They are all household fermentations but Japanese natto has been commer-Leavened Bread Fermentation cialized Steinkraus Yeast breads are closely related to the alcoholic fermentationand have an excellent reputation for safety. Baking also de- protein-rich substrates results in a controlled protein hydrolysisstroys many of the microorganisms in the bread itself.
Sour dough breads are fermented with lactic acid bacteria particularly for those unable to afford much meat in their diets. Like many discoveries, itcan iru made by fermentation of soaked, cooked locust bean was probably initially accidental. The earliest substrates were like-Parkia biglobosa seeds with bacteria belonging to genus Bacillus, ly meat or fish mixed with a millet koji Fukashima Nigerian ogiri made by fermentation of In the most primitive process known today, soybeans aremelon seed Citrullus vulgaris ; Nigerian ugba made by fermenta- soaked and thoroughly cooked Shurtleff and Aoyagi Theytion of the oil bean Pentacletha macrophylla ; Sierra Leone are mashed, formed into a ball, covered with straw and hung toogiri-saro made by fermentation of sesame seed Sesamum indi- ferment under the rafters of the house.
In 30 days they are com-cum ; Nigerian ogiri-igbo made by fermentation of castor bean pletely overgrown with the mold Aspergillus oryzae. One can only guessdian kenima all based upon soybean. The processbacilli. The organisms are very proteolytic and the proteins are hy- not only enriches the flavor but it also contains the essential ami-drolyzed to peptides and amino acids. Ammonia is released and no acids in the soybean. Soy sauce started as an Oriental food; The nutritional impact of fermented foods on nutritional diseas-but, in recent years it has been adopted by the West, particularly es can be direct or indirect.
Food fermentations that raise the pro-the Americans. Halophilic pedio- effects on the health of the consumers of such foods.
Bio-follows: logical enrichment of foods via fermentation can prevent this. Food substrates rapidly overgrown by edible microorganisms On the other hand, fermentation does not generally increaseleading to desirable flavors, aromas and free of toxins are resistant calories unless they convert substrates unsatisfactory for humansto development of spoilage, food poisoning or toxin-producing to human quality foods such as mushrooms produced on straworganisms.
Food fermentations involving lactic acid production edible foods such as Indonesian ontjom oncom. Food fermentations involving ethanol production While the Western world can afford to enrich its foods with 4.
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Food fermentations involving acetic acid production synthetic vitamins, the developing world must rely upon biologi- 5. Food fermentations involving highly alkaline conditions with cal enrichment for its vitamins and essential amino acids. The af-liberation of free ammonia fluent Western world cans and freezes much of its food but the 6. All consumers today have a con- siderable portion of their nutritional needs met through fermentedNutritional Aspects of Fermented Foods foods and beverages.
Biological Enrichment by Fermentation Steinkraus, Two major food problems exist in the world. Starvation or Enrichment with proteinunder-nutrition where there is insufficient food or insufficient eco- In the Indonesian tape ketan fermentation referred to earlier,nomic means to provide the necessary food and obesity or rice starch is hydrolyzed to maltose and glucose and fermented toover-consumption of food in the wealthy, developed world. Thus, this process provides avironmental disasters and war combined with lack of economic means by which the protein content of high starch substrates canmeans to purchase food.
This is particularly important for people consuming prin-world today. The immune systems of the wet basis - a very significant improvement in nutrition to the con-children are impaired on restricted protein diets. Such children of- sumer. Since the children are already deficient in substrate. On the other hand mar- enriches the substrate with protein, the microorganisms also se-asmus is the result of both calorie and protein deficiencies in chil- lectively enrich the rice substrate with lysine, the first essential lim-dren under 1 years of age due to early cessation of breast-feeding iting amino acid in rice Cronk and others This improvesand the attempted replacement with artificial milks with very dilute the protein quality.
The principal features of marasmus Several researchers have reported from Rao ;fat. Both kwashiokor and marasmus can result in mental retarda- Rajalakshmi and Vanaja ; Steinkraus and others Antion if the child survives. Examples are addition of vitamin D to milk, vi-deficiency; anemia due to vitamin B deficiency or insufficient tamin A and D to milk and butter and riboflavin to bread. Fruit Vol.
Thus, various fermentation processes and the usual cooking, many po-much of the world must depend upon biological enrichment via tential toxins such as trypsin inhibitor, phytate and hemagglutininfermentation to enrich their foods Steinkraus Even aflatox- Highly polished white rice is deficient in vitamin B-1 thiamine.
Lactic-acid fermented foods generally require little, if any, Tempe is a protein-rich meat substitute in Indonesia made by heat in their fermentation and can be consumed without cooking. IndonesianRhizopus oligosporus or related molds Steinkraus a. The tempe fermentation converts soybeans that would require asmold knits the cotyledons into a firm cake that can be sliced and much as 5 to 6 h cooking to a product that can be cooked incooked or used in place of meat in the diet.
During the fermenta- soup with 5 to 10 min boiling Steinkraus a. Fermented foods have been with us; Steinkraus a, The tempe process can be used to since humans arrived on earth. When inoculated into leavened and sourdough breads. All consumers today have athe Indian idli fermentation, it also produces vitamin B This is likely to expand in the 21stcan continent.
It is produced by fermentation of juices of the cac- century, when world population reaches 8 to 12 billion. Pulque is rich in thi-amine, riboflavin, niacin, panthothenic acid, p-amino benzoic Referencesacid, pyridoxine and biotin Sanchez-Marroquin Davuke, the tra-of particular importance in the diets of the low-income children of ditional Fijian method of pit preservation of staple carbohydrate foods. Ecol FoodMexico. Abd-el-Malek T, Demerdash M. Microbiology of kishk. It is Nov , Bangkok Thailanda traditional beverage of the Bantu people of South Africa.
The development and production of soy ogi. FIIR Research report nr Kaffir beer is generally made istry of Industries. Lagos, Nigeria. Handbook of Applied Mycology. Foods and Feeds. Maize or millet may be substituted for kaffircorn. Regional Seminar-Workshop on Biotechnol-which is very significant in people consuming principally maize. Mar , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Banigo EOI. An investigation into the fermentation and enrichment of ogi. University of Leeds. Leeds, England. Steinkraus b. Palm wine is a heavy, milk-white opalescent Braidwood EJ. Symposium: Did man once live by beer alone? Am Anthrosuspension of live yeasts and bacteria with a sweet taste and vig- Campbell-Platt G. Fermented Foods of the World: a Dictionary and guide. Palm wines are consumed throughout the London, UK: Butterworths. Traditional Foods. Central Bassir Mysore, India. Vinegar: Its history and development. Indonexian tape ketan fermentation. Appl Environ Micr Microbial Technology in Van Pee and Swings, Palm toddies play an important role the Developing World.
Oxford Science Publications. Dirar HA. The Indigenous Fermented Foods of the Sudan. Wallingford, Oxon, UK. CAB Int. They are the cheapest sources of B vitamins. Ebine H. Industrialization of Japanese Miso Fermentation. Fermentations in World Food Processing editor. Industrialization of Indigenous Fermented Foods. Early Archean 3. P Fukashima D. The Book of Miso.
Kanagawa, Japan: Autumn Press. In: Steinkraus, H. Industrialization of Indig- p. The effect of lipids on bongkrekic mented Black Gram-rice food. Food Tech. Food additives and contaminants Science and technology. GIAM 5. Kenyan uji. In: Steinkraus KH, editor. Determination and characteriza- Steinkraus KH. Nutritionally significant indigenous fermented foods involv- tion of the antimicrobial activity of the fermented tea kombucha.
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