An informative introduction to each topic is provided, which advises the reader on suitable techniques for practical applications. New topics include biological materials, MEMS and NEMS, nanoindentation, digital photomechanics, photoacoustic characterization, and atomic force microscopy in experimental solid mechanics. Written and compiled by internationally renowned experts in the field, this book is a timely, updated reference for both practitioners and researchers in science and engineering.
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SFS Online Description of this database. ProQuest - Thesaurus list. Sharpe Editor ; William N. Sharpe ISBN: Encyclopedia of Vibration by Simon G. Examples of operations that produce harmful tensile stresses are welding, machining, grinding, and rod or wire drawing. Figure The residual stresses were measured by an ultrasonic method in the main wall of a bridge span near the end of one of the welded vertical attachments [ In the vicinity of the weld the measured levels of harmful tensile residual stresses reached MPa.
Such high tensile residual stresses are the result of thermoplastic deformations during the welding process and are one of the main factors leading to the origination and propagation of fatigue cracks in welded elements. On the other hand, compressive residual stresses usually lead to performance benefits and can be introduced, for instance, by peening processes such as shot peening, hammer peening, laser peening, and ultrasonic peening [ Residual Stress The combined consideration of these stages of the residual stress analysis and modification gives rise to so-called the residual stress management RSM concept approach [ The RSM concept includes the following main stages 0 — — — Stage 1.
Some results of testing showing the role of residual stresses in fatigue 0 0. New engineering tools such as a computerized ultrasonic system for residual stress measurement and a technology and corresponding compact system for ultrasonic hammer peening are also introduced. The data on residual stresses presented in this chapter are complimentary to the detailed consideration and comparison of different methods of residual stress analysis considered in [ In general, a distinction is usually made between destructive and nondestructive techniques for residual stress measurement.
The redistribution of the internal forces leads to local strains, which are measured to evaluate the residual stress field. The residual stress is deduced from the measured strain using the elastic theory through the use of an analytical approach or finite element calculations.
Hole Drilling The hole-drilling method requires drilling a small hole, typically 1—4 mm in diameter, to a depth approximately Part B A specialized three-element rosette, such as that shown in Fig. The ring core method is similar, except that a ring hole, typically with an internal diameter of 15— mm, is drilled instead of a hole. The measurements of relieved strain are then made on the surface of the material remaining inside the ring, as shown in Fig.
The ring core method is quite sensitive compared with the hole-drilling method because it involves almost complete relief of the surface strains. It is also insensitive to any minor diameter errors or eccentricity of the annular hole with respect to the strain gages.
However, the size of the annular hole in relatively large, causing much more damage than the hole-drilling method. Another concern with the ring core method is the need to disconnect the strain gage wires to allow ring drilling to proceed. Also, any diameter errors or eccentricity of the hole with respect to the strain gages can introduce significant errors in the residual stress calculation. Despite some shortcomings, the hole-drilling technique remains a popular means of measuring residual stress.
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One result of the application of the hole-drilling technique is presented in Fig. The residual stresses in this case were measured by using the incremental hole-drilling method in comparison with the application of x-ray diffraction method in a steel specimen after shot peening [ As can be seen, good correlation of results of residual stress measurement by the two different techniques was observed.
Curvature and Layer Removal Layer-removal techniques are often used for measuring residual stress in samples with a simple geometry. The methods are generally quick and require only simple calculations to relate the curvature to the residual stresses. The curvature depends on the original stress distribution present in the layer that has been removed and on the elastic properties of the sample.
By carrying out a series of curvature measurements after successive layer removals the distribution of stress in the original plate can then be deduced. It is shown that, after shot peening, the magnitude and character of the distribution of residual stresses depends on the mechanical properties of the material. Residual Stress 0 0 — — — HV — — — — Shot peening condition: Cast steel shot.
The most well-developed nondestructive methods are: Residual stress MPa 0 — — — x-direction y-direction — — 0 0. These methods are based on the use of the lattice spacing as the strain gauge. They allow study and separation of the three kinds of residual stresses. Currently, the x-ray method is the most widely used nondestructive technique for residual stress measurements.
Ultrasonic techniques. These techniques are based on variations in the velocity of ultrasonic wave propagation in materials under the action of mechanical stresses. Magnetic methods. These methods rely on the interaction between magnetization and elastic strain in ferromagnetic materials. Various magnetic properties can be studied, such as permeability, magnetostriction, hysteresis, and Barkhausen noise. X-Ray Method The x-ray method is a nondestructive technique for the measurement of residual stresses on the surface of materials. It can also be combined with some form of layer-removal technique so that a stress profile can be generated, but then the method becomes destructive.
One of the major disadvantages of the x-ray method is the limitation imposed on the sample geometry for residual stress measurement. The geometry has to be such that an x-ray can both hit the measurement area and still be diffracted to the detector without hitting any obstructions. Portable diffractometers that can be taken out into the field for measurements of structures Part B The speed of measurement depends on a number of factors, including the type of material being examined, the x-ray source, and the degree of accuracy required.
