Melissa Graham was also optimistic. Back when his brother [Rob Ford] tried to privatize Wheel Trans, he was forced to back down. I think we can do it again. Activists, unions, and everyday folks are mobilizing all over Ontario. Skip to main content. Partner Organizations Canadian Labour Institute. Topic The Ways We Win. Ontario workers rally to keep decent work drive alive.
That was the message thousands flooded into downtown Toronto to deliver to the brand new Doug Ford government, just nine days after his June 7 victory.
That was the message thousands flooded into downtown Toronto to deliver to the brand new Doug Ford government in Ontario, just nine days after his June 7 victory. The rally put Ford on notice: there would be no backsliding. The important labour law reforms in that came with the passage of Bill Fair Workplaces, Better Jobs Act must be honoured.
That means cuts to social services. That means lost jobs. That means nurses being laid off. That means social workers being laid off. This is quite slow and slightly improves compression. This is a native FFmpeg encoder for the Opus format. Currently its in development and only implements the CELT part of the codec. Its quality is usually worse and at best is equal to the libopus encoder. If unspecified it uses the number of channels and the layout to make a good guess.
Sets the maximum delay in milliseconds. Lower delays than 20ms will very quickly decrease quality. Requires the presence of the libfdk-aac headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libfdk-aac. The library is also incompatible with GPL, so if you allow the use of GPL, you should configure with --enable-gpl --enable-nonfree --enable-libfdk-aac. This encoder is considered to produce output on par or worse at kbps to the the native FFmpeg AAC encoder but can often produce better sounding audio at identical or lower bitrates and has support for the AAC-HE profiles.
If the bitrate is not explicitly specified, it is automatically set to a suitable value depending on the selected profile. Note that VBR is implicitly enabled when the vbr value is positive. If not specified or explicitly set to 0 it will use a value automatically computed by the library. Enable afterburner feature if set to 1, disabled if set to 0. This improves the quality but also the required processing power. Set VBR mode, from 1 to 5. Requires the presence of the libmp3lame headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libmp3lame. See libshine for a fixed-point MP3 encoder, although with a lower quality. The following options are supported by the libmp3lame wrapper. The lame -equivalent of the options are listed in parentheses. Set constant quality setting for VBR.
Set algorithm quality. Valid arguments are integers in the range, with 0 meaning highest quality but slowest, and 9 meaning fastest while producing the worst quality. Enable use of bit reservoir when set to 1. LAME has this enabled by default, but can be overridden by use --nores option. Enable the encoder to use ABR when set to 1. The lame --abr sets the target bitrate, while this options only tells FFmpeg to use ABR still relies on b to set bitrate.
Requires the presence of the libopencore-amrnb headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libopencore-amrnb --enable-version3. This is a mono-only encoder. Set bitrate in bits per second. Only the following bitrates are supported, otherwise libavcodec will round to the nearest valid bitrate. Allow discontinuous transmission generate comfort noise when set to 1. The default value is 0 disabled. Most libopus options are modelled after the opusenc utility from opus-tools. The following is an option mapping chart describing options supported by the libopus wrapper, and their opusenc -equivalent in parentheses.
Set VBR mode. The FFmpeg vbr option has the following valid arguments, with the opusenc equivalent options in parentheses:. Set encoding algorithm complexity. Valid options are integers in the range. Set maximum frame size, or duration of a frame in milliseconds. The argument must be exactly the following: 2. Smaller frame sizes achieve lower latency but less quality at a given bitrate.
Sizes greater than 20ms are only interesting at fairly low bitrates. The default is 20ms. Set cutoff bandwidth in Hz. The argument must be exactly one of the following: , , , , or , corresponding to narrowband, mediumband, wideband, super wideband, and fullband respectively. The default is 0 cutoff disabled. Set channel mapping family to be used by the encoder.
