Tectonic evolution of South America. Rio de Janeiro: 31st International Geological Congress. COX , P. The elements on Earth: inorganic chemistry in the environment. The elements: their origin, abundance and distribution. Anatomy of an AI system: the Amazon Echo an an anatomical map of human labor, data and planetary resources. Ensaio sobre os medos e os fins. As formas elementares da vida religiosa.
Fashion victims: the dangers of dress past and present. London: Bloomsbury. The social life of materials: studies in materials and society. The chemistry of the transition elements. Oxford: Clarendon Press. EDE , Andrew. The chemical element: a historical perspective. Westport: Greenwood Press. Ferreiros e alquimistas. Elemental aesthetics: on artistic experiments with solar energy.
Annals of the American Association of Geographers 1 The complex networks of Earth minerals and chemical elements. MATCH Weinheim: Wiley-VHC. GRAY , Theodore. Henrique E. A dynamic perspective of the geopolitical supply risk of metals. Journal of Cleaner Production Towards an animistic science of the Earth. In: Graham Harvey ed.
The handbook of contemporary animism. London: Routledge, pp. In: Jeffrey J. Cohen ed. Prismatic ecology: ecotheory beyond green. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. On the occurrence of metallic character in the periodic table of the chemical elements. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A Brisbane, Australia. Maria D. Vargas Porto Alegre: Bookman. Tese de Doutorado.
Materials and expertise in early modern Europe: between market and laboratory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. KEAN , Sam. The disappearing spoon: and other true tales of madness, love, and the history of the world from the periodic table of the elements. New York: Back Bay Books. Littletown: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exporation. O ouro canibal. KRUM , Randy. The periodic table of iPhones. Cool Infographics. KUHN , Thomas. Metals in society and in the environment: a critical review of current knowledge on fluxes, speciation, bioavailability and risk for adverse effects of Copper, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc.
New York: Kluwer. Occult chemistry: investigations by clairvoyant magnification into the structure of the atoms of the periodic table and some compounds. LEVI , Primo. The periodic table.
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New York: Schocken Books . Chemistry as a second language: chemical education in a globalized society. Washington: American Chemical Society. Adults go to part-time schools or take correspondences courses.
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Upper secondary may also be classified into two: general and specialized. Since the new course of chemistry education is implemented in the general upper secondary schools with 2 hours for the 1st and 2nd year and 3 hours for the 3rd year. Table 3 shows the content of chemistry curriculum in the upper secondary schools. Table 3. Chemistry curriculum at the upper secondary schools.
Since a new course of Chemistry is experimentally introduced at several general upper secondary schools.
It is elaborated in accordance with the new structure of general upper secondary education that includes three sections: section for natural sciences, section for natural and technical sciences, section for social sciences. Elective Courses. In the section for social sciences there are also the course " Philosophy ", and in the section for natural and technical sciences - Technics. Table 4. Study plant various sections of upper secondary schools.
Section Sec. Table 5 shows the content of subject Chemistry at the section for natural sciences. Table 5. Chemistory at the section for natural sciences in the general upper secondary schools. Chemistry Education at the specialized upper secondary schools. The content of chemistry education at the specialized upper secondary schools has two components: the first is similar to the content for the Natural sciences section of the general upper secondary schools; the second includes the main topics related to the chemical industry appropriate to each school.
Recently all the universities and higher institutions in Vietnam are undergoing reform such as restructuring the Plan of study, getting on the common general courses. In accordance with these reforms MOET has promulgated the regulations on structure and minimum volume of core contents for higher education see Table 6. Table 6. Regulations on structure and volume of core messages for higher education. Type of higher institutions Total number of credits Number of gen.
In accordance with the various aspects of the higher institutions, MOET has also promulgated regulations in which there are description of 7 general higher education curricula. The Universities and higher education institutions must have the number of credits of each study field; but this number is minimum.