With careful selection of the x-ray source and test set-up speed of measurement can be minimized. New detector technology has also greatly reduced the measurement time. Measurements were made at the surface and at 11 nominal depths until the residual stress decayed to zero. Stresses were obtained for both the x- and y-directions. The depth of beneficial compressive residual stresses in this case was approximately 0.
As can be seen form Figs. Deeper beneficial compressive residual stresses can be induced by using the ultrasonic impact technique or ultrasonic hammer peening UP. The UP technique is based on the combined effect of high-frequency impacts and the induction of ultrasonic energy in the treated material [ In this case the x-ray diffraction method combined with layer removal was also used.
The depth of the compressive residual stresses induced by UP was about 1. Neutron Diffraction Method The neutron diffraction method relies on elastic deformations within a polycrystalline material that cause changes in the spacing of the lattice planes from their stress-free condition.
The advantage of the neutron diffraction method in comparison with the x-ray technique is its larger penetration depth. The neutron diffraction technique enables the measurement of residual stress at near-surface depths of around 0.
With high spatial resolution, the neutron diffraction method can provide complete three-dimensional maps of the residual stresses in material. However, compared to other diffraction techniques such as x-ray diffraction, the relative cost of application of neutron diffraction method is much higher, mainly because of the equipment cost [ The neutron diffraction method was applied for the measurement of residual stresses in A Gr.
The three components of residual stresses, parallel x and perpendicular y to the direction of treatment as well as Residual stress MPa 0 — — 0 — — Parallel Perpendicular — — — — Sxx parallel Syy perpend. Szz deep — — — 0 0. As can be seen from Fig. Different configurations of ultrasonic equipment can be used for residual stress measurements. In each case, waves are launched by a transmitting transducer, propagate through a region of the material, and are detected by a receiving transducer, as shown in Fig.
The technique in which the same transducer is used for excitation and receiving of ultrasonic waves is often called the pulse-echo method Fig. This method is effective for the analysis of residual stresses in the interior of the material. Ultrasonic stress measurement techniques are based on the acousticelasticity effect, according to which the velocity of elastic wave propagation in solids is dependent on the mechanical stress [ The relationships between the changes of the velocities of longitudinal ultrasonic waves and shear waves with orthogonal polarization under the action of tensile and compres- c Fig.
It can be seen that the depth of the beneficial compressive residual stresses is 1.
There are various destructive and nondestructive methods to detect and quantify the residual stresses described in the technical literature. However, new industrial problems, new geometrical and material complexities related to them, combined with a general need for fast and economical residual stress measurements, create a strong demand for new and effective techniques and devices. The ideal technology must be reliable and user-friendly, i. The demand for sophisticated systems is increasing dramatically.
In the configuration shown in Fig. The depth of this layer is related to the ultrasonic wavelength, often exceeding a few millimeters, and hence is much greater than that obtained by x-ray method. Other advantages of the ultrasonic technique are the facts that the instrumentation is convenient to use, quick to set up, portable, inexpensive, and free of radiation hazards.
In the technique proposed in [ The bulk waves in this approach are used to determine the stresses averaged over the thickness of the investigated elements. Surface waves are used to determine the uni- and biaxial stresses at the surface of the material. The mechanical properties of the material are represented by the proportionality coefficients, which can be calculated or determined experimentally under external loading of a sample of the considered material.
In general, the change in the ultrasonic wave velocity in structural materials under mechanical stress amounts to only tenths of a percentage point. Therefore the equipment for practical application of ultrasonic technique for residual stress measurement should be of high resolution, reliable, and fully computerized. Ultrasonic Equipment and Software for Residual Stress Measurement The ultrasonic computerized complex UCC for residual stress analysis was developed recently based on an improved ultrasonic methodology [ The UCC includes a measurement unit with supporting software and a laptop with an advanced database and expert sys- Fig.
The UCC allows the determination of uni- and biaxial applied and residual stresses for a wide range of materials and structures. In addition, the developed ES can be used for the calculation of the effect of the measured residual stresses on the fatigue life of welded elements, depending on the mechanical properties of the materials, the type of welded element, the parameters of cyclic loading, and other factors.
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The developed equipment enables the determination of the magnitudes and signs of the uni- and biaxial residual and applied stresses for a wide range of materials as well as stress, strain, and force in fasteners of various sizes. The supporting software allows the control of the measurement process, storage of the measured and other data, and calculation and plotting of the distribution of residual stresses. The software also allows easy connection with standard personal computers PCs. An example of the residual stress measurement data, using the developed software, is shown in Fig.
The software allows the comparison of different sets of residual stress measurement data and transfer of selected data for further fatigue analysis.
In Fig. The right-hand side of the screen displays the distribution of calculated residual stresses. Examples of Residual Stress Measurements Using the Ultrasonic Method One of the main advantages of the developed technique and equipment is the possibility to measure the residual and applied stresses in samples and real structure elements. Such measurements have been performed for a wide range of materials, parts, and structures. A few examples of the practical application of the developed technique and equipment for residual stress measurement based on the ultrasonic technique are presented below.