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The institute develops and evaluates concepts for the sustainable production of biological resources.

Special emphasis is on the topic of multi-functionality and the diverse functions of agriculture and forestry. The focus of work of the Economic Modeling of Agricultural Systems Group at the Institute for Food and Resource Economics, University Bonn is on the development and application of economic simulation models from farm to global scale to analyze quantitatively questions in the agri-food system related to sustainability and provision of eco-systems services by agri-food systems. Recent examples relate to application of stochastic-dynamic programming models to determine optimal farm management and investment strategies in a changing market and policy environment considering risk, regional scale analysis of structural change and nutrient exchanges between farms in Agent-Based Models and long-term projections of the global food system based on Computable General Equilibrium Analysis.

The working group, established in , serves as a hub for economic modeling in research and teaching at institute and faculty level. Master students enrolled in our AFECO program can obtain a minor in economic modeling based on our courses. We collaborate in numerous projects within national and international research networks, and offer our students and young researchers an internationally oriented teaching and research environment.

We are part of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn as an international research university that offers a wide range of degree programs. With years of history, about 38, students, over 6. It draws on over 50 years of scientific experience and continually build our expertise in knowledge production and knowledge management.

Film 1: Gender in Agriculture and Rural Development

JRC hosts specialist laboratories and unique research facilities and is home to thousands of scientists. Website: ec. Institute of Agricultural Economics was founded in and has conducted fundamental and applied research in the field of agricultural and rural economics. IAE research has fundamental benchmarks like performance, quality of work, connection to national and international research flows etc.

In these departments are working about 30 high qualified researchers from various fields — agricultural economics, agri-food economics, rural economy and sociology etc. The basic activity of the Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, consisting of the Institute of Economics, the Regional Research Institute and the Institute of World Economics, is the scientific analysis of the Hungarian economy, the international economic and political environment, and of economics in general. The Centre undertakes theoretical and empirical studies in the fields of national and world economics, in regional processes and in other interdisciplinary areas of the Social Sciences.

The Centre publishes and promotes new research results, develops the scientific tools needed for research and also the databases appropriate and necessary for economic and regional research projects. It formulates conclusions and recommendations for policy matters, develops and participates in Master and PhD university training programs and in the development of the curricula relevant to the areas of science in which the Centre operates.

By unifying excellence in research, authenticity in science, and a commitment to society, the institute network of the Academy is set to produce values for both national and international success in Hungarian and universal science. Building on our national research traditions, being part of the only full-time research institute network in Hungary, our primary aim is to play a fundamental role in promoting the common weal and in building the foundation for our future through valuable scientific achievements based on highly promising discovery research.

The Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development of the Polish Academy of Sciences, IRWiR PAN, was established in and since than it has been a leading national inter-disciplinary research organization employing sociologists, economists, geographers, demographers, psychologist and anthropologist focused on monitoring of the on-going socio-economic and environmental challenges facing rural areas.

The Institute has also been well integrated in the international research community. Thus, it takes active part in the agricultural policy debate, both in Poland as well as abroad. Apart from research centred on the topics of food supply chains, organic farming, agricultural cooperatives, rural and agricultural policy, IRWiR PAN has a strong track of regional, national and international economic impact research.

It was established in by the merger of four organizations, focusing on agricultural research, vocational training for farmers, quality certification and dairy industry quality issues, respectively. DEMETER with its Research scientists spread in its Research Institutes and Stations throughout Greece is also in charge of research for technological improvement and development in agricultural, livestock, forest, and fish production. It is also concerned with topics of veterinary, management of marine resources, soil science, land reclamation, processing and preservation of agricultural products, etc.

It is the major Greek research institute that focuses on economic, managerial and social issues in the agri-food sector. The activities of AGRERI cover several thematic areas such as: Agricultural economics and agribusiness management; agricultural policy; socio-economic analysis of organic agriculture; evaluation of the socio-economic and environmental sustainability of production systems; income risk management and climate change; food security, poverty and agricultural development; rural sociology; management of cooperatives, collective entrepreneurship, contract agriculture; sustainable management of organizations and farms; consumer studies; food marketing, management and economics of innovation and technology, organization, management and financing of food and bioenergy supply chains; innovation strategies for consumer-driven fruit supply chains; sustainable rural development and social capital; environmental and natural resource economics.

