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Finally ending in , it provided a wealth of information on the long-term effect of radiation exposure. The Manhattan Project, the crash study undertaken during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb, led directly the second long term study of the effects of long-term radiation exposure, namely the study of the survivors of the bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Among the findings was that there does not appear to have been an increase of birth defects in those that survived the blasts. There have been, however, about cancer deaths that can be directly attributable to the bombings.

Throughout the Cold War, there was experimentation on both sides into the properties and uses of radioactive material in various test reactors and related sites, looking to harness both the strategically valuable offensive power of radioactive material for nuclear weapons and the potentially valuable uses in other fields such as medicine, radiography, and others. Let our experts help:. First Name. Last Name. What is the nature of your inquiry? Denotes Required Fields. Thanks for your submission! Sorry, something went wrong.

There was a problem with you form submission. Please try again later, or contact us by phone or email. Wild fires can spread at a rate of over 14 miles An accidental release of ionising radiation may also occur due to the incorrect storing, handling, transport or disposal of radioactive material or waste. There are a vast array of potential industrial incidents that response teams may need to manage. It may be a leak of ionising radiation due to damage to an x-ray generator used for security inspection or Positive Materials Identification PMI.

It may be the accidental release or loss of radioactive isotopes or sources in the process of non-destructive testing NDT. Radiation incidents can also occur as a result of road traffic accidents involving vehicles that transport radiological sources. As of , there had been more than serious nuclear accidents and incidents from the use of nuclear power. To date however there has been only one nuclear emergency in the US - the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 TMI-2 nuclear power plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania, in - which remains to this day the most serious incident in U.

The Chernobyl incident in Ukraine, attributed to a combination of human error and violation of procedures has been well documented and underpins the need for thorough training and testing of all procedures and drills. In March , a tsunami that followed the Tohuku earthquake disabled the generators that would have powered the cooling system pumps at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Okuma resulting in catastrophic failure and subsequent release. While deliberate acts involving the use of a radiological source are thankfully rare, the potential impact on public safety is devastating and it is crucial that CBRNe response teams are comprehensively trained to handle such events.

Simulation also has a key role to play in the prevention of such activities. Improving radiation safety at nuclear power facilities remains a significant, ongoing concern for regulators, energy providers and the general public Industrial operatives, radiation safety officers, health physicists, military personnel and first responders rely on two essential pieces of equipment when dealing with live radiation incidents in order to monitor dose and dose rate:.

A typical device features an easily readable display and also provides an audible indication of the ionising radiation count or dose rate. The devices are often programmed to emit an alarm warning when a predetermined rate of radiation counts or dose has been exceeded. A dosimeter monitors the Hp 10 dose the depth dose of deep organs and the Hp 0.

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An audible alarm or chirp rate increases with the rate of radiation intensity. Personal dosimeters can be worn to obtain a whole body dose and there are also specialist types that can be worn on the fingers or clipped to headgear, to measure the localised body irradiation for specific activities. While survey meters and personal dosimeters are both fairly straightforward items of instrumentation, the challenge for radiation safety instructors lies in providing trainees with opportunities to test their ability to use these devices in realistic training scenarios.

Radiation safety training has a crucial role to play in ensuring effective response to any radiological incident, whether it be large or small, accidental or deliberate A key objective of radiation safety training emergency preparedness is the ability for military personnel and first responders to be able to identify Electronic simulators are safe and environmentally friendly radiation training systems that can be used in a variety of scenarios both indoor and outdoor to teach:. Simulators can also offer significant time-saving advantages for training exercises as they remove the costly and time-consuming administrative effort normally associated with the transport, deployment and safe handling of radiological sources.

An electronic radiation simulator is a vital piece of CBRNe and Hazmat training equipment that ensures personnel are thoroughly prepared for real-life radiation incidents. In March , the UK Public Health Executive PHE , published the results of a survey that explored the radiological impact of the transport of radioactive material by The regulations establish a clear framework to Electronic radiation simulators provide trainees with first-hand experience of detectors that are identical to the ones they will use on a live incident. In doing so they can offer huge benefits for personnel responsible for radiation safety:.

