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Curiously the electorate did not blame the Nazis for the Parliamentary gridlock but actually supported them in the election.

Professionals and Professionalization

This mixture of Corporate funding and growing electoral support failed to give the Nazis a working majority. The Conservatives then appointed Papen as leader but he was also thwarted by Parliament, they held another election in which yet again failed to get a Parliamentary majority. An election was held in which led to a coalition government with Hitler becoming Chancellor. The rest is history. The parallels between early s Germany and the UK in are disturbing.

The Unfree Professions: German Lawyers, Teachers, and Engineers, 1900-1950

In Germany the opposition parties largely Communists and Nazis were interested in power and did not care about democracy. They played out their battle for power in Parliament by blocking the government at every turn. When the constitution was invoked to allow government by decree it permitted the opposition to claim that the government was authoritarian and had no respect for democracy. In principle Communitarianism, the belief that an individual is secondary to their role in society, need not lead to National Socialism but in practice it can slide that way all too easily.

Twentieth Century history shows that the source of National Socialism is Communitarianism [5,6].


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We can see embryonic National Socialism in the recent utterances of the LibDems. The clearest example is where they avow that they are the ones who know that the EU is essential for the common good and, being convinced of this, will prevent those whom they consider stupid or irresponsible from leaving, even if they are a majority.

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Are those who support leaving the EU like Nazis? The Nazis supported an EEC but those who want independence do not. The support for Leaving the EU comes from an entirely different sector of society from that of the National Socialists. Extending the normal prorogue of Parliament at the end of a Session by a few days hardly represents the seizure of power by an authoritarian government. So what is the basis for the claim that the party that supports independence for the British is stepping in the footsteps of the Nazis?

It is the LibDems who are on the brink of National Socialism, having the same support base and same disregard for democracy. These are people who do not understand that freedom is about Liberty, not Rights. Oxford University Press. The History Learning Site, 9 Mar HA Turner. New York: Oxford University Press There are only two issues of consequence in Scottish politics, Brexit and independence.

Further Thoughts on the Self-image of the Hungarian Attorneys :: Science Publishing Group

When we understand that it was the middle classes, the teachers and lawyers, who supported Hitler the current political crisis in the UK looks very worrying. Will these people support a shift to authoritarianism in the EU if Brexit is overturned? Threatened with the loss of livelihood and frightened by cultural disorientation, many experts embraced neo-conservative ideas and cooperated in Hitler's seizure of power.

The Basic Law

Welcoming the apparent restoration of their authority in the early Third Reich, professionals collaborated in the racial purges and warping of ethics, practices, and organizations under Nazi rule. During the Second World War, the radicalization of SS terror threatened the very survival of the professions so that most practitioners were only too happy to be rescued by Allied victory.

The Political Orientations of Teachers

Exploring the reluctant democratization of the post-war professions, Jarausch concludes with a reflection on the lessons of the German experience for the relationship between professionalism and liberty. United Germany Konrad Hugo Jarausch.


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