Food Track-A transparent and traceable food supply chain for the benefit of workers, enterprises and consumers: the role of a multi-sectoral approach of industrial relations and corporate social responsibility. The overall research portfolio in the School of Economics is organized within research centres and groups.


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The Centre for European Agri-Environmental Studies CEAS , which was created in , has a longstanding interest and capability in agricultural policy analysis, rural and small farm development, economic modelling and environmental analysis. CEAS also has experience of interdisciplinary research collaboration with ecologists and agricultural scientists across a range of projects. CEAS members are well-known in Europe for their expertise in agricultural economics, and rural and environment studies.

They have participated in several collaborative research projects, e. Important activities of the CEAS are to disseminate research results to stakeholders and to influence thinking about the future of food and agri-environmental policy in the UK and Europe. Its expertise is broadly encompassed within four research pillars: Biological Anthropology, Socio-cultural Anthropology, Conservation Biology and Human Ecology.

Due to the international and significant impact of its research, the School attracts grants and scholarships from funders including Leverhulme Trust, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Natural Environment Research Council, European Commission, European Research Council and various government and non-government agencies around the world.

Within SAC, there are six research centres that facilitate cross faculty and multi-institutional research activity across a broad spectrum of disciplines. The company is strongly involved in the set-up and management of European research projects funded by the European Commission, and acts as an assistance team to the researchers. INRA Transfert is a partner in nearly 30 European research and innovation projects under the Horizon programme, covering different aspects such as food, agriculture and the environment.

The company also transfers research results into innovations acting as a bridge between research and businesses. The areas of expertise consist of biomass transformation processes, animal and plant production, the environment and food. ECOZEPT is a German-French based private market research and marketing consulting agency that is engaged, since its foundation in , in the matter of sustainable agro-food markets.

A main weight lies on the research and development of market intelligence systems and marketing approaches for the niche markets in the agro-food business organic products, regional products, typical products etc. Partner of research and teaching institutions, ECOZEPT is part of an active network of similar agencies, governmental institutions, the agro-food industry foremost SME and extension services in Germany and France, but as well in other European countries.

ECOZEPT team has specialists from many different branches: food and agricultural sector, marketing and market research, and environmentalists who work to protect nature, the water supply and flood prevention.

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A modern village is no longer synonymous with agriculture, but it is a place different from a city, a place for life and work of various groups of people, who apart from their diverse professions, form a community with common cultural issues, traditions, norms of coexistence and interests.

Awareness and environmental sensitivity of the inhabitants of rural areas will be shaped not through orders and penalties, but foremost, by education. As long as farmers do not benefit from environmental protection, they will not be interested in maintaining clean environment. The total population is Rural areas cover over The area per person is 0.

An essential condition for the effective functioning of economy is the development of infrastructure, including technical infrastructure. Without roads, efficient transport, communications, water supply and energy the production is impossible in large areas. The lack of waste collection systems and sewerage systems threatens the natural environment and the functioning of rural settlement.


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One of the main difficulties in the development of infrastructure in rural areas is a large spatial dispersion. The confirmation of rank of these problems is the identification by the World Bank of the level of the rural areas equipment with technical infrastructure as a primary factor of development of rural areas and agriculture, among others documented due to a direct effect on the quantitative level of agricultural production, the overall development opportunities of these areas, to attract domestic capital and investment services.

The EU policy conducted for many years on infrastructure development aims to create conditions of its availability in all EU countries in order to diminish the civilization gap, separating rural areas from urban areas, and to create equal opportunities of competitiveness in rural areas. An equally important aspect taken into account in its policy is to prevent the depopulation of rural areas, which has an adverse impact on the sustainable development of the countries.

The dispersed settlement, as well as a small number of inhabitants per village hinder the development of rural areas, increase the costs of infrastructure and frequently make it impossible to undertake non-agricultural activities. In recent years, a rapid decrease in the number of people earning their living in agriculture has been observed.