The 3-years colleges need not follow this regulation; not for facilitating the students who want to obtain the higher education degree of university, some colleges give to their students the appropriate course with the minimum of credits Table 7. Table 7. Minimum number of general higher education credits for various curricula.
Study field General higher education curriculum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Social sciences 11 11 11 28 19 19 19 Humanities 12 12 12 15 19 35 Foreign language 20 20 20 20 20 20 55 Mathematics and natural sciences 40 40 40 40 9 9 Physical Education 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Military Education 4 week 4 week 4 week 4 week 4 week 4 week 4 week. Table 8 shows the number of chemistry credits at various curricula.
Study fields General higher education curriculum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Chemistry A1 5 5 5 Chemistry A2 3 3 3 Chemistry B 3 3 3 3 Chemical practice 1 1 1 1 Chemical practice 2 1 1. Table 9 shows an example of the curriculum for chemistry bachelor training at Hanoi National University see in the next page. Curriculum for chemistry bachelor training-Hanoi University in the 2nd study period - professional period.
In the Hanoi University of education began to offer a master's course for increasing the teaching competence of its teaching staff. Nowadays the master's course is implementing at most of the universities. Since some universities and research institutes have doctoral programme; in , 30 universities and higher institutions, 34 research institutes have participating in the graduate training. The official master's course is a two - year course with 5 courses common to all master's candidates Philosophy, Information Science, Teaching methodology in universities and higher institutions, Foreign language, Methodology of scientific research and 7 - 10 specialized courses appropriate to their speciality.
The master's candidates should submit a masteral thesis. The official doctoral programme is a three - year course, but usually it takes to four years to obtain the degree. The doctor's candidate should take the required course credits 3 courses and submit a doctoral thesis, the main part of which is to be published in an established journal in the appropriate science field. Nowadays the number of primary, secondary and higher education teachers has become more than persons, in comparison with in It is due to the increase of the number of students. Table 10 shows the increase of teachers from to In October the President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam has promulgated decree on formation of the teacher training system.
This decree has declared a birth of a set of teacher training institutions which did not exist before In the period from to , only upper secondary school teachers finished the 2 - 3 years teacher training colleges while other teachers finished the teacher training schools. However, due to the unpopularity of teaching job, the teacher training have the most difficulty because the number of candidates applying for entrance examination have been low, and the competent students do not want to become teachers.
It is due to the low social standing of teachers and low wages. School chemistry teachers are trained in the above teacher training institutions. A few school chemistry teachers have finished the chemistry course of Faculty of Science in other Universities or Colleges. Table11 shows the curriculum for upper secondary school chemistry teacher training at the Hanoi University of Education.
Upper secondary school chemistry teacher training curriculam At Hanoi University of Education. Course Number of credits Course Number of credits 1st period 2 years Chemical Thermodynamics 5 1. Social sciences 11 Electrochemistry 4 2. Humanities 12 Chemical Kinetics 3 3. Foreign language 20 Colloidal Chemistry 2 4. Physical Education 3 Quantum Chemistry 6 5.
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Military Education 4 weeks Analytical Chemistry 9 6. Mathematics and Information Science 20 Technological Chemistry 10 7. Physics 8 Environmental Chemistry 2 8. General Chemistry 11 Mathematics Toggle Mathematics. Military Science Toggle Military Science. Multidisciplinary Studies Toggle Multidisciplinary Studies. Music Toggle Music. Philosophy Toggle Philosophy.
Physics Toggle Physics. Political Science Toggle Political Science. Psychology Toggle Psychology. Religious Studies Toggle Religious Studies. Sociology Toggle Sociology. Statistics Toggle Statistics. Theatre Toggle Theatre. Chemical Engineering Toggle Chemical Engineering. School of Architecture Toggle School of Architecture. Nutritional Sciences Toggle Nutritional Sciences. Finance Toggle Finance. Management Toggle Management. School of Accounting Toggle School of Accounting.