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Aguirre-Molina, eds. Castro, F. Baezconde-Garbanati, and H. Beltran Risk factors for coronary heart disease in Hispanic populations: A review. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 7 2 Chiodo, L. Kanten, M. Gerety, C. Mulrow, and J. Coreil Functional status of Mexican American nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Coreil, J.

Markides, and L. Preventive Medicine Derenowski, J. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing Diehl, A. Stern Special health problems of Mexican-Americans: Obesity, gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Advances in Internal Medicine Espino, D. Burge Comparisons of age of Mexican American and non-Hispanic white nursing home residents. Family Medicine Burge, and C. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice Parra, and R. Franco, L. Stern, M. Rosenthal, S. Haffner, H. Hazuda, and P. Comeaux Prevalence, detection, and control of hypertension in a biethnic community.

American Journal of Epidemiology Gillespie, F. Sullivan What do current estimates of Hispanic mortality really tell us? Unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America. Ginzberg, E. Journal of the American Medical Association 2 LaCroix, D.

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Everett, and M. Kovar Aging in the eighties: The prevalence of comorbidity and its association with disability. Advanced data. Vital and Health Statistics Gutierrez-Ramirez, A. Valdez, and O. Carter-Pokras Cancer. Haffner, S. Stern, H. Hazuda, M. Rosenthal, and J. Knapp The role of behavioral variables and fat patterning in explaining ethnic differences in serum lipids and lipoproteins. Hayes-Bautista, D. Furino, ed.


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Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Haynes, S. Harvey, H. Montes, H. Nicken, and B. American Journal of Public Health 80 suppl. Hazuda, H. Haffner, M. Stern, and C. Eifler Effects of acculturation and socioeconomic status on obesity and diabetes in Mexican Americans. Keefe, S. Padilla Chicano Ethnicity. Kraus, J. Borhani, and C.

Franti Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and risk of coronary heart disease. Lacayo, C. Stanford and F. Torres-Gil, eds. Amityville, NY: Baywood. Markides, K. Boldt, and L. Ray Sources of helping and intergenerational solidarity: A three-generations study of Mexican Americans.

Journal of Gerontology Coreil The health of southwestern Hispanics: An epidemiologic paradox. Public Health Reports Coreil, and L. Rogers Aging and health among southwestern Hispanics. Markides, ed. Martin, with Gomez, E. Monograph of the Center for Mexican American Studies. Austin: University ofTexas Press. Ray, C.

Stroup-Benham, and F. Mauer, K. Everhart, W. Knowler, T. Shawker, and H. Roth Risk factors for gallstone disease in the Hispanic populations of the United States. Mendes de Leon, C. Markides Depressive symptoms among Mexican Americans: A three-generations study. Mitchell, B.

An aging and increasingly Hispanic population poses challenges for social welfare policy in the US

Hazuda, S. Haffner, J. Patterson, and M. Stern Myocardial infarction in Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Circulation Hazuda, and J. Patterson Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Montes, J. Jones, ed. New York: Springer-Verlag. Moscicki, E. Locke, D. Rae, and J. Rae, D. Regier, and B. Gaviria and J. Arana, eds. Vital and Health Statistics 3 Pappas, G. Gergen, and M. Paz, J. McAdoo, ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Polednak, A. New York: Oxford University Press.

Aging Latinos: Increasing diversity will increase challenges for aging network

Ramirez de Arellano, A. Rogers, R. Rosenwaike, ed. New York: Greenwood Press. Rosenwaike, I. International Migration Review Sabogal, F. Marin, R. Otero-Sabogal, B. Marin, and E. Perez-Stable Hispanic familism and acculturation: What changes and what doesn't? Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences Samet, J. Coultas, C. Howard, B. Skipper, and C.

