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Khalajinia et al. The association between neuroticism and menstrual pain is probably due to influence of neuroticism characteristic on pain perception. Neuroticism is a vulnerability factor in which lowering the threshold of pain perceptions contributes to dysmenorrhea In addition, high neuroticism is associated with the belief that pain is mysterious, aversive, and will last throughout of life According to our study, a family history of dysmenorrhea seems to be a risk factor for students with dysmenorrhea, which is consistent with other studies Some research have suggested that the daughters of the mothers with menstrual complains also experience menstrual pain, which might be related to behavior that is learned from the mother The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was higher among students who had higher intakes of caffeine, which is compatible with other studies It is unclear how high caffeine intake is related to dysmenorrhea; however, vasoconstricting actions of caffeine are implicated in producing pelvic pain.

The studies report a significant correlation between caffeine consumption and development of pains like headache and pelvic pain A few study limitations should be mentioned. First, the cross-sectional nature of our study prevents any conclusion regarding causality.

Prospective cohort studies are a more reliable way of determining casual relation between various risk factors and dysmenorrhea. Second, it was performed in a single university; therefore, the sample may not be representative of all Iranian female students. Third, data collection has been performed by self-report using questionnaires that have resulted in underreporting of the conditions. Future research by using alternative methods such as interviews might obtain a more detailed and complete view with that regard, particularly about alexithymia.

Finally, as the study was the first work that revealed that high alexithymia in women with dysmenorrhea, further researches are needed to determine the extent of the associations between predictors and dysmenorrhea. In addition, further studies are needed to explain the role of cultural variables in the association between social support, neurotic personality, and dysmenorrhea. Although this study had some weakness points such as cross-sectional study and self-report symptoms, it had strong points that include being the first Iranian psychologic risk factor assessment, assessing large number of risk factor 20 depended variable , and considering psychologic and nonpsychologic risk factor simultaneously.

In conclusion, our results showed that psychologic factors such as social support, alexithymia, and neurotic personality are the important risk factors for primary dysmenorrhea. This study proposes to consider psychologic risk factors in addition to medical and environmental risk factors to evaluation and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Durain D. Primary dysmenorrhea: assessment and management update. J Midwifery Womens Health. Investigatingthe effect of pressure on third liver point on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Iran Red Crescent Med J. Avasarala AK, Panchangam S. Dysmenorrhoea in different settings: are the rural and urban adolescent girls perceiving and managing the dysmenorrhoea problem differently? Indian J Community Med. Fritz MA, Speroff L. Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Tanmahasamut P, Chawengsettakul S. Dysmenorrhea in Siriraj medical students; prevalence, quality of life, and knowledge of management.

J Med Assoc Thai. Poureslami M, Osati-Ashtiani F. Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of adolescent girls in Suburban districts of Tehran about dysmenorrhea and menstrual hygiene. J Int Womenen's Studies. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Primary dysmenorrhea consensus guideline.

The burden and determinants of dysmenorrhoea: a population-based survey of women in Goa, India. Factors predisposing women to chronic pelvic pain: systematic review. Prevalence and predictors of dysmenorrhea among students at a university in Turkey.

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Fujiwara T. Skipping breakfast is associated with dysmenorrhea in young women in Japan. Int J Food Sci Nutr. The impact of anxiety sensitivity, bodily expectations, and cultural beliefs on menstrual symptom reporting: a test of the menstrual reactivity hypothesis. J Anxiety Disord. Body dissatisfaction on top of depressive mood among adolescents with severe dysmenorrhea. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Hickey M, Balen A. Menstrual disorders in adolescence: investigation and management.

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Hum Reprod Update. Alonso C, Coe CL. Disruptions of social relationships accentuate the association between emotional distress and menstrual pain in young women. Health Psychol. The role of neuroticism, pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear in vigilance to pain: a structural equations approach.

Int J Gynecol Obstet. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students. Ups J Med Sci. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Andrea J, Rapkin LN. Berek and Novak's Gynecology. Effects of caffeine on human health.

Food Addit Contam. Beverage caffeine intake in US consumers and subpopulations of interest: estimates from the Share of Intake Panel survey. Food Chem Toxicol.


Behav Res Ther. J Iran psychol. Mediating influences of social support on stress at Three Mile Island. J Human Stress. Hosseini M. The study of the relation between social support and personal consistency among Juveniles.

Performance, survival, necropsy, and virological findings from calves persistently infected with the bovine viral diarrhea virus originating from a single Saskatchewan beef herd. Can Vet J. Convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. J Psychosom Res. Besharat MA. Reliability and factorial validity of a Farsi version of the item Toronto Alexithymia Scale with a sample of Iranian students.

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Psychologic | Definition of Psychologic by Lexico

Neo personality inventory—revised neo-pi-r and neo five-factor inventory neo-ffi professional manual. Atkinson RL. Does serotonin augmentation have any effect on cognition and activities of daily living in Alzheimer's dementia? A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. The sixth in a series of congressionally mandated reports on Gulf War veterans' health, this volume evaluates the health effects associated with stress.

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Since the launch of Operation Desert Storm in , there has been growing concern about the physical and psychological health of Gulf War and other veterans. In the late s, Congress responded by asking the National Academy of Sciences NAS to review and evaluate the scientific and medical literature regarding associations between illness and exposure to toxic agents, environmental or wartime hazards, and preventive medicines or vaccines in members of the armed forces who were exposed to such agents.

Deployment to a war zone has a profound impact on the lives of troops and on their family members. There are a plethora of stressors associated with deployment, including constant vigilance against unexpected attack, difficulty distinguishing enemy combatants from civilians, concerns about survival, caring for the badly injured, and witnessing the death of a person. Less traumatic but more pervasive stressors include anxiety about home life, such as loss of a job and income, impacts on relationships, and absence from family. Gulf War and Health: Volume 6. Physiologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Development Related Stress evaluates the scientific literature regarding association between deployment-related stressors and health effects, and provides meaningful recommendations to remedy this problem.


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For information on how to request permission to translate our work and for any other rights related query please click here. For questions about using the Copyright. Finding similar items Ministry launches "Watheq" project. They cover physiology and general management of pain, musculoskeletal, neurologic, obstetric and gynecologic, psychologic , and special considerations. Pain Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Economic independence both improves self esteem and relieves the psychologic and economic pressure arising from her dependancy to their husbands or fathers.

Fisherwomen of the Aegean Sea. You have to have a strong mentality to cope under the spotlight, but you do need to have someone who can help out with the psychologic al side of "You have to have a strong mentality to cope under the spotlight, but you do need to have someone who can help out with the psychologic al side of things. Although self-injury can occur independently of any psychologic dysfunction, it has been found to have a comorbidity with borderline personality disorder, anxiety, and depression. Commentary: putting the pieces together in children who cut.

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