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Governance, planning and urban development legislation was restructured with the aim of liberalising and deregulating planning and development regulations to enable and speed-up investment in construction, real estate, and tourism Balaban Balaban found that in Turkey, 78 laws and 10 by-laws, which were either related to the built environment or to urban planning and development controls, were completely or partially changed or enacted between the years and In practice, the state entered housing production directly as an actor by predominantly providing the funding for cooperatives and mass housing production, although this only constituted a small ratio of the housing stock.

In accordance with its new role, TOKI was restructured through a series of enacted regulations and amendments to existing legislation. In being given a new remit, TOKI became a public development company whose responsibilities and capacity went beyond housing production. Via this new practice, TOKI has played a crucial role in introducing urban land into the real estate market Ibid. In , the banking and holding savings remits of Emlak Bank were abolished Ibid. This partnership model is based on sharing profits from developed projects in this case, branded housing projects among private and public developers.

While the public developer provides the land — public land — for the projects, the private developer develops and realises the projects. At the end, these two actors share the profits generated from the projects See Figure 1. Figure 1. Summary of revenue sharing model. Emlak Konut GYO c. Debord In order to investigate this production, critical discourse analysis was applied to news articles by reviewing the online databases of the four most highly circulated newspapers, as discussed. The review content was limited to 0. By using this content, the projects are defined as places which are distinct from other projects or the rest of the urban pattern.

In relation to being described as distinctive places, superlatives are used concurrently. Different from English grammar, to make an adjective superlative in Turkish, the word en is added before the adjective. Through the concurrent use of superlatives, the discourse frames projects as superior or at least as distinctive places. Then, the key concepts were identified by reviewing the news articles.

Although subsampling is a method designed to create inductive codes see Boyatzis , in this research thematic codes were created by reviewing all the sample articles. These key concepts were also used to run queries to identify related content, in addition to running word frequency queries.

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As a result, thematic codes were created and the news articles were reviewed according to these codes. According to the analysis, concurrent themes regarding the production of branded housing as territories were identified through the news articles, including projects as branded territories, projects as superior territories, and projects as territories of opportunities and advantages, which will be discussed in further detail in the following section. Figure 2. Lexical Analysis of the News Tex t.

This framing manifests itself in both explicit and latent ways. Being branded is presented as a way of guaranteeing a certain level of quality standards which can be seen in all branded housing projects belonging to that particular brand. In this sense, having similar qualities to other projects of the same brand becomes a positive input for the appreciation of the project.

This attempt to form a discursive definition contributes to the discursive formation of branded housing projects as territories. Companies place an emphasis on the fact that the product or the commodity they sell is not a housing unit, but a living area. In such an approach, the developer presents the living area itself as a commodity, and proudly states that the real product being sold is the living area, not the housing unit.

This conceptualisation supports the discursive formation of branded housing projects as territories. This usage of extremity and affirmation fosters a discourse glorifying the projects. The projects may be presented as the biggest or the most important places with their different aspects. This content contributes to the discursive formation of branded housing projects as superior places to the rest of the housing stock.

This idea of superiority also supports the discursive formation of the branded housing projects as territories by differentiating them from their surrounding environments. In other words, according to this discourse, building such projects is a win-win situation. The target audience is addressed as buyers, consumers, clients, citizens, homeowners, residents, renters, and aspiring homeowners. The message is that living in these projects will contribute to the quality of life of the residents.

What is this plus concept? This discourse frames the projects as a means for the public sector to gain otherwise unobtainable profits from development.

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With the profit it gained from here, it provides services which private initiative aims to provide but cannot accomplish. In this representation of the projects, the branded housing projects are framed as distinctive territories distinguishable from their surroundings.

In the text, projects are framed as producing profits and thus as good investment opportunities for the target audience. The notion of the projects as a means of investment is emphasized throughout the news content. This notion is supported in the text by framing housing as the most convenient and traditional investment tool for individuals. Part of this discourse is the profitability of the projects. The ones who buy houses always win. The definitions connote both the economic and social aspects of homeownership. Projects in this respect are framed as developments which create chances or opportunities to become home owners, as in this example:.

It creates inescapable opportunities for the ones who would like to be homeowners. In the news articles, services and facilities provided within the confines of the projects are presented by listing them as part of the news content. In this sense, the projects are defined as territories offering listed services and facilities to their residents.

