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Thank You! Sports Women sports wear Men sportswear Women athlatic shoes Men athlatic shoes. The different types of defense mechanisms are: Repression , reaction formation , denial , projection , displacement , sublimation , regression , and rationalization. Freud's take on the development of the personality psyche. It is a stage theory that believes progress occurs through stages as the libido is directed to different body parts. The Genital stage is achieved if people meet all their needs throughout the other stages with enough available sexual energy.

Individuals who don't have their needs met in a given stage become fixated, or "stuck" in that stage. They do not support the idea that development of the personality stops at age 6, instead they believed development spreads across the lifespan. They extended Freud's work and encompassed more influence from the environment and the importance of conscious thought along with the unconscious. The psychoanalytic approach has a variety of advantages and limitations that have spurred further research and expansion into the realm of personality development.

Psychoanalysis Today | Psychology Today

Psychoanalytic theory is a major influence in Continental philosophy and in aesthetics in particular. Freud is considered a philosopher in some areas, and other philosophers, such as Jacques Lacan , Michel Foucault , and Jacques Derrida have written extensively on how psychoanalysis informs philosophical analysis. When analysing literary texts, the psychoanalytic theory could be utilized to decipher or interpret the concealed meaning within a text, or to better understand the author's intentions.

Through the analysis of motives, Freud's theory can be used to help clarify the meaning of the writing as well as the actions of the characters within the text. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abstract Does the Oedipus complex exist? The challenges of psychoanalytic developmental theory. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 50, 19— Oxford University Press, June Personality: Classics theories and modern research.

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Second Edition. New York. Worth Publishers. The Unconscious. XIV 2nd ed. Hogarth Press, The Interpretation of Dreams. IV and V 2nd ed. Psychological Testing and Assessment.

What is Psychodynamic Therapy?

Byrd, and Robert M. Schmitt, and H. Jacques Lacan and the adventure of insight: Psychoanalysis in contemporary culture. Harvard University Press, The aesthetics of Freud: A study in psychoanalysis and art. Lane, Allen, Psychoanalytic aesthetics: An introduction to the British School. On the other hand, Tuckett considers this situation an opportunity for change:. It is time not only to review our methodology for assessing our truths, but also to develop approaches that will make it possible to be open to new ideas while also being able to evaluate their usefulness by reasoned argument.

The alternative is the Tower of Babel. Tuckett, a, p. Of course, this exuberant diversity of theories is an inevitable product of clinical practice. The problem is not here but in the unnoticed passage and in a confusion of levels of abstraction. The question I ask in relation to psychoanalytic practice can be put this way: How can we be sure that we see clinical practice exactly as it is, that we know it in its own reality and are not simply projecting our own theories onto it? It is obvious that conceptual systems are absolutely necessary for everyone who aims to observe a reality and communicate what they have seen in a valid way; however, when we are dealing with intersubjective processes, the need for validity is as necessary as it is difficult, and the risk of apriorism in the schemata becomes a problem.

We have for too long underestimated the complexity of the clinical situation and have assumed a simple and direct relation between theory and practice in psychoanalysis. Therefore, difficulties in dialogue should not to be attributed to theoretical reasons as much as to practical reasons. Of course, this situation, with an absence of real confrontation between different viewpoints, has blocked the formation of a coherent theoretical—practical corpus in psychoanalysis. Even further, difficulties multiply when we try to share clinical practice itself.

The first obstacle is precisely that we assign no status of its own to practice independent of theory. The second obstacle is even thornier. Supervision of the material presented seems to be the habitual pattern of discussion in psychoanalytic societies and international congresses. Consequently, what is produced is a dialogue of the deaf, who never meet on any shared ground, which thus leads to misunderstandings and a growing babelization.

I will now try to take a few steps towards the construction of a phenomenology of practice in psychoanalysis. It is akin to viewing the analytic situation, as Freud used to say, in statu nascendi , which is to say in its original moment. A useful way to approach a phenomenon is by exploring the original meaning of the words it denotes. Owen Renik chose the last meaning in his book, Practical Psychoanalysis for Therapists and Patients.