The default value of -1 uses mapping family 0 for mono and stereo inputs, and mapping family 1 otherwise. The default also disables the surround masking and LFE bandwidth optimzations in libopus, and requires that the input contains 8 channels or fewer. Other values include 0 for mono and stereo, 1 for surround sound with masking and LFE bandwidth optimizations, and for independent streams with an unspecified channel layout. If set to 0, disables the use of phase inversion for intensity stereo, improving the quality of mono downmixes, but slightly reducing normal stereo quality.
The default is 1 phase inversion enabled. Shine is a fixed-point MP3 encoder. It has a far better performance on platforms without an FPU, e. However, as it is more targeted on performance than quality, it is not on par with LAME and other production-grade encoders quality-wise. Requires the presence of the libshine headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libshine. The following options are supported by the libshine wrapper. The shineenc -equivalent of the options are listed in parentheses. Requires the presence of the libtwolame headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libtwolame. The following options are supported by the libtwolame wrapper. The twolame -equivalent options follow the FFmpeg ones and are in parentheses. Default value is k. Set quality for experimental VBR support. Maximum value range is from to 50, useful range is from to The higher the value, the better the quality. Set psychoacoustic model to use in encoding.
The Hidden Costs of P.E.
The argument must be an integer between -1 and 4, inclusive. The default value is 3. Requires the presence of the libvo-amrwbenc headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libvo-amrwbenc --enable-version3. Requires the presence of the libvorbisenc headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libvorbis. The following options are supported by the libvorbis wrapper. The oggenc -equivalent of the options are listed in parentheses. The value should be a float number in the range of Set cutoff bandwidth in Hz, a value of 0 disables cutoff. This only has effect on ABR mode. Set noise floor bias for impulse blocks. The value is a float number from A negative bias instructs the encoder to pay special attention to the crispness of transients in the encoded audio. The tradeoff for better transient response is a higher bitrate.
Requires the presence of the libwavpack headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libwavpack. Note that a libavcodec-native encoder for the WavPack codec exists so users can encode audios with this codec without using this encoder. See wavpackenc. This is a libavcodec-native WavPack encoder. There is also an encoder based on libwavpack, but there is virtually no reason to use that encoder. The following shared options are effective for this encoder.
Only special notes about this particular encoder will be documented here. For the general meaning of the options, see the Codec Options chapter. For this encoder, the range for this option is between and Default is automatically decided based on sample rate and number of channel. Set whether to enable optimization for mono. This option is only effective for non-mono streams. Available values:. Specifies the number of chunks to split frames into, between 1 and This permits multithreaded decoding of large frames, potentially at the cost of data-rate.
The encoder may modify this value to divide frames evenly. Specifies the second-stage compressor to use. If set to none , chunks will be limited to 1, as chunked uncompressed frames offer no benefit. The native jpeg encoder is lossy by default, the -q:v option can be used to set the encoding quality. Lossless encoding can be selected with -pred 1. Requires the presence of the libaom headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libaom. By default this will use variable-bitrate mode. If maxrate and minrate are also set to the same value then it will use constant-bitrate mode, otherwise if crf is set as well then it will use constrained-quality mode. Set key frame placement. The GOP size sets the maximum distance between key frames; if zero the output stream will be intra-only.
The minimum distance is ignored unless it is the same as the GOP size, in which case key frames will always appear at a fixed interval. Not set by default, so without this option the library has completely free choice about where to place key frames. Valid range is from 0 to 63 warning: this does not match the quantiser values actually used by AV1 - divide by four to map real quantiser values to this range.
Set rate control buffering parameters. Not used if not set - defaults to unconstrained variable bitrate. Set the number of threads to use while encoding. This may require the tiles or row-mt options to also be set to actually use the specified number of threads fully. Defaults to the number of hardware threads supported by the host machine. Set the encoding profile. Defaults to using the profile which matches the bit depth and chroma subsampling of the input.
Valid range is from 0 to 8, higher numbers indicating greater speed and lower quality. The default value is 1, which will be slow and high quality. Set the maximum number of frames which the encoder may keep in flight at any one time for lookahead purposes. Valid range is 0 to 63, higher numbers indicating lower quality and smaller output size.