The use of replica detectors ensures that trainees learn to trust the values displayed on their instruments, that they develop an understanding of the relationship between the measurements on their survey meter and their own personal dose readings and that they also experience and understand the real-time effects of Time, Distance and Shielding on their instrumentation and personal safety. Simulator detectors offer the opportunity for genuine immersion training. Replicating all the elements of a real-life incident exposes trainees to the range of emotional responses they may encounter in high-stress settings.

The use of simulators also means that training exercises can be repeated as many times as required without the need to decontaminate or to wait for radionuclides, used for teaching contamination monitoring, to decay prior to disposal. After action review AAR ensures trainees follow clearly set out procedures and that they understand when errors have been made, enabling mistakes to be rectified in future training exercises. The use of simulators offers a significant time-saving advantage for training exercises. They mitigate the costly and time-consuming administrative effort normally associated with the transport, deployment and safe handling of radionuclides to the training location.

Simulators also avoid the difficulty and expense in justifying the purchase of new or replacement sources for training, freeing the trainer to focus on the training and the trainees. Historically, CBRN training has been confined to specialist, controlled areas, usually on a military base and the training scenarios employed involved. The ability to be able to respond to any emergency CBRNe or HazMat situation, whether it be an accidental event or a deliberate act As with any form of simulation used in the context of training, some compromises have to be accepted.

The key is to strike the right balance between the desired training outcome and what is achievable. The dynamic ranges associated with radiation readings are also extremely large which can contribute to challenges in implementing simulation. Other techniques involving the temporary placement of a means to simulate the presence of radioactivity are more instructor friendly.

For contamination exercises, options include the placement of powder or liquid substances that can represent an actual contaminant, not just on people, but also on food. And being soluble, can be used to simulate contaminated water or for teaching coolant water sampling. These substances have the advantage of simulating cross contamination and are often ideal for teaching the handling of open sources in a laboratory environment.

Simulant contaminants can also represent radioactive material on mining or drilling equipment or used to teach soil sampling. Alternative methods enable the ability to hide a safe item underneath a surface such as clothing or a protective suit to simulate contamination. This method provides the instructor with the means to influence the maximum level or reading and to simulate partial or full decontamination based upon observation of the student's activity.

It also has the advantage that poor decontamination activity can be accurately represented. The ability to simulate contamination by virtual means is also possible by determining the physical position and orientation of the simulation probe in relation to a surface. To effect training in the correct use of an X-Ray probe for ground contamination monitoring, for example, a combination of GPS and distance measurement can be used. Simulation of Gamma and high energy Beta emitters present their own unique challenges but are, within reason, still feasible.

Simulation sources are able to represent either specific or mixes of radionuclides which can present simulated readings on simulated dose, dose-rate meters and spectrometers. The simulation of these effects is perhaps where compromise is relied upon to the greatest extent. The reality is that safe alternatives will not be subjected to the same degree of attenuation reduction in force as actual radiation.

Technology now means shielding can be represented to a sufficient degree to enable students to appreciate its importance for protection. However instructors need to clarify the differences, where appropriate, for the lesson being delivered. This may also vary depending upon the operational responsibilities of the trainee. Once again we rely upon the need to demonstrate an effect for the student to experience. For example, while a radio signal used to simulate Gamma will not penetrate a metal shield, there are means by which this can be effectively represented for training purposes.

There is also the need to consider the specific type of scenario you wish to simulate, whether it be:. Ultimately what is important is to clarify your training objectives to ensure the most suitable technology is applied to achieve the desired training results within the available budgetary constraints. The creation of realistic training scenarios is vital in ensuring that military crews and first response teams are prepared and equipped to handle actual detectors in real-life The Chemical Weapons Convention CWC , signed and ratified by state-parties globally, is a multilateral treaty that bans the use of chemical weapons under In this case study, firefighter Ross Smallcombe describes his experience of using using simulator radiation equipment in a radiation safety training exercise at the Ryde Fire Station on the Isle of Wight.

The fire station has an old abandoned holiday village down nearby which is used to train in many areas of rescue. I clearly needed to increase my knowledge of radiation and procedures around such a dangerous area. So I began collecting as much information as I could. My first task was to design a lecture about radiation. Also examines are the distinguishing biological characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms, the natural history of malignancies including tumour progression, the metastatic cascade and methods of tumour spread, as well as the epidemiology and etiology of cancer.

