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Some years later, another portrait highlighted the artistic contribution of a person of African descent Prince Demah Barnes is one of the earliest enslaved African American artists whose name is linked to his work. After acquiring artistic training in Boston and London, he executed portraits of the white friends of his owner following the conventions of the period, representing them as men of taste and learning. These works are a reminder that the Atlantic World was not limited to the perspective or skill of one culture or community.

As makers, observers, and actors, people of color also shaped the modern global world.

North America Geography/North American Countries

In geography as well as industry, the trade and labor of enslaved people bound the Atlantic World together. Within this network, the plantation cultures of the Caribbean, southern North American colonies, and South America were of central importance for those invested in the production of luxury commodities like sugar and tobacco that answered the appetites of European and colonial American consumers. Furniture was also a part of this economy.

Made fashionable by the English furniture maker Thomas Chippendale, mahogany became the wood of choice for furnishing the eighteenth-century homes of the elite, from London to Newport, Rhode Island While the design of these cabinets, chairs, and tables was informed by European Rococo and Asian styles, the wood itself was sourced from South American forests and harvested by enslaved labor.

Careers were made in the ongoing contest of Atlantic empires.

Atlantic World

A seventeenth-century portrait by Anthony van Dyck , a Flemish artist to the English court, represents Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick Another such case from the eighteenth century is the U. Born and raised on the Caribbean islands of Nevis and Saint Croix, Hamilton came of age within a transnational milieu of imperial conflict and economic competition. In the period of the American Revolution, Hamilton rose to prominence as a lawyer, soldier, and statesmen—a trusted advisor to George Washington and the first secretary of the Treasury.

As much as the institution of slavery was an Atlantic network, so too were efforts to abolish it.

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At the turn of the nineteenth century, abolitionist campaigns—spearheaded by formerly enslaved people, white politicians, and religious societies, in particular the Quakers—urged public opinion against the slave trade. These efforts were transatlantic, as black and white American supporters provided accounts of the cruelty of slavery that contributed to the arguments and legislation put forward by British advocates.

Art, too, played a role in changing hearts and minds. Represented on medallions, teapots , or other decorative objects, the seal aestheticized the campaign, appealing to the tastes of cultured white women and men. A similar effort to articulate the concerns of abolition through art was also ventured by an American artist with ties to the Philadelphia community of antislavery Quakers.

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The painting further emphasizes the transatlantic nature of abolitionism, as Jennings painted it in London, where he was studying art, and shipped it to Philadelphia for display at the Library Company of Philadelphia. The Atlantic World was formed by the global turn in culture. Works of art from the fifteenth to the early nineteenth century visualize a world drawing more closely together, reflecting the diversity of a new global realm fueled by financial speculation and material desire, and produced by the labor of colonized peoples.

The cultures and events that came together around the Atlantic in the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries signify one of the earliest instantiations of the modern world.


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Visual Culture of the Atlantic World

Architecture and Empire in Jamaica. Peck, Amelia, et al. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, See on MetPublications. Quilley, Geoff, and Kay Dian Kriz, eds. The Atlantic is, generally speaking, S-shaped and narrow in relation to its length. The area of the Atlantic without its dependent seas is approximately 31,, square miles 82,, square km , and with them its area is about 41,, square miles ,, square km.

It has an average depth with its seas of 10, feet 3, metres and a maximum depth of 27, feet 8, metres in the Puerto Rico Trench , north of the island of Puerto Rico. Southward it again becomes broader and is bordered by simple coasts almost without islands; between Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope the ocean approaches Antarctica on a broad front nearly 4, miles 6, km wide. The continents on both sides of the Atlantic tend to slope toward it, so that it receives the waters of a great proportion of the major rivers of the world; these include the St.

In contrast to the South Atlantic, the North Atlantic is rich in islands, in the variety of its coastline, and in tributary seas. This article treats the physical and human geography of the Atlantic Ocean as a whole. For detailed discussion of the physical and chemical oceanography and marine geology of the Atlantic Ocean, see ocean. Various boundaries have been used to define particularly the northern but also the southern limits of the Atlantic Ocean.

Atlantic Ocean | Location, Facts, & Maps | olagynulehyb.gq

There are no universally accepted boundary conventions. In the north the situation is further complicated by the fact that the Arctic Ocean frequently is considered to be a dependent sea of the Atlantic. This is because the Arctic basin —which stretches from the Bering Strait across the North Pole to Spitsbergen and Greenland —resembles a semienclosed basin i.

In this article, however, the Arctic Ocean is considered a separate entity. Perhaps a more appropriate method for determining this boundary is by following the division between the distinctive Arctic and Atlantic water masses: the relatively warm and saline waters of the Norwegian Sea are assigned to the Atlantic, and the cold, lower-salinity waters of the Greenland Sea to the Arctic. There is less ambiguity about the southern boundaries of the Atlantic Ocean, although the name Southern Ocean has been given to the waters surrounding Antarctica.

The outstanding feature of the Atlantic floor is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , an immense median mountain range extending throughout the length of the Atlantic, claiming the centre third of the ocean bed, and reaching roughly 1, miles 1, km in breadth. This feature, though of tremendous proportions, is but the Atlantic portion of the world-encircling oceanic ridge.

In some places the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reaches above sea level to form islands. Iceland, which rises from its crest, is rent by an extension of the median rift valley. East and west of the ridge, about 12, to 18, feet 3, to 5, metres below sea level, lie basins that seem to present a relatively even profile, but parts of the basin floor are as mountainous as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , while other parts are extremely smooth. The former are rocky abyssal hills ; the latter are the abyssal plains that form the upper surface of great ponds of mud that fill many of the broad depressions.

Large ancient volcanoes are found singly or in rows in the basins; these rise to form seamounts and, occasionally, islands.