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This framing contributes to the discursive production of the branded housing projects as territories of opportunities. It is a strong stance throughout the news context, a definitive approach for this territorial production. In the grove, there will be common areas such as swimming pools, and walking and running tracts.

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In Atakent 3, there are a big pool, waterfalls between housing blocks and pools as well. These contents e. The visual content was briefly analysed through their presentation and content. While the presentation of the images was analysed through the mode of representation of the building, project or district, and colours, the content of the images were analysed through focusing on the spatial aspects and the representation of people in the visuals.

This results from the fact that at the time of publication the projects were either at a pre-construction or under-construction stage. The images mostly present general views of the projects and the buildings. While the use of general views of the projects demonstrates a focus on the project itself rather than the surrounding district or neighbourhood , the use of building exteriors provides a general overview of the building from the outside without focusing on the housing unit itself. Gender-based analysis shows that women are only included in 24 visuals, while men are comparably represented in 71 of the accompanying visuals.

Considering the gender inequalities among executives in Turkey — the total ratio of female directors in companies comprises only In terms of the type of clothing worn in the visuals, in 53 visuals people are dressed in suits, whereas in only 24 visuals people are more casually attired. In many cases, the news was collected either from attending launch events and press conferences or from company and public sources. Firstly, regarding political society, the findings from this research show that political society occupies a powerful position for directing urban development, befitting its class position according to neoliberalization as a class project Harvey , by restructuring the legal and regulatory framework.

The transformation of the legal and regulatory framework to foster neoliberal urbanization practices is one of the main dynamics behind the development of branded housing projects as a new mode of territory production in contemporary Turkey. The revenue-sharing model clearly exemplifies the position of the neoliberal state with its practices of fostering the privatisation of public land, with its profit-orientedness, and with its class position e. Second, being branded is presented as a positive aspect of these projects, which strengthens the association of these territories as consumer products rather than neighbourhoods, therefore, fostering their commodity character.

A consideration of these aspects of the media discourse offers a very clear example of the imposition of the views of one class over another in the creation of common sense. Fourth, the projects are framed as territories offering a range of opportunities such as increasing quality of life or improving the surrounding environment. Fifth, the projects are presented as developments providing homeownership opportunities, while idealising homeownership and framing living in a rented house in very negative terms.

In this respect, the discourse fosters homeownership and, therefore, the expansion of private property.

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  • Last, the projects are framed as territories providing urban services and facilities to their residents comprehensively. In the discourse, it is presented that anything a citizen can expect as an urban infrastructure is provided in these areas privately and in good quality. To illustrate, the ratio of publicly accessible green spaces public parks and gardens in Istanbul comprises only 1. These numbers demonstrate an already alarming situation in Istanbul with branded housing projects only offering an exclusive solution to this public problem: limited-access to green spaces for those who can afford to live in branded housing projects.

    The production of common sense as normalising the private provision of green spaces is extremely concerning considering the future of public open spaces and the production of exclusionary spaces. This emergence manifests in the proliferation and expansion of these projects, and the number of housing units provided within project areas. The research argues that the development of branded housing projects is part of a wider process of restructuring in Turkey, neoliberalization, which has been ongoing for the last forty years.

    Political society plays a core role in this restructuring by providing the legal and regulatory framework and by transforming it into a neoliberal state. The research also argues that such an extensive production of branded housing projects is not likely to be realized without considerable social consent.

    The aforementioned results of the discourse analysis of news articles shed light on the dynamics of this social consent production while explaining the dynamics of the production of branded housing projects as emerging territories. The case of branded housing projects as emerging territories demonstrates how a new mind-set, common sense, can transform urban spaces we live in a relatively short period of time, fifteen years, and with alarming levels of creative destruction.

    Aalbers, Manuel B a. DOI: Aalbers, Manuel B b. Altun, Didem Akyol Ataay, Faruk Bagaeen, Samer Balaban, Osman Bodnar, Judit; Molnar, Virag BOP Consulting Borsdorf, Axel; Hidalgo, Rodrigo Boyatzis, Richard Brenner, Neil, Theodore, Nik Cox, Kevin Cumhuriyet April 3, Debord, Guy Delaney, David Elden, Stuart Emlak Konut GYO a.