For Renik, in a practical psychoanalysis patients are able to revise with the analyst the way they construct reality, with the result that they feel better. During a supervision we look at events after they have occurred; therefore, it is natural for us to wonder why they occurred. What we are seeking then is an explanation. This is the moment inherent to psychoanalytic theories in terms of explanatory reasons. The task of prediction requires practical reasons rather than theoretical ones. These are therefore not issues of fact and their explanation but issues of value: of what it is preferable to do.

If we look at material from a sequence of sessions, we are certain to find confirmation or refutation of predictions made by the analyst during one particular session.

Psychoanalytic theory

This is, however, something that does not correspond to the reality of the moment in question, since it is not a matter of finding explanations ex post facto , but of risking predictive hypotheses about something that has not yet occurred. In practical reasoning, the agent tries to evaluate and weigh reasons for acting, to compare what is speaking in favour of or against the alternative courses of action opening up. Thus, the decision to intervene bears all the singularity of an encounter with another in the here and now. This is an ideographic, creative and ineffable moment when the analyst takes a risk that, as a question of principle, can never be totally encompassed by explanatory theory.

They are the products of unconscious thinking, are very much partial theories, models or schemata, which have the quality of being available in reserve, so to speak, to be called upon whenever necessary. That they may contradict one another is no problem. They coexist happily as long as they are unconscious. Sandler, , p.

An important part of analytic work, if not the most important, takes place on the implicit level. The foregoing has important consequences for clinical discussion, since the person who discusses tends to do it based on personal, explicit explanatory theories, that is, official and public theories, while the person presenting material probably does not fully perceive, much less communicate, the practical, implicit reasons leading him or her to intervene in such and such a way.

Of course, this situation can only block any chance of constructive clinical dialogue. The singularity of the therapeutic relation is constructed out of interwoven predictions and validations or refutations that constitute a dialogue between analyst and patient. In this sense, it is useful to think about analytic work as a craft. A craftsperson tends to use limited quantities of materials and theoretical—practical instruments to create works. Similarly, the analyst uses heterogeneous information accumulated during training and experience, which needs to be adapted creatively to each concrete case.

The combination of evenly suspended attention and free association facilitates moment to moment, spontaneous evocation of these models in dyadic interaction. For Canestri:. Here we are considering the issue of intersubjective heuristics, that is, the role that we attribute to interaction between two minds working together. In psychoanalysis there has existed from the very first an inseparable bond [ Junktim ] between cure and research.

Knowledge brought therapeutic success. It was impossible to treat a patient without learning something new; it was impossible to gain fresh insight without perceiving its beneficent results. Our analytic procedure is the only one in which this precious conjunction is assured. It is only by carrying on our analytic pastoral work that we can deepen our dawning comprehension of the human mind. This prospect of scientific gain has been the proudest and happiest feature of analytic work. However, leaving aside the controversy concerning what we mean by research, it is possible to describe important differences in the ways in which psychoanalysts in clinical practice have conceived of the union between gain of knowledge and cure.

This issue is connected with the issue of goals or objectives in psychoanalytic therapy.

Psychoanalytic Practice

The history of psychoanalysis shows that there has never been much consensus on the objectives or goals of analytic treatment Sandler and Dreher, In practice, there seems to be a polarization into two undesirable extremes: on the one hand what we call furor curandi , and on the other hand the handling of treatments that go on without any clearly established objectives. Even though Aisenstein insists that it is a mistake to separate therapeutic goal from psychoanalytic process, she corroborates that the search for truth is the basis of improvement in psychoanalysis.

Of course, the idea that we need to search for the truth of the unconscious and that the cure will accompany it is a very widespread idea in psychoanalysis, not simply a legacy of French psychoanalytic tradition. Divergence appears when we try to explain exactly what we mean by finding and formulating the truth about the patient. In this regard, differences are significant. This is where the greatest concentration of divergent opinions and the greatest consequences for practice are produced.

In the answer to these questions we identify two basic conceptions. A phenomenology of practice in psychoanalysis does not support the monadic conception. The dyadic conception predisposes the analyst to listen more carefully to what the patient is seeking in the treatment: in general to feel better, even though many patients are assuredly seeking to do it by expanding their knowledge of themselves. For these authors, treatment reports, that is to say presentations of clinical material, need to focus on showing changes in the patient.