Public education through cancer prevention and cancer screening programs will be studied through group presentations. Introduction to the examination of the concepts and principles of treatment planning for radiation therapy treatment delivery, and the roles and responsibilities of the different members of the treatment planning team.

This course will provide familiarity with treatment planning terminology, patient contouring, positioning and immobilization, treatment field blocking methods, verification of treatment fields, and CT simulator technology.


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A customized immobilization device will be constructed - using accepted procedures. Explores psychological and sociological concepts, research and application of relevance to the clinical practice of radiation therapy. Topics to assist students to develop the communication and coping skills required of a health care professional include critical skills for effective, professional communications, challenges and opportunities presented by cultural and other diversity in the workplace, developmental differences, work teams, conflict resolution, harassment and discrimination, abuse and ethics.

The second of two consecutive courses that cover human anatomy and physiology of relevance to the study and practice of radiation therapy. This course consists of a comprehensive study of the following systems: the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system, the respiratory system, the digestive system, the urinary system, the female reproductive system and the male reproductive system.

An examination of the principles of pathology and fundamental disease processes at the cellular level, local and systemic levels. Topics covered include cellular injury and death, tissue necrosis; tissue injury and healing including inflammation, regeneration and repair; neoplastic diseases including genetic disorders, immunologic suppression, and viral causes; as well, disorders of body systems will be examined concentrating on neoplastic disease and its consequences.

Students are expected to select a relevant topic, research the topic and present their findings to the class. The course provides an overview of the basic skills of a manager and applies these skills through a series of projects and case studies. It examines the evolution of management and the organizational culture and environment. It also teaches the decision-making skills and the skills involved in planning, organizing, leading and controlling, including planning and facilitating change, teamwork, applying motivational techniques and effective communication.

Types of Beams Used in Radiation Therapy

Emphasizes statistical data treatment and decision making with illustrative cancer therapy applications. Topics include modeling with probability distributions Binomial, Normal , statistical inference estimation and hypothesis testing, p-values , regression and correlation. Applications include descriptive presentations, survival rates and experimental design.

Examines the characteristics of a health care professional and how to incorporate these characteristics into clinical performance. Also examines the legal-ethical issues of informed consent to medical procedures and apply this knowledge into practice.

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Provides an introduction to the basic concepts of radiobiology. Relates the natural history of malignancy to the application of different treatment modalities to provide patients with the best possible treatment outcomes. Studies the role of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy as primary treatment modalities and as adjuvant therapies. Examines host and tumour related factors that affect prognosis.

Examines radiation safety for both the general public and for occupationally exposed personnel. Prerequisites: RADT Examines quality assurance concepts and applications to treatment planning and delivery in radiation therapy. Examines in detail the guiding principles for a quality assurance program as stated by the ICRU and the implementation in the radiation therapy department, with the importance of quality control checks for all planning and treatment ancillary equipment.

Overview of basic radiation therapy techniques in preparation of obtaining competency in clinical practice, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of other imaging modalities and image quality used in the treatment planning process. The second in a series of courses examining the fundamentals of radiation physics and the principles and concepts of dosimetry in the application of beam data to obtain the optimal treatment plan for each patient.

Examines the physical applications and concepts relevant to teletherapy and brachytherapy equipment, photon and electron interactions, and beam data collection. Lectures are reinforced with numerical examples and students solve numerical problems where appropriate. Students will observe and perform a variety of quality control checks on treatment units in radiation therapy, as well as identify the importance of quality assurance programs for treatment ancillary equipment.

Students will continue to develop and practice their patient care and technical skills under the supervision of the radiation therapists. During this clinical practicum students are scheduled to treatment and planning units to further obtain different experiences in the radiation therapy department.

Students will practice and perform basic and intermediate radiation therapy techniques as well as new patient information for evaluation of competency.


