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Barry Goodell e. Description: Xiii, p. Summary: In recent years considerable progress has been made in elucidating wood decay mechanisms. This basic knowledge not only has the potential to develop alternative environmentally-benign wood preservatives, but may also impact other areas such as bioremediation and pulp and paper. This book will summarize the latest knowledge of the developments, potential impacts, and applications from some of the world's leading experts.
APA: Goodell, B. Wood deterioration and preservation : advances in our changing world. Chicago: Goodell, Barry. AB - In recent years considerable progress has been made in elucidating wood decay mechanisms. In order to have semi-solid fermentation conditions, this mixture was moistened with Synthetic liquid medium M7 with a ratio of 1; 2.
Two heaps having these dimensions H: 0. They were prepared with the same initial composition of wastes, put under the same conditions during composting and led to the production of C1, C2 and C3, respectively. The composting process was held for 6 mon. In order to maintain aerobic conditions, the heaps were turned manually twice a week during the active phase and once a week during the maturation stage.
Samples were collected at t 0 and monthly according to the method described in Gillet R [ 17 ]. Temperatures were daily measured at different points of the pile and its profiles corresponded to the weekly average. H1 was the control heap whereas H3 and H2 were inoculated with the white rot fungus T. Analytical Methods In this study, the equipments and the methods used to characterize the raw materials were the same as those used to characterize the compost samples.
The fat content was calculated by a four-hour extraction of 2. For this, 2. Absorbance was determined at nm. Phosphorus was determined colorimetrically at nm with a molybdo-vanadate phosphoric acid. Results and Discussion 3. Influence of Inoculation on the Temperature Profile of the Process Temperature is considered as one of the most important parameters of the composting process. Its profiles at different composting steps for the three runs were given in Fig. Temperatures rose rapidly in all the heaps. This increase in temperature was caused by the generation of heat resulting from the aerobic microbial activities on readily available and high decomposable organic materials content in composting mixture [ 21 ].
According to Bernal et al.
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Still, no differences in the temperature profiles were noticed between the three heaps except for a temperature range slightly higher in H3 run until during the first three months of composting, which could be explained by an important biological activity originating from T. In fact, the intake of carbohydrates stimulated more the biological activity in the heap which generated more heat [ 24 ].
At the beginning of the composting process, the treatment seemed to increase the duration of the thermophilic stage. After the inoculation with T. Probably, the heat was generated by the biological activity in the compost following inoculation.
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Gong et al. This increase, which might reflect lignin degradation, did not lead to a high temperature since it was in the maturation phase. This occurred 23 weeks after the beginning of all the runs which was in accordance with the results of Khalil et al. Influence of Inoculation on the pH Profile of the Process The composting process was carried out in a pH zone between 6. In the same heap, there were two successive phases: an alkalization 0—60 d and a stabilization 60— d. During the first phase, the pH increased from the initial values of 6. Alkalization of the medium was essentially due to the disappearance of organic acids including the fatty and phenolic compounds whose degradation Fig.
In fact, unlike H1 and H2, we noted the absence of a pH stabilization in the case of H3 between the 15th and 30th day. It seemed that inoculation at t 0 had the effect of strengthening the degradation of phenolic compounds and therefore, acted on the medium pH.
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Although other works have reported a pH acidification at the beginning of the process, our results were in agreement with those of El Fels et al. OM Degradation According to Fig. As reported by Shilev et al. For each run, OM decreased following a linear function of zero order according to the Eq. Increases in the decomposition rates over time were found in all the three heaps and a higher final rate was observed in run 2.
From Fig. After three months, the decrease rate was lower for all runs. This might be the result of recalcitrant OM decomposition, such as lignin and cellulose [ 28 ]. This indicated that T. These results were similar to those of Lopez et al. In this study, we could say that the most easily available organic matter was affected by inoculation rather than other recalcitrant polymers.
This might suggest that T. Changes in Total Fats Total lipids evolution during composting is an important parameter in the quality of composts.