Objectives

Hanis Diabetes, gallbladder disease, obesity, and hypertension among Hispanics in New Mexico. Schoen, R. Nelson Mortality by cause among Spanish-surnamed Californians, Social Science Quarterly Siegel, J. Passel Coverage of the Hispanic population of the United States in the census. The American Psychiatric Association digested several recent studies in a fact sheet. According to research reported in Health Services Research in , 40 percent of whites with a probable need for mental health services reported that they would seek treatment, versus only 27 percent of Latinos.

In addition, in April , Mental Health America launched a suite of online mental health screening tools on its website www. In analyzing a sample of over 50, screens, MHA found that significant percentages of Latino respondents indicated that they would either self-monitor their mental health or seek guidance from a peer. According to US Census data , prior to the passage of the Affordable Care Act, 30 percent of Hispanics lacked health insurance, versus 11 percent of non-Hispanic whites.

Although no overall population differences were evident, Puerto Rican women were found to spend almost twice as many years with ADL disability compared to Puerto Rican men 6. Extensive research has been conducted on disability among older Hispanics. This research has led to major advances in our understanding of disability in older Hispanics, but continued research is needed. In the following sections, we highlight areas for future research within each of the four major areas that were described above. Disability prevalence and incidence can be useful measures for evaluating the health of a population.

Older Hispanics may be especially vulnerable to an increase in disability prevalence. Future research should continue to monitor trends in the prevalence and incidence of disability among older Hispanics.

This research will need to pay careful attention to trends in disability for specific Hispanics subpopulations based on nativity, country of origin, and related characteristics. Future research should also focus on evaluating trends of differences in disability between older Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites to determine if disparities are increasing, decreasing, or are remaining stable. This highlights the importance of considering gender differences in the disablement process.

Continued research is needed to identify additional factors that contribute to ethnic disparities in disability between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. The Hispanic paradox has had a considerable influence on disability research. Between and , the total percentage of the Midwest population that was Hispanic increased from 2. The geographic dispersion of U.

Hispanics from the Southwest to the Midwest and Eastern regions of the United States may impact population level health. Using data from the American Community Survey, Mendes de Leon and colleagues observed that Hispanics aged 50 and older living in the Midwest reported slightly less disability in cognition, mobility, and self-care than Southwest Hispanics. The authors propose that these regional differences among Hispanics may reflect a stronger impact of positive health selection for Midwest Hispanics than Southwest Hispanics. Future research should investigate if the level of regional variation in disability among Hispanics has changed since and possible explanations for this variation.

The importance of early-life risk factors is supported by evidence that nativity, country of origin, and age of migration all influence disability among older Hispanics.

Compromised Birth Outcomes among Mexican-Origin Population at the U. S.-Mexico Border

The next step of this research is to incorporate information from multiple stages of the life course into analyses of disability in old age. Data limitations are an obvious challenge and cohort studies that have been used to study disability in older Hispanics have not followed participants prior to midlife or old age. Using data that have been collected retrospectively may be an alternative in some instances. The knowledge gained from disability research will not improve the lives of older Hispanics if it is not used to inform interventions and public policy.

It is difficult to implement interventions for minority and immigrant populations. The large body of evidence from research on risk factors for disability can be used to identify Hispanics who are at high-risk for becoming disabled and are in the most need for intervention. Interventions that promote physical activity and mental health may be especially effective for preventing or delaying disability.

Future research should focus on identifying other protective factors that can be modified by interventions. Potential areas of research include the impact of diet, nutrition, and management of chronic health conditions on disability risk. Disability research can also inform public policy. Researchers need to make sure that policy makers appreciate the diversity of the Hispanic population and are aware of the impact this diversity has on disability in old age.

Disabled life expectancy is a useful measure of the burden of disability in a population. Older Hispanics spend a greater proportion of old age disabled compared to non-Hispanic whites. Future research should examine differences in disabled life expectancy between specific Hispanic subpopulations. Research into the burden of disability according to country of origin is important because of the increasing number of Hispanics in the United States who are of Cuban, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent. Disability among older Hispanics has been studied extensively.