Rural population obtains their income from many sources, mainly from paid employment. People living on old-age and disability pensions, especially in households with an agricultural holding user, account for a significant share of the rural population. With regard to these data, it is clear why rural development is an important aspect of the development of the country.

Major problems regarding rural development include:. Since , i. These include price liberalisation, opening up the national economy, removal of state subsidies for agricultural food products, establishments of major institutions responsible for government agricultural policy and, finally, the adjustments of policy needed to join the EU in However, the overall effect of agriculture on macroeconomic indicators is relatively small. In , the share of agriculture in GDP was around 4.

After the accession to the EU, agriculture production has increased by At present, with the financial support of the EU, the transformation of rural areas is underway. The EU is cofunding investments in agriculture and the environment and the implementation of comprehensive agrienvironmental programmes, including subsidies for farmers who implement environmentally friendly methods of production. The aim of these instruments is to stimulate multifunctional development of rural areas and modernize agriculture. However, the efficiency of implementation and consequently the capability to absorb the transfer of huge EU funding heavily depends on effective functioning of Polish institutions and administrations and the formulation of wise and deliberate policies.

These policies should be supported with scientific evidence and knowledge Motyka, In general, development of agriculture and rural areas in Poland is currently working in three directions:. Subsidies have been designated for soil protection, plant protection, biological improvement, and organic farming. Subsidized credit is available for purchase of agricultural land, management of agricultural holdings by young farmers, services to agriculture, fisheries, the agrifood sector and processing industry, restoration of holdings affected by natural disasters, investments in agriculture, food processing and creation of new jobs outside agriculture.

Structural changes in agriculture and rural development are specified by macroeconomic policies aimed at economic growth, rising employment rates, education, reduction of poverty and maintenance of production potential and production volumes. These policies are based on equal development opportunities for all regions, as well as multifunctional rural development. A crucial issue has been to keep up with policies, which support natural resource utilisation and environmental protection.

The rural landscape in Poland is fascinating with its biodiversity. It is believed that this landscape is the best preserved in the EU on account of favorable natural conditions and unique anthropogenic influences such as uneven industrialization and urbanization, traditional extensive farming still being maintained in large areas and the existence of large old woods. The Polish landscape is characterized by a diversity of habitats with mosaic biological structure. There are about different types of plant assemblages and about 45 types of plant habitats used as meadows and pastures are situated on agricultural land.

Some agricultural land neighbouring to Nature programmes needs particular care. Traditional production methods and spatial development patterns maintained to the present create an original cultural landscape with peculiar rural architecture -complexes of traditional wooden houses, churches, chapels and communities, watermills and barns.

Preservation of these buildings will contribute to the image of past and present Polish agriculture at local and regional level. There are some unfavourable circumstances that can endanger good rural environment. Some of them have their origins in the past, for example cultivation of poor soils and soils susceptible to erosion, inappropriate water management in agricultural catchments, lack of education with regard to agricultural practices, lack of adequate agricultural equipment and pointsource heavy metal pollution of soil.

In recent decades there has been a marked decrease in populations of birds in farmland areas. It seems that the biggest threats are abandoning habitats that are of marginal importance for agriculture, simplification of landscape structure and excessive intensification of agricultural production. New threats have been recognized recently that are related to the failure of Good Agricultural Practice that farmers need to follow in order to fulfil agri-environmental requirements. Rural areas are characterized by lower availability of basic technical infrastructure facilities when compared to urban areas, but, at the same time, funds allocated for this purpose increase rapidly.

The adequate technical infrastructure in rural areas is of fundamental importance,. The indexes describing the coverage of rural areas with water supply and sewage network are definitely a better way to present the current situation. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology.

Apart from above, natural resources should be exploited without interruption of the ability to their self-renovation. Increasing of biomass production may be followed as a result of rise of recourses productiveness, which means introduction of new technologies and, at the same time, protection of resources and retain the high quality of the recourses for future generations Mosiej, Under present social and economic conditions, rural areas are more often places for: food production plant and animal production , production of raw materials for industry, renewable sources of energy production, space for living and activity for urban population, space and conditions for flora and fauna, place for sport and recreation, water resources shaping, using and deposit of communal and industrial wastes, buffering and ecological compensation of nature anthropogenic and disorders in natural nature systems.