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In fact, the research work published by Annabi [ 30 ] showed that the presence of lipids in composts gave a certain hydrophobicity. These results might lead us to conclude that lipids could be considered as one of the priority targets of OM for microorganisms through the first fermentation stage and that the inoculation in the third run at t 0 had no effect on this fraction decomposition inside the composting process. The total lipids reduction is attributed to metabolism via the intense activity of the microorganisms which is confirmed by many authors during waste composting [ 31 ].
These results were in agreement with other values related to the GW studies reported by Tuomela et al. The low degradation rate for cellulose could be attributed to an inhibition of cellulose degradation by the high content of lignin in the waste matrix [ 34 ]. Furthermore, Table 2 showed that the lignin amount was not only maintained but it even increased after three months of composting, which was a frequently faced phenomenon according to Eklind and Kirchmann [ 35 ].
Since lignin cannot be synthesized by microorganisms [ 36 ] and due to its extreme resistance to degradation, it is therefore more refractory to microbial decomposition than other biochemical constituents. Consequently, its concentration increased in the OM. This confirmed that under natural conditions, the degradation of lignocellulose, especially lignin, was slow.
Therefore, the inoculation and the establishment of favorable conditions for the development of white rot fungi can ensure a better transformation. Previous studies have reported different and sometimes contradictory rates of lignin and cellulose degradation. The finding of the current work could be comparable to those reported by El Fels et al. In addition to the original lignin content and material thickness, these authors attributed this difference between the two co-composting phases to the conditions of the medium particularly the presence of nitrogen, actinomycetes and decomposing fungi.
WSPH and WSCa Changes Carbohydrates balance during green waste co-composting is mainly due to the natural biological consumption phenomenon and the biodegradation of some parietal compounds such as cellulose. The soluble carbohydrate profile in Fig. The most important reduction occurred during the first two months of composting, i.
Thus sugesting that in this period, the mineralization process, microbial immobilization and non water-soluble formation from complex carbohydrates cellulose, hemicellulose were predominate [ 40 ]. A second slight rise in carbohydrates levels was also observed between d and d, reflecting a subsequent biodegradation of these constituents. Therefore, it could be concluded that the inoculation of H3 at t 0 accelerated the soluble carbohydrates consumption, but the inoculation of H2 during ripening had no effect on this kind of substrate.
Regarding the soluble phenolic compounds progress, Fig. In the composts, the most important phenolic compounds elimination was during the first composting month. This might enable us to conclude that inoculation in run 3 seemed to have an effect on WSPH biodegradation rate during the thermophilic phase. Similar results were reported by Filippi et al. According to Zenjari et al.
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During maturation, Fig. Indeed, according to Alkoaik and Ghaly [ 43 ] simple molecules resulting from complex compound degradations were re-synthesized again to form other complex compounds. The main changes that have been recorded during composting were:. Conclusions The results of this work showed that the inoculation with the white rot fungus T. By contrast, during the maturation, T. Unlike cellulose, lignin degradation occurred mainly at the maturation phase for all the runs but it showed a greater resistance during the active fermentative phase.
During this phase, it was subjected to a partial biotransformation which modified its infrared spectra absorption. In this work, composting physico chemical study was conducted in order to understand the global effect of T. Although this study did not really introduce new concepts about the composting process but it confirmed that lignin degradability is still a complex and unpredictable phenomenon. In depth study of microbial communities and enzymatic pathways implicated in composting are needed to better understand the biodegradation process.
As a potential application, the resulting composts will be used as organic fertilizers in order to improve sandy soil properties.
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Acknowledgments The authors express their gratitude to the Biology Department, to the Algae Biotechnology Unit ENIS, Sfax and to all researchers of Laboratory of olive and fruit trees productivity improvement olive institute, Tunisia for providing their support during this study. References 1.
J Clean Prod. Bioresour Technol. Gabhane J, William SP, Bidyadhar R, et alAdditives aided composting of green waste: effects on organic matter degradation compost maturity and quality of the finished compost.