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Continues the exploration of the psychological and sociological issues that may influence a cancer patient's ability to cope and recover from treatment. Examines concepts from research and application to clinical practice. Includes a review of communication and interaction skills; managing stress and negative emotions in clients and in self depression; burnout; anxiety; claustrophobia; psychological aspects of pain and its treatment; psychological impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment; needs of family members; making appropriate referrals; dealing with clients who have disabilities; life threatening illness; death and dealing with dying patients; and medico-legal implications of practice.

This first of two research courses guides through the initial steps of developing a suitable research project relevant to the practice of radiation therapy. Provides for the formulation of a reseach topic or question, review and critique of relevant literature, definition of research methodology, and obtaining approval from project advisor s before commencing research methodology. Requires preparation of an independent proposal based on the research question. Examines the principles of clinical trials as a method to advance medical practice and other forms of experimental design commonly found in medical research, and the importance of research in professional development.

Delivers the clinical application of dosimetry and treatment planning concepts in order to obtain optimal beam arrangements. Examines the application of dosimetric principles in teletherapy and brachytherapy and relates them to clinical practice. Provides practical dosimetry skills through completion of mathematical problem sets for teletherapy and brachytherapy techniques.

Provides an in-depth examination of the effects of ionising radiation on living cells at low doses and at therapeutic levels. This course provides students with a foundation of knowledge regarding the diagnosis, staging and treatment of malignancies of the head and neck, CNS, thorax including breast, lung, thymus, esophagus, as well as skin. Students will also study the issues surrounding palliative and supportive care in oncological management. In the techniques portion of the course students will examine in detail the technical and patient related factors that can contribute to daily variation in clinical technique set-ups.

Students will relate stage and tumour location to techniques commonly used in clinical practice. The simulation component VERT will allow students to practice techniques in competency based scenarios and will provide students with an opportunity to practice, explore and problem solve. During this week clinical practicum students are scheduled to a variety of treatment and planning units in the radiation therapy department. Students will practice and perform multi-field and brachytherapy techniques for evaluation of competency.

They will provide all required information to new patients, i. Building on the fundamentals of communication from COMM — Communication 1 for Radiation Therapy, this course focuses on communication in research and career development settings. The research modules cover theory and practice for communicating scientific research; students apply these skills by writing a research article and preparing an oral presentation for peers, instructors and other health care professionals. In the career communication module, students practice job application skills appropriate for their discipline and prospective employers.

Throughout the course, students develop oral communication skills for team meetings, project consultations and interviews. This course introduces students to contemporary issues in health ethics by examining and applying ethical theories to moral dilemmas at the clinical, professional, and organizational levels. To this end, developing competence in moral reasoning is an important goal, one that will be emphasized through the analysis of case studies that test personal, professional, and societal values. Explores the fundamental physical principles of computed tomography CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI technology and their application within Radiation Therapy.

Outlines the principles of radiographic imaging and its limitations, followed by a description of the history and baisc physics of CT, including a discussion of data acquisition, image reconstruction, instrumentation, image quality, and radiation done in CT. In addition, outlines MRI basic physics and instrumentation, image production, biological effects and safety considerations.

Continues from RADT , enables completion of research under guidance from committee of advisors. Students submit for evaluation a research paper on the analysis of the results, findings and conclusions. The oral presentation consists of an overview of the final research results. This course provides the student with lab experiences to develop competency in clinical treatment planning.

Students will gain an understanding of how manual methods are used to produce composite isodose distributions and examine the management of digital information that has evolved as a result of increased computerization in clinical practice. Using a variety of patient images, students will employ 3-D software to outline critical structures, assess planning target volumes and design optimal treatment plans.

Mathematical Modeling

In this course, students will examine a holistic model of care for the cancer patient that includes an integrated approach to healing and providing optimal outcomes for oncology patients. Students will develop care plans for patients based on the acute and long term effects of radiation therapy treatment whilst considering the patient's cultural, physical and emotional needs. Issues surrounding patient education, post-treatment quality of life, care in the community, palliative and hospice care will also be examined.

This course provides a foundation of study in the theory and practice of quality management in health care through an examination of the literature and case study reviews. Relevant and current TQM theory will be applied to the cancer health care environment with a student assignment to design a survey tool used to measure outcomes of care.

Improvement strategies and implementation for the obtainment of quality processes are examined in the context of health care.