From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. According to the rules of sustainable development actions protecting and managing, in complex way, environment of rural areas, including water resources, should be taken under consideration in special planning and not violate the requirements of environmental protection. They should consider agricultural production space as well as living areas with their technical infrastructure and degraded areas and also protected areas including water biotopes.

The rural. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from economical perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in EU. It has an influence not only on social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. In , there were thousand farms, from which Only 5. Average size of one farm amounted to 7. The share of agricultural land in Poland has decreased during last 50 years from It means that during one working day, 16 ha of area 2 average farms was lost for the agriculture sector.

After the accession to the EU, the consolidation of agricultural production was observed in plant and animal production. Low productivity results from the fragmentation of farms, unfavourable agricultural system, small economic capacity of agricultural holdings, excess of labour in agriculture, and finally insufficient equipment of agricultural holdings with modern machines and facilities. Multifunctional model of rural development has to secure production of food, protection of natural resources and balance of energy production. The expected area for biomass energy production in Poland in will consist approximately of 2 mln ha 0.

The expected biomass production for energy purposes will consist approximately of 10 mln ton 2 mln from forest, mln straw and 5 mln ton solid biomass from energy plantation. For climatic conditions in Poland, a relatively high level of water demands for energy crops especially willow will be a limiting factor for development of energy plantation. The enlargement of energy crops area causes serious environmental threats, first of all, limitation of soil water resources that reduces the feed ground and surface waters Borek, ; Mosiej et al.

The recirculation of nutrients between urban and rural areas is of great importance for sustainable agriculture. This is especially important for phosphorus, as phosphorus is a finite deposit with different estimates regarding the. Phosphorus is a prerequisite for growing food and fodder. At the farm level, the phosphorus input should be of the same size as the amount of phosphorus removed.

Phosphorus nutrient balances should be performed on a farm to show the size of the phosphorus surplus and should be used when planning fertilisation. This also makes it necessary to have high quality rural area waste recirculated on agricultural land. It must not be polluted with heavy metals, organic compounds and other unwanted components.

This also makes it important to involve a consumer in the process, as he or she must be aware that, depending on how he or she uses the toilet and sink, food quality can be affected. Legislation is one means to make it possible to recycle human effluents back to agriculture. Different levels of legislation exist. For all countries in the EU, the EU directive on protection of the environment especially the soil , when sewage sludge is used in agriculture, is relevant and can be considered to be the minimum level for legislation Carlson, et al.

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Urban areas in Poland have the surface area of Rural areas cover However, Approximately kg year-1 of communal waste per capita is produced in towns and only kg year-1 per capita in rural areas data fom Hence, much more communal waste is generated in towns than in rural areas, both in relative and absolute terms. This applies even more strongly to industrial waste. In general, rural areas serve as the main receptor for emissions of pollutants from urban areas. Landfills are most frequently localised in rural areas for two reasons: because land is much cheaper in the country and landfill sites can be situated much farther away from residential areas.

In this way, objections to localizations are much weaker and, additionally, raised by a sector of the population which possesses much less political and social power. In particular, rural areas have also become receptors of urban pollutants in the case of agricultural utilisation of industrial sewage and field fertilization using urban sewer sludge or compost containing sewage sludge.

This serves as an example of the changing role of rural areas in our times. Their role has evolved quickly from that of foodstuffs producing areas to the role of a so-called ecological sink. Green areas are more and more often treated as 'carbon parks' assimilating the carbon dioxide emitted by fuel burning. Simultaneously, traditional agriculture has been gradually becoming an obsolete branch of economic activity and is being replaced by industrial methods of food production. Farmers have been changing their roles from food producers to environmental guardians, who.

They also receive a growing proportion of their income for providing services of both kinds, e. Water is an important factor deciding about sustainable development of agriculture. It is caused by its function in agricultural landscape and the fact that its shortage or surplus impacts biodiversity especially in water reliable ecosystems. During last few years, noticeable change of the way of thinking took place considering the management of water resources. Water was shown as "a restricted and sensitive resource, essential for sustaining of life, development and environment".