We identified disparities in disability, heterogeneity of the U. Hispanic population, risk factors for disability, and disabled life expectancy as four major areas of disability research. We also proposed opportunities for research within each of the four research areas. Although not observed by all studies, there is evidence that older Hispanics are more disabled and are more likely to become disabled than older non-Hispanic whites.

These disparities are largely due to lower socioeconomic status and poorer health of older Hispanics, particularly for men.


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The higher levels of disability among Hispanic women compared to non-Hispanic white women remain after controlling for socioeconomic, health, and behavioral factors. Future research should continue to examine trends in disability as younger generations of Hispanics reach old age. Future research should also focus on identifying other factors that contribute to ethnic disparities in disability among women.

Disability trends for Hispanics vary by nativity, country of origin, gender, migration selection, and acculturation. Health selectivity among foreign-born Hispanics who migrate to the United States also contributes to variation in disability trends between Hispanic subpopulations. This is highlighted by the results from Melvin and colleagues and Sheftel in which island-born Puerto Ricans did not show an advantage in disability compared to non-Hispanic whites.

Island Puerto Ricans who come to the mainland U. There is more evidence that older Hispanic women have greater disability compared to non-Hispanic white women, whereas the evidence for differences in disability between Hispanic men and non-Hispanic white men is less consistent. The strength of migration selection may be less for foreign-born Hispanic women compared to Hispanic men Treas, The weaker migration selection may contribute to gender differences in the relationship between Hispanic ethnicity and disability.

Future research should explore regional variations in disability among older Hispanics and potential explanations for this variation. Most studies have focused on identifying factors associated with increased risk for disability. Type 2 diabetes is an especially important risk factor for disability and is associated with an increased risk for disability among older Hispanics with depression, stroke, and physical limitations. Poor physical functioning, depression, and impaired cognition are also important risk factors for disability.

Less research has explored modifiable factors that may protect against disability or be associated with recovery from disability. Potentially modifiable factors that have been associated with lower risk for disability include positive affect and physical activity. Future research should look for opportunities to incorporate risk factors from childhood, young adulthood, and middle age when studying disability. There is also a critical need for research findings to inform interventions and public policy that can address the substantial burden of disability among older Hispanics.

Older Hispanics spend a substantial proportion of old age as disabled, but this proportion varies according to nativity, gender, age of migration and how disability is measured. Less research has examined differences in disabled life expectancy between Hispanic subpopulations. The growing diversity of the U. Hispanic population makes it necessary to examine potential differences in disabled life expectancy between Hispanic subpopulations. The substantial increase in the older population of U. Hispanics has been accompanied by a growing interest in Hispanic health by researchers and policy makers.

Most studies focus on Hispanics as a whole or Mexican-origin adults, the largest of the Hispanic groups in the United States. Hispanics are heterogeneous with regard to nativity and country of origin. As summarized above, there is evidence that Hispanics are more likely to develop disability than non-Hispanic whites. But the functional status of older Hispanics and ability to live independently in later life may vary considerably depending on place of birth, gender, immigration experience e.

Disregarding these important factors results in an incomplete understanding of current disability patterns among older Hispanics. Furthermore, the favorable mortality profile among older Hispanics raises important theoretical and practical questions given the extended years of life is accompanied by a protracted period of disability. The implications of how current disability patterns may affect future demands on family and health care systems are of utmost importance given the high societal cost of long-term care, particularly for a population that is characterized by high rates of poverty, low levels of education, and inadequate access to health care relative to non-Hispanic whites.

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Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume 1. Article Contents. The Life Course. Literature Review. Future Directions. Summary and Conclusions. Conflict of Interest. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Brian Downer, PhD. Michael Crowe, PhD. Kyriakos S Markides, PhD. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Background and Objectives. Al Snih. Diabetes mellitus and incidence of lower body disability among older Mexican Americans. Search ADS. Frailty and incidence of activities of daily living disability among older Mexican Americans. Predictors of recovery in activities of daily living among disabled older Mexican Americans.

Hand grip strength and incident ADL disability in elderly Mexican Americans over a seven-year period. Duration or disadvantage?