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Thus the commutator pitch for lap winding is 1.

3F Combined Stator and Armature Winding Machine

Note that commutator pitch is the distance between the two commutator segments to which the two end of coil is joined. There are three different types of Lap Winding:. In wave winding, the two coil ends are bent in opposite direction and connected to commutator segments which are approximately two pole pitches apart. Figure below shows a wave winding.

Armature Winding of Alternator | Electrical4U

Notice that the both coil ends of coil-1 and coil-2 are bent in opposite direction and connected to commutator segments separated by approximately one pole pitch or electrical degree apart. There are three types of Wave Winding:. Open winding is one in which the winding terminals are open. Such type of armature winding is used only for AC machine like Induction machine , Synchronous Machine etc. Thus open winding can be open-circuited but closed winding can never be open circuited in any case.

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Armature Winding and Its Types. Where PEd is the emf component to counteract the resistance drop in armature winding.


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The voltage generated is dependent on the IR and IX voltage drops. Although the external power factor angle is zero, there is an angle y , called the internal power-factor angle, between the current vector and the vector of the developed emf. Reactive Voltage Drop. The calculation of this drop is based on approximation because it is not always easy to separate armature reactance X from armature reaction, the demagnetizing effect of the armature ampere-turns.

For single-layer windings, the end flux is:.

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For single-layer type, approximately this value is equal to 1. If p is the number of poles of the machine, the total number of conductors per phase is pC s n s , and the average voltage developed in the end connections by the cutting of the end flux will be 2 f F e pC s n s X 10 If the flux distribution is sinusoidal, assume form factor to be 1. Thus the formula must be multiplied by d 2.


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  • The losses in iron stampings -- teeth and core are calculated using the total losses curve. The radial depth of the armature stampings is calculated by assuming a reasonable flux density in the iron.