While Water Framework Directive implemented a definition that shows water specifically as a resource: "water is not a product as any other but a hereditary good that has to be protected and treated as one". As a consequence of this approach, some priorities of water management has to be set to subordinate water economy to sustainable development rules which cause changes in rules and techniques of water resources management. In place of the aim oriented on usage and supplying of water for satisfying different parts of economy - there is the aim of sustainable usage and protection of not only water itself but also water ecosystems and water reliable ecosystems.

As a basis of water resources management, integrated approach was taken, placed in natural, social and economic properties of water resources and connected to the environment WWF, According to the rules of sustainable development actions protection and management, in complex way, environment of rural areas, including water resources, should be taken under consideration in special planning and not violate the requirements of environmental protection. They should consider agricultural production space as well as residential areas with their technical infrastructure and degraded areas and also protected areasm including water biotopes.

At present, socio-economic conditions require a new point of view on water factor in rural areas management. Water in agricultural landscape in spite of productive production of biomass function plays different roles such as Mosiej, :. About economic and ecological role of water does not decide its absolute amount but the time of water impact, time of taking part in different processes in landscape. The role of water in landscape management cannot be seen apart from economic, social and ecological functions of rural areas nor without the context of the agricultural and ecological policy state and regional scale and also without the conditions caused by existing infrastructure connected with land improvement and water engineering.

It should not be considered apart of special plans for management of existing habitats in rural areas Rajda, Plant production and forestry are the greatest water consumers in Poland. Small area of irrigated crops does not mean little water consumption.

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Most of this water, however, in a form of more or less treated sewage returns to the water cycle in contrast to the water taken up by vegetation, which is turned into water vapour as a whole. It is clearly seen that agriculture and water demands of plants in general including forests play a significant role in water cycling in nature.

Therefore, the agriculture water resources are a key factor in implementation of the Water Framework Directive Mioduszewski, Agricultural water management infrastructure is very rich. It comprises, in particular, over 70 km of rivers and channels included in the so called basic water infrastructure managed by state.

Moreover, km of ditches are managed by owners of reclaimed areas. Noteworthy, at present some hectares are irrigated while several years ago irrigation involved the area of hectares Mioduszewski, Polish water resources depend on precipitations, which are variable in time and space. In dry years, the water balance is negative in central parts of Poland but sudden thaws and downfalls may result in periodical water excess and dangerous floods almost in the entire country.

Another method to increase retention is soil water control. About fifty percent of soils in Poland consist of light and very light sandy soils with low water capacity. An increase of the soil water content could be achieved by changes of soil properties, water table control and soil water management. Modernization and reconstruction of drainage and irrigation systems, which were built mainly in the period , is needed.

In total, 4. On arable areas, sprinkler irrigation covers no more than 20 thousand hectares. Microirrigation is used in horticulture in the area of about 4 thousand hectares Pierzgalski and Jeznach, There are also a few objects 5 thousand hectares in total where border irrigation is applied utilizing waste water for agricultural purposes Mosiej, Due to climate change and related extreme meteorological and hydrological events droughts , the scenario predicting an increase of both the irrigation water demand and irrigated areas is most likely. Nowadays, the role of irrigation in agriculture is marginal because of very small irrigated area 0.

During the recent years, as well as in the years to come, three main factors exert an accelerating influence on the development of irrigation: increased frequency and intensity of droughts; the intensification of agricultural production e. The main function of water in agricultural landscape is the productive function i. Therefore, we should manage water in the landscape in the way that allows it to do the maximum work, which is inter alia to produce a biomass. We have to remember that water is a solvent and a medium for substances and energy.

Therefore, the approach to regulate and manage the water resources on larger areas should be very careful and cautious especially when it regards drainage or irrigation. The increase of the outflow of water accelerates the circulation of water in the landscape influencing at the same time circulation leaching of mineral compounds, including the biogens.

The agriculture gains the water required for the production of plant biomass mainly from the precipitation. The size of the annual rainfall is beyond our control, but we can manage water in agricultural activities in a way ensuring the maximum production of plant biomass.