Only used if set; by default only the bitrate target is used. Set a change threshold on blocks below which they will be skipped by the encoder. Defined in arbitrary units as a nonnegative integer, defaulting to zero no blocks are skipped. Set a threshold for dropping frames when close to rate control bounds. Defined as a percentage of the target buffer - when the rate control buffer falls below this percentage, frames will be dropped until it has refilled above the threshold. Defaults to zero no frames are dropped. Amount of noise to be removed for grain synthesis. Grain synthesis is disabled if this option is not set or set to 0.
Block size used for denoising for grain synthesis. If not set, AV1 codec uses the default value of Set datarate undershoot min percentage of the target bitrate. Range is -1 to Default is Set datarate overshoot max percentage of the target bitrate. Minimum percentage variation of the GOP bitrate from the target bitrate. Default is -1 unset. Maximum percentage variation of the GOP bitrate from the target bitrate. Set the number of tiles to encode the input video with, as columns x rows.
Larger numbers allow greater parallelism in both encoding and decoding, but may decrease coding efficiency. Defaults to the minimum number of tiles required by the size of the input video this is 1x1 that is, a single tile for sizes up to and including 4K.
Set the number of tiles as log2 of the number of tile rows and columns. Enable Constrained Directional Enhancement Filter. The libaom-av1 encoder enables CDEF by default. Enable block copy mode for intra block prediction. This mode is useful for screen content. Default is true. Requires the presence of the libkvazaar headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libkvazaar.
See kvazaar documentation for a list of options. This encoder requires the presence of the libopenh headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libopenh The library is detected using pkg-config. Set the number of slices, used in parallelized encoding. Set profile restrictions.
Requires the presence of the libtheora headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libtheora. The following global options are mapped to internal libtheora options which affect the quality and the bitrate of the encoded stream. Used to enable constant quality mode VBR encoding through the qscale flag, and to enable the pass1 and pass2 modes.
A higher value corresponds to a higher quality. Enable VBR mode when set to a non-negative value, and set constant quality value as a double floating point value in QP units. The value is clipped in the  range, and then multiplied by 6. Requires the presence of the libvpx headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libvpx. The following options are supported by the libvpx wrapper.
The vpxenc -equivalent options or values are listed in parentheses for easy migration. To reduce the duplication of documentation, only the private options and some others requiring special attention are documented here. For the documentation of the undocumented generic options, see the Codec Options chapter. Further information is available in the libvpx API documentation. Set ratecontrol buffer size in bits. Set number of bits which should be loaded into the rc buffer before decoding starts.
Use best quality deadline. Poorly named and quite slow, this option should be avoided as it may give worse quality output than good. Use good quality deadline. This is a good trade-off between speed and quality when used with the cpu-used option. Enable use of alternate reference frames 2-pass only. Values greater than 1 enable multi-layer alternate reference frames VP9 only. For example, to specify temporal scalability parameters with ffmpeg :.
Set number of tile columns to use. For example, 8 tile columns would be requested by setting the tile-columns option to 3. Set number of tile rows to use. For example, 4 tile rows would be requested by setting the tile-rows option to 2.
Set adaptive quantization mode 0: off default , 1: variance 2: complexity, 3: cyclic refresh, 4: equator Corpus VBR mode is a variant of standard VBR where the complexity distribution midpoint is passed in rather than calculated for a specific clip or chunk. It can encode in either lossy or lossless mode.
Lossy images are essentially a wrapper around a VP8 frame. Lossless images are a separate codec developed by Google. Alpha is supported for either mode. Because of API limitations, if RGB is passed in when encoding lossy or YUV is passed in for encoding lossless, the pixel format will automatically be converted using functions from libwebp. This is not ideal and is done only for convenience.
Higher values give better quality for a given size at the cost of increased encoding time. Higher values give smaller size at the cost of increased encoding time. More specifically, it controls the number of extra algorithms and compression tools used, and varies the combination of these tools. This maps to the method option in libwebp. The valid range is 0 to 6. Default is 4. For lossy encoding, this controls image quality, 0 to For lossless encoding, this controls the effort and time spent at compressing more. The default value is This encoder requires the presence of the libx headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libx Many libx encoder options are mapped to FFmpeg global codec options, while unique encoder options are provided through private options. FFmpeg only supports one bit depth in one particular build. In other words, it is not possible to build one FFmpeg with multiple versions of x with different bit depths. The following options are supported by the libx wrapper.
