the. Christianity has been, historically a Middle Eastern religion with its origin in Judaism. It is contrasted with Western Christianity which developed in Western Europe.
Christianity was an underground movement having been in conflict with Judaism and then also with the Pagan Roman Empire see Persecution of early Christians by the Romans. Much of early Christianity as an underground movement had no above ground or established churches as many of the Early Christians attended Synagogue and prayer meetings. Millennialism from millennium, Latin for "a thousand years" , or chiliasm from the Greek equivalent , is a belief advanced by some religious denominations that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth prior to the final judgment and future eternal state of the "World to Come".
Christianity and Judaism have both produced messianic movements which featured millennialist teachings - such as the notion that an earthly kingdom of God was at hand. Similarities to millennialism appear in Zoroastrianism, which identified successive thousand-year periods, each of which will end in a cataclysm of heresy and destruction, until the final destruction of evil and of the spirit of evil by a triumphant king of peace at the end of the final millennial age.
Scholars have also linked various other social and political moveme. Oneness Pentecostalism also known as Apostolic or Jesus' Name Pentecostalism is a movement within the Christian family of churches known as Pentecostalism. It derives its distinctive name from its teaching on the Godhead, which is popularly referred to as the "Oneness doctrine," a form of Modalistic Monarchianism.
This stands in sharp contrast to the doctrine of three distinct and eternal persons posited by Trinitarian theology. Oneness believers baptize in the name of Jesus Christ, rather than using the Trinitarian formula. The Oneness Pentecostal movement first emerged in America around as the result of doctrinal disputes within the nascent Pentecostal movement and claims an estimated 24 million adherents today. Main language groups in Iron-Age Italy and environs.
Some of those languages have left very little evidence, and their classification is quite uncertain. The Italic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken in the Italian peninsula in the first millennium BC. The best-known member is Latin, the only language of the group that survived into the common era. All other Italic languages became extinct by the 1st century BC, when their speakers were assimilated into the Roman Empire and switched to some form of Latin.
Those extinct members are known only from inscriptions in archaeological finds. Other Indo-European languages once spoken in the peninsula, whose inclusion in the Italic branch is.
The Arian controversy was a series of Christian theological disputes that arose between Arius and Athanasius of Alexandria, two Christian theologians from Alexandria, Egypt. The most important of these controversies concerned the substantial relationship between God the Father and God the Son. The deep divisions created by the disputes were an ironic consequence of Emperor Constantine's efforts to unite Christianity and establish a single, imperially approved version of the faith during his reign.
There was no formal resolution or formal schism, though the Trinitarian faction ultimately gained the upper hand in the imperial Church; outside the Roman Empire this faction was not immediately so influential. Arianism continued to be preached inside and outside the Empire for some time without the ble.
Sabellian Demonstratives : Emmanuel Dupraz :
The same term was later also applied to the Holy Spirit in order to designate him as being "same in essence" with the Father and the Son. Those notions became cornerstones of theology in Nicene Christianity, and also represent one of the most important theological concepts within the Trinitarian doctrinal understanding of God.
From its Greek original, the term was translated into other languages. The incarnation illustrated with scenes from the Old Testaments and the Gospels, with the Trinity in the central column, by Fridolin Leiber, 19th century The "Heavenly Trinity" joined to the "Earthly Trinity" through the incarnation of the Son, by Murillo, c. The doctrine of the incarnation, then, entails that Jesus is fully God and fully human.
In the incarnation, as traditionally defined by those Churches that adhere to the Council of Chalcedon, the divine nature of the Son was united but not mixed with human nature in one divine Person, Jesus Christ, who was both "truly God and truly man". This is central to the traditional faith held by most Christians. Alternative views on the subject Se. Satellite photograph illustrating slash-and-burn forest clearing along the Xingu River in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, also called fire-fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden. The method begins by cutting down the trees and woody plants in an area. The downed vegetation, or "slash", is then left to dry, usually right before the rainiest part of the year.
Then, the biomass is burned, resulting in a nutrient-rich layer of ash which makes the soil fertile, as well as temporarily eliminating weed and pest species. After about three to five years, the plot's productivity decreases due to depletion of nutrients along with weed and pest invasion, causing the farmers to abandon the field and move over to a new area.
The time it takes for a swidden to recover depends on the location and can be as little as five years to more than twenty years, after which the plot can be slas. She was also honoured in the May lustratio of the fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, and during Roman marriages and funeral rites. Ceres is the only one of Rome's many agricultural deities to be listed among the Dii Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy. They became involved in several wars with the Roman Republic until the 1st century BC.
- A vocabulary of Oscan : including the Oscan and Samnite glosses in SearchWorks catalog.
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An Oscan-speaking people, the Samnites probably originated as an offshoot of the Sabines. The Samnites formed a confederation, consisting of four tribes: the Hirpini, Caudini, Caraceni, and Pentri. Map showing location of the Hernici in central Italy. For many years of the early Roman republic they were allied with Rome and fought alongside it against its neighbours.
Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd-century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. Eventually, the inclusion of Gentile God-fearers lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion, and the condemnation of Jewish Christians as heretics.
In the Ante-Nicene Period literally before Nicaea following the Apostolic Age, both incredible diversity and unifying characteristics lacking in the apostolic period emerged simultaneously. Part of the unifying trend was an increasingly harsh rejection of Judaism and of Jewish practices.
Forms and Functions
By the beginning of the Nicene period, the Christian faith had spread throughout Western Eur. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time.
