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In addition, many early jazz musicians made a living playing in small marching bands, and the instruments of these groups became the basic instruments of jazz: brass , reeds[?

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Purportedly, the availability of war-surplus band instruments from the American Civil War aided the trend. Early jazz also frequently used the structure and beat of marches, which were the standard form of popular concert music at the turn of century. Though jazz has its folk roots, it was partly created by formally-trained musicians like Lorenzo Tio[?

Scott Joplin , who played ragtime piano in a brothel while writing an opera, shows the different influences at work in the period. An important event in the development of jazz was the tightening of the Jim Crow racial segregation laws in Louisiana in the s. Accomplished musicians of mixed race were no longer allowed to work with whites but were easily able to find work in black bands and orchestras, to which they applied conservatory standards. There was a general liberalization of customs before World War I. Public dance halls, clubs, and tea rooms opened in the cities, and black dances like the cakewalk and the shimmy[?

White audiences saw them first in vaudeville shows, then performed by exhibition dancers in the clubs. Much of the music for this dancing was not jazz, but it was new, and the fashion for new music did involve enthusiasm for some idea of jazz. Popular composers like Irving Berlin made attempts at jazzy writing, though they seldom used the specific musical devices that were second nature to jazz players--the rhythms, the blue notes. Nothing did more to popularize the idea of jazz than Berlin's hit song of ,"Alexander's Ragtime Band," which became a craze as far from home as Vienna.

She was intermittently confined to sanatoriums after for schizophrenia, but still managed to publish short stories and a novel, Save Me the Waltz , repr. Although rather incoherently plotted and written, the novel reveals a genuine, if unformed, writing talent. She was also a ballet dancer and painter. See The Collected Writings , ed. Bruccoli; biography by N. Milford ; study by S.


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New York: Da Capo, Ogren, Kathy J. Peretti, Burton W. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, Schuller, Gunther. Wald, Elijah. New York: HarperCollins, An early version of the letter is at the Historic New Orleans Collection. Norton, , — Edward A. David A.

Quoted in David Meltzer, ed. Handy, Father of the Blues, Bruce Raeburn has long argued the point that early jazz existed somewhere between folk tradition and commercialism. Virginia R. See also Davarian L. Houston A. Baker Jr. See also Samuel A. Donald M.

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Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Oxford Research Encyclopedias American History. Search within subject: Select Jazz, Blues, and Ragtime in America, — Read More.

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    Search within Ragtime and the Blues In the s, a series of events would underscore the dramatic changes beginning to emerge in American society. Jazz Origins The history of jazz music is deeply linked to and embedded with the history of New Orleans. Dissemination Although born in New Orleans, early jazz developed an identity elsewhere. Click to view larger Figure 1. Ascendency Radio towers, not phonograph records, supplied the majority of jazz to Americans in the late s, however, and the rapid increase in households with radios, coupled with the Great Depression, made radio the dominant mode of jazz transmission.

    Click to view larger Figure 2. Summary The large and diverse audience made possible through phonograph sales, radio broadcasts, and motion pictures produced a national musical culture. Click to view larger Figure 3. Discussion of the Literature Ragtime, the blues, and jazz have long interested scholars from various fields.