The x -equivalent options or values are listed in parentheses for easy migration. To get a more accurate and extensive documentation of the libx options, invoke the command x --fullhelp or consult the libx documentation. Diamond search with radius 1 fastest. Normally, when forcing a I-frame type, the encoder can select any type of I-frame. This option forces it to choose an IDR-frame.
Ignore chroma in motion estimation. Slice-based multithreading. Set encoding flags. Enable fast settings when encoding first pass, when set to 1. Use psychovisual optimizations when set to 1. Enable weighted prediction for B-frames when set to 1. Configure the encoder to be compatible with the bluray standard. Enable the use of one reference per partition, as opposed to one reference per macroblock when set to 1.
Enable adaptive spatial transform high profile 8x8 transform when set to 1. Enable use macroblock tree ratecontrol when set to 1. Set the limit of the size of each slice in bytes. If not specified but RTP payload size ps is specified, that is used. In filter and psy-rd options that use ":" as a separator themselves, use "," instead. They accept it as well since long ago but this is kept undocumented for some reason. Import closed captions which must be ATSC compatible format into output. Only the mpeg2 and h decoders provide these.
Default is 1 on. This option is functionally the same as the xopts , but is duplicated for compatibility with the Libav fork. Encoding ffpresets for common usages are provided so they can be used with the general presets system e. See x --help for a list of options. This encoder requires the presence of the libxavs2 headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libxavs2. Set the xavs2 quantization parameter from 1 to 63 default This is used to set the initial qp for the first frame. This is used to set the qp value under constant-QP mode.
This encoder requires the presence of the libxvidcore headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libxvid --enable-gpl. The native mpeg4 encoder supports the MPEG-4 Part 2 format, so users can encode to this format without this library. The following options are supported by the libxvid wrapper. Some of the following options are listed but are not documented, and correspond to shared codec options.
- 21 Meditation Techniques (A Unique Collection Of Ancient Wisdom And Spiritual Teachings Of Great Eastern Masters For Beginners)?
- Was Eric Harris a virgin? Does it matter?!
- Fragile Alliances: Labor and Politics in Evansville, Indiana, 1919-1955 (Contributions in Labor Studies)?
- Add new comment;
See the Codec Options chapter for their documentation. The other shared options which are not listed have no effect for the libxvid encoder. Set motion estimation method. Possible values in decreasing order of speed and increasing order of quality:. Enable advanced diamond zonal search for 16x16 blocks and half-pixel refinement for 16x16 blocks. Enable all of the things described above, plus advanced diamond zonal search for 8x8 blocks, half-pixel refinement for 8x8 blocks, and motion estimation on chroma planes. Enable all of the things described above, plus rate distortion-based half pixel and quarter pixel refinement for 8x8 blocks, and rate distortion-based search using square pattern.
In other words, the resulting quality will be the worse one of the two effects. The format of per-frame information is:. Set SSIM accuracy. Valid options are integers within the range of , while 0 gives the most accurate result and 4 computes the fastest. Decide automatically to write it or not this is the default by checking if the data to be written is different from the default or unspecified values. FFmpeg contains 2 ProRes encoders, the prores-aw and prores-ks encoder.
The used encoder can be chosen with the -vcodec option. If set to auto , the matrix matching the profile will be picked. If not set, the matrix providing the highest quality, default , will be picked. How many bits to allot for coding one macroblock. Different profiles use between and bits per macroblock, the maximum is Number of macroblocks in each slice ; the default value 8 should be good in almost all situations.
Override the 4-byte vendor ID. A custom vendor ID like apl0 would claim the stream was produced by the Apple encoder. Specify number of bits for alpha component. Possible values are 0 , 8 and Use 0 to disable alpha plane coding. In the default mode of operation the encoder has to honor frame constraints i. A frame containing a lot of small details is harder to compress and the encoder would spend more time searching for appropriate quantizers for each slice.