Depending on the method of water management in the fields, we can obtain significantly different yields of crops. In order to identify, at least approximately, the opportunities of the plant biomass production depending on water resources in Poland, we have to begin with balancing its total resources available in our country. With app. The remaining 64 km3 of water is consumed by the woods about 50 km3 , natural evaporation from the surface of plants interception and soil evaporation GUS, Water is especially important for agriculture in dry climate.

The amount of water and its availability determines the possibility of conducting any agricultural production. The quantity of water used in agriculture can be presented by the fact that 10 m3 of water is sufficient for Carruthers and Clark, :. The greatest amounts of fresh water absorb the food production, especially production of biomass. Water availability significantly affects the efficiency of this process. Thus, water is essential to produce a certain volume of biomass, which is a raw material feedstock for food production. Scientists have calculated that the demand for water in litres, per unit of measurement of the product before it reaches the stores.

Forests as important as farming for some rural communities

In the future, the number of countries that can afford to produce food will diminish; the import of food will be more profitable. Countries with low water resources, suffering from the shortages, are looking for such technologies of plant cultivation, which reduce the consumption of this precious resource to minimum. Therefore, to avoid losses due to excessive evaporation of water, many plants are grown under plastic. The whole fields are being rebuilt, on the model of the cultivated rice fields in Asia.

Still, we sometimes do not think of the amount of consumed water for the food production. For example, the production of one slice of bread 30 g consumes up to 40 dm3 litres of water, and if we add 10 grams of cheese, the sandwich absorbs 90 dm3 of water. If such a breakfast is followed by a cup of coffee, then we should add to the calculation litres of water, if it is a cup of tea - 35 litres. In total, our modest breakfast absorbs in total litres of water. The total amount of water needed to produce 1 kg of poultry meat is about 3.

Experts have calculated that the production of kcal of vegetarian food needs about 1. Improving the quality of food, including increase of the share of meat in the diet will cause the production of food for a growing world population, which will cause a sharp increase in water consumption. The analysis conducted for the 15 EU countries showed a decrease in water consumption for the food production in the last 30 years. This is due to the changes in diet, lower consumption of meat especially from beef to poultry , directed to the vegetarian diet.

But the main important factor limiting the use of water is the biological progress in. The state of the environment in rural areas depends on the method of agricultural production. Many valuable habitats were created thanks to the traditional ways of farming, pastures and regular mowing. In the long term, the intensification of agriculture leads to greater water and soil pollution, disturbance of the environmental equilibrium, lower quality of agricultural produce and of the environment, as well as less biodiversity. There are two competing aspects of agricultural influence to the natural environment.

The positive aspects are long-lasting; agriculture shapes the mosaic and diverse landscape as well as guarantee good conditions for diversity of plants and animals. The negative aspects are that agriculture degrades the environment to some extent through excessive fertilization, non-adjusted agricultural techniques and non-compliance with good agricultural practices. Important aspect, deciding on sustaining development of agriculture and rural areas is water. It is because of the role of water in agricultural landscape as well as the fact that its excess or shortage impacts biodiversity, especially in the water depending ecosystems.

Nitrate pollution of waters is a major cause of the eutrophication of coastal waters and results in surface water and groundwater resources in Europe not meeting the requirements of the Water Framework Directive WFD. According to the WFD, there is a broad range of tools that serve to minimize the influence of agriculture on the environment. It is typical to choose a number of instruments that work on various scales, beginning from catchment areas and river basins, to the actions taken on the scale of a farm. All of the instruments need to have an appropriate legal basis.

In addition to this, these instruments should be assisted by a system of data collection and storage, in order to assess the effectiveness of actions from the point of view of the environment, society and the economy.

Rural politics : policies for agriculture, forestry and the environment - Semantic Scholar

The impact of agriculture on the environment is significant because, unlike other economic activities, farming forms part of the ecosystem rather than being external to it. Agriculture utilizes the natural environment to produce food through a range of different practices, such as land drainage, tilling of soil, diverting natural water sources, irrigation and applying nutrients and pesticides.

These practices affect soil, air, water, biodiversity and landscapes. Water quality is a major environmental concern in Europe. Potential agricultural pressure on water quality is indicated by the "gross nitrogen balance"'.