He also produced a biographical work on the first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great, who ruled between and AD. During the Council of Antioch, which was convened in and held shortly before the First Ecumenical Council in the Bythnian city of Nicaea, he. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Christian theology: Christian theology is the study of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument.
Theology might be undertaken to help the theologian better understand Christian tenets; to make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions; to defend Christianity against objections and criticism; to facilitate reforms in the Christian church and to assist in the propagation of Christianity. Divisions of Christian theology There are many methods of categorizing different approaches to Christian theology.
For a historical analysis, see the main article on the History of Christian theology. Sub-disciplines Christian theologians may be specialists in one or more theological sub-disciplines. These are the kinds of phrases that one finds in c. This is a list of some of the more notable people excommunicated by the Catholic Church.
It includes only excommunications acknowledged or imposed by a decree of the Pope or a bishop in communion with him. Latae sententiae excommunications, those that automatically affect classes of people members of certain associations or those who perform actions such as directly violating the seal of confession or carrying out an abortion , are not listed unless confirmed by a bishop or ecclesiastical tribunal with respect to certain individuals. In Roman Catholic canon law, excommunication is a censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behavior or attitude that incurred the penalty, repent, and return to full communion.
After Emperors Licinius and Constantine legalized and formalized the Christianity of the time in the Roman Empire, Constantine sought to unify the newly recognized Church and remove theological divisions. Homoousian Christians, including Athanasius of Alexandria, used Arius and Arianism as epithets to describe those who disagreed with their doctrine of coequal Trinitarianism, a Homoousian.
It is not in the original text of the Creed, attributed to the First Council of Constantinople , the second ecumenical council, which says that the Holy Spirit proceeds "from the Father", without additions of any kind, such as "and the Son" or "alone". Whether that term Filioqu. His name became synonymous in later literature for someone asserting that Christ was not God. Marcellus, in later life a staunch opponent of Arianism, was deposed in but reinstated by the Synod of Serdica in , which also made Photinus bishop of Sirmium. Gerlitz, Peter , Aufierchristliche Einflilsse auf die Entwicklung des christlichen.
Trinitatsdogmas, zugleich ein religions- und dogmengeschichtlicher Versuch zur Erklarung der Herkunft der Homousie, Leiden: Brill, pp. Dinsen, Frauke , Homoousios. Stead, Christopher, Divine Substance, pp. Select Treatises of St. Retrieved 2 June Latourette, Revised Edition p. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 29 May Tertullian, of Carthage. Schaff, Phillip.
Meaning of "Sabellian" in the English dictionary
Dionysius, bishop of Rome. Early Christian Writings. Retrieved 28 May Hippolytus, of Rome. Anthony Buzzard July Elohim and Other Terms. Retrieved 2 March Skynner, Robert. Athanasius, of Alexandria. Dulle, Jason. Gill, Kenneth. Stanley M. Eerdmans Publishing Company, , Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe, trans. Robert Ernest Wallis, vol.
Sabellian demonstratives : forms and functions
John Henry MacMahon , vol. Cleveland Coxe, vol. Samuel Macauley Jackson, ed. James R.
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Robert A. Sabellianism topic In Christianity, Sabellianism in the Eastern church or Patripassianism in the Western church is the belief that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three different modes or aspects of God, as opposed to a Trinitarian view of three distinct persons within the Godhead. Sabellian topic Sabellian can refer to Sabellian, a believer in Sabellianism, the nontrinitarian belief that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, rather than three distinct persons in God Himself Sabellian languages, another name for the Osco-Umbrian languages Sabellians a collective ethnonym for a group of Italic peoples or tribes inhabiting central Italy at the time of the rise of Rome.
Sabellians topic Sabellians is a collective ethnonym for a group of Italic peoples or tribes inhabiting central and southern Italy at the time of the rise of Rome. Aspect religion topic Aspect is a term used across several religions and in theology to describe a particular manifestation or conception of a deity or other divine being.
Jesus topic Jesus[e] c. Trinitarianism contrasts with positions such as Binitarianism one deity in two persons, or two deities and Monarchianism no plurality of persons within God , of which Modalistic Monarchianism one deity revealed in three modes and Unitarianism one deity in one person a Folders related to Trinity: Christianity Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Latin Church Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Christian terminology Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Sabellius topic Sabellius fl. Wace and Bunsen have both suggested that Calixtus' action Folders related to Sabellius: 3rd-century Christian theologians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 3rd-century Christians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 3rd-century theologians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Patripassianism topic In Christian theology, patripassianism as it is referred to in the Western church is a version of Sabellianism in the Eastern church and a version of modalism, modalistic monarchianism, or modal monarchism.
Modalistic Monarchianism topic Modalistic Monarchianism also known as Oneness Christology is a Christian theology that upholds the oneness of God as well as the deity of Jesus Christ. For this reason they find it suitable to ascribe all worship appropriate to God alone to Jesus also Folders related to Modalistic Monarchianism: Heresy in ancient Christianity Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Nontrinitarianism Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Oneness Pentecostalism Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
List of philosophies topic Philosophical schools of thought and philosophical movements. Click to view More Sabellian languages -- Demonstratives. Content Types A limited number of items are shown. Click to view More Electronic books. Summary This book describes the semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic features of Sabellian demonstratives. It contains new hypotheses on the epigraphic genres in Republican Italy and a reconstruction of these grammatical items' Italic origins based on typological principles.
Notes Description based upon print version of record. New search features Acronym Blog Free tools. What does Umb stand for?
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Umb stands for Umbrian linguistics. Suggest new definition.