For the fastest encoding speed set the qscale parameter 4 is the recommended value and do not set a size constraint. Note that depending on your system, a different mode than the one you specified may be selected by the encoder. Set the verbosity level to verbose or higher to see the actual settings used by the QSV runtime.
If you have input in software frames, use the hwupload filter to upload them to the GPU. If not set, this will be determined automatically from the format of the input frames and the profiles supported by the driver. Note that it may support a reduced feature set, so some other options may not be available in this mode. The intra frames are still IRAPs, but will not include global headers and may have non-decodable leading pictures. Set the B-frame reference depth. When set to one the default , all B-frames will refer only to P- or I-frames.
When set to greater values multiple layers of B-frames will be present, frames in each layer only referring to frames in higher layers. Choose the mode automatically based on driver support and the other options. This is the default. This may affect the level chosen for the stream if it is not explicitly specified. Only baseline DCT encoding is supported. For YUV, , and subsampling modes are supported. Include standard huffman tables on by default.
B-frames are supported, but the output stream is always in encode order rather than display order. This codec was primarily aimed at professional broadcasting but since it supports yuv, yuv and yuv at 8 limited range or full range , 10 or 12 bits, this makes it suitable for other tasks which require low overhead and low compression like screen recording. Sets target video bitrate. Higher values close to the uncompressed bitrate turn on lossless compression mode. Enables field coding when set e. Should increase compression with interlaced content as it splits the fields and encodes each separately.
Sets the total amount of wavelet transforms to apply, between 1 and 5 default. Lower values reduce compression and quality. Sets the transform type. Sets the slice size for each slice. Larger values result in better compression. Sets the undershoot tolerance of the rate control system in percent. This is to prevent an expensive search from being run. This codec encodes the bitmap subtitle format that is used in DVDs.
When set to 1, enable a work-around that makes the number of pixel rows even in all subtitles.
An unapologetic guided tour of the mathematical life
This fixes a problem with some players that cut off the bottom row if the number is odd. The work-around just adds a fully transparent row if needed. The overhead is low, typically one byte per subtitle on average. When you configure your FFmpeg build, all the supported bitstream filters are enabled by default.
Land & Jail
You can list all available ones using the configure option --list-bsfs. Below is a description of the currently available bitstream filters, with their parameters, if any. Set the color range in the stream see AV1 section 6. Set the chroma sample location in the stream see AV1 section 6. This can only be set for streams.
Set the number of ticks in each picture, to indicate that the stream has a fixed framerate. Add extradata to the beginning of the filtered packets except when said packets already exactly begin with the extradata that is intended to be added. For example the following ffmpeg command forces a global header thus disabling individual packet headers in the H. Certain codecs allow the long-term headers e. MPEG-2 sequence headers, or H.
Waking Up with Sam Harris - Discover your mind.
This latter form is called "extradata" in FFmpeg terminology. When this option is enabled, the long-term headers are removed from the bitstream after extraction. List of unit types or ranges of unit types to pass through while removing all others. Extradata is unchanged by this transformation, but note that if the stream contains inline parameter sets then the output may be unusable if they are removed. This is the smallest time unit representable in the stream, and in many cases represents the field rate of the stream double the frame rate.
Set whether the stream has fixed framerate - typically this indicates that the framerate is exactly half the tick rate, but the exact meaning is dependent on interlacing and the picture structure see H. Set the frame cropping offsets in the SPS. These values will replace the current ones if the stream is already cropped. These fields are set in pixels. Note that some sizes may not be representable if the chroma is subsampled or the stream is interlaced see H. Insert a string as SEI unregistered user data. Convert an H. This is required by some streaming formats, typically the MPEG-2 transport stream format muxer mpegts.
For example to remux an MP4 file containing an H. This applies a specific fixup to some Blu-ray streams which contain redundant PPSs modifying irrelevant parameters of the stream which confuse other transformations which require correct extradata.