While the gods of the second function were still revered in society, they did not possess the same infinite knowledge found in the first category. A Norse god that would fall under the second function would be Thor —god of thunder. Thor possessed great strength, and was often first into battle, as ordered by his father Odin. This second function reflects Indo-European cultures' high regard for the warrior class, and explains the belief in an afterlife that rewards a valiant death on the battlefield; for the Norse mythology, this is represented by Valhalla. These gods often presided over the realms of healing, prosperity, fertility, wealth, luxury, and youth—any kind of function that was easily related to by the common peasant farmer in a society.
Just as a farmer would live and sustain themselves off their land, the gods of the third function were responsible for the prosperity of their crops, and were also in charge of other forms of everyday life that would never be observed by the status of kings and warriors, such as mischievousness and promiscuity. An example found in Norse mythology could be seen through the god Freyr —a god who was closely connected to acts of debauchery and overindulging. A narrative can take on the shape of a story, which gives listeners an entertaining and collaborative avenue for acquiring knowledge.
Many cultures use storytelling as a way to record histories, myths, and values. These stories can be seen as living entities of narrative among cultural communities, as they carry the shared experience and history of the culture within them. Stories are often used within indigenous cultures in order to share knowledge to the younger generation. This promotes holistic thinking among native children, which works towards merging an individual and world identity.
Such an identity upholds native epistemology and gives children a sense of belonging as their cultural identity develops through the sharing and passing on of stories. For example, a number of indigenous stories are used to illustrate a value or lesson. In the Western Apache tribe, stories can be used to warn of the misfortune that befalls people when they do not follow acceptable behavior.
One story speaks to the offense of a mother's meddling in her married son's life. In the story, the Western Apache tribe is under attack from a neighboring tribe, the Pimas. The Apache mother hears a scream. Thinking it is her son's wife screaming, she tries to intervene by yelling at him. This alerts the Pima tribe to her location, and she is promptly killed due to intervening in her son's life.
Indigenous American cultures use storytelling to teach children the values and lessons of life. Although storytelling provides entertainment, its primary purpose is to educate. American Indian elders also state that storytelling invites the listeners, especially children, to draw their own conclusions and perspectives while self-reflecting upon their lives. American Indian community members emphasize to children that the method of obtaining knowledge can be found in stories passed down through each generation.
Moreover, community members also let the children interpret and build a different perspective of each story. In historiography , according to Lawrence Stone , narrative has traditionally been the main rhetorical device used by historians. In , at a time when the new Social History was demanding a social-science model of analysis, Stone detected a move back toward the narrative. Stone defined narrative as organized chronologically; focused on a single coherent story; descriptive rather than analytical; concerned with people not abstract circumstances; and dealing with the particular and specific rather than the collective and statistical.
He reported that, "More and more of the ' new historians ' are now trying to discover what was going on inside people's heads in the past, and what it was like to live in the past, questions which inevitably lead back to the use of narrative. Some philosophers identify narratives with a type of explanation. Mark Bevir argues, for example, that narratives explain actions by appealing to the beliefs and desires of actors and by locating webs of beliefs in the context of historical traditions.
Narrative is an alternative form of explanation to that associated with natural science. Historians committed to a social science approach, however, have criticized the narrowness of narrative and its preference for anecdote over analysis, and clever examples rather than statistical regularities. Storytelling rights may be broadly defined as the ethics of sharing narratives including—but not limited to—firsthand, secondhand and imagined stories. Storytelling rights also implicates questions of consent, empathy , and accurate representation. While storytelling—and retelling—can function as a powerful tool for agency and advocacy , it can also lead to misunderstanding and exploitation.
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Storytelling rights is notably important in the genre of personal experience narrative. Academic disciplines such as performance , folklore , literature , anthropology , Cultural Studies and other social sciences may involve the study of storytelling rights, often hinging on ethics.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Account that presents connected events. For other uses of "story", see Story disambiguation.
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The Journal of American Folklore. The Journal of Religion. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Traditional storytelling today: An international sourcebook. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. Abbott, H. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bal, Mieke. Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Toronto: Toronto University Press. Clandinin, D. Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. Narrative Discourse. An Essay in Method. Translated by Jane E.
Oxford: Blackwell. Goosseff, Kyrill A. Only narratives can reflect the experience of objectivity: effective persuasion Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. Analyzing Narrative Reality. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Holstein, James A. New York: Oxford University Press. Gubrium, eds. Varieties of Narrative Analysis. Hunter, Kathryn Montgomery Jakobson, Roman.
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Ranjbar Vahid. Journal of Pragmatics. Quackenbush, S. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Polanyi, Livia. Salmon, Christian. Shklovsky, Viktor. Theory of Prose. Translated by Benjamin Sher. Todorov, Tzvetan. The Hague: Mouton. Toolan, Michael Robert Doran. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Alternate history Backstory Dystopia Fictional location city country universe Utopia.
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These examples require focus group discussions to be carefully planned in terms bringing together participants who share similar social and cultural characteristics, and ethical difficulties also have to be anticipated and addressed beforehand. One of the common criticisms of the interview as a mode of social enquiry is that it epitomises the traditional power relationship between the researcher and the researched.
On the contrary, in focus group discussions the presence of several research participants dissipates the power dynamics with the researcher. Furthermore, it facilitates the formation of a group consciousness and shifts the focus away from individuals to group experiences. Liamputtong illustrates this point with examples from the works of Paulo Friere see Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Jonathan Kozol see Illiterate America.
In Chapter 7, the author elaborates that interviews have been a preferred means of data collection on sensitive topics due to ethical concerns related to breaches in confidentiality. This censure is often a hidden reason for their heightened vulnerability to social exclusion and poverty. Poverty and social exclusion have traditionally been attributed to personal characteristics rather than societal failures.
Therefore, policies and laws have largely adopted either a punitive or remedial approach. Most importantly, vulnerable individuals internalise this stigma and suffer from poor self-esteem. In this context, focus group discussions have the potential to move away from individual experiences and reaffirm group experiences, and clearly delineate social and economic processes that shape this social exclusion. Furthermore, it directs collective action towards political agencies that can bring about social change. On a practical level, focus group discussions are not fool proof and in spite of careful planning they can be amenable to intra-group power dynamics that might impede the participation of a few people within the group.
In the following chapter, Liamputtong addresses the difficulties of undertaking focus group discussions in cross-cultural contexts. Debates within feminist research have emphasised that women across the world experience varying degrees of gender oppression, and it is within focus group discussions that women from lower classes, castes or marginalised racial and ethnic groups — who tend to have fewer opportunities for social interaction in the daily drudgery of work both at home and in the market — can more openly discuss their experiences.
Cross-cultural research has the potential to transverse the political, social and economic boundaries that divide people and bring about a common understanding of social problems. This requires that practical issues such as the use of translators at various stages of data collection, transcribing, and analysis, are carefully planned, and that plausible lapses anticipated. Usually, triangulation of various research methods within projects is seen as a means to address the limitations of employing only one research method.
Liamputtong also discusses the powerful effects of using non-traditional methods of research involving the use of photography or paintings to elicit participation of vulnerable groups such as children or disabled people.