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He has 38 years experience as practicing geotechnical engineer and is a founder director of Cengrs Geotechnica Pvt. His expertise includes geotechnical investigations, geophysical surveys, ground improvement and bored piles. He has worked on problems of collapsible soils, soft clays, expansive soils, weak rocks, artesian conditions, liquefiable soils, etc.

His interests include foundations for bridges, high rise buildings, large-diameter tanks, power plants, etc. He has published over 60 technical papers that reflect his experience in geotechnical engineering practice. He delivered the prestigious Sixth Madhav Lecture in October He did his post doctoral research at Institute of Lowland Technology, Japan from and again visited Japan in as Visiting Professor.

His main research interests are geotechnology for roads and railway tracks, ground improvement and geosynthetic applications.

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He has more than 50 papers in journals. He has also co-edited four book volumes. He has guided 50 M. Vasant Havanagi did his M. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Engineering Civil Engineering. Buy eBook. Just at time, a dilemma between traditional methods and technological tendency appears from sustainability, wood supply chain, standardization of operations, environmentally friendly forestry, and socio-cultural expectation point of view.

In this study, it was put forward the state-of-the-art the wood production process involving harvesting and transportation and defined general issues and conflicts, examined the new trends and discussed the solution proposals.

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The total forest areas of Turkey are 20,7 million hectares, which is approximately 27 percent of total areas. Tree growing stock is amount 1. The total annual allowable cut was estimated at NDP, Manpower 3. Animal force 4. Agricultural tractors 5. Forest skylines 7. Log chute, etc.

The harvesting method in Turkish forestry is cut-to-length. The trees are cut, felled, delimbed, topped and bucked to various assortments by chainsaw directly in the stump area. Debarking is handled by hand tools such as axe. The cut limbs and tops can be left in stand.

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On the flat grounds, firstly animal force and rarely agricultural tractors have been used. Forest tractors or skidder have been used on the pulling from slope stands and skidding. The forest skylines, various distanced, have been used on mountainous region. In addition that, the galvanized log chute developed by forest villagers are rarely used. The loading operations have been weighty conducted by hand in remote areas far from central locations and by loader in central harvest areas.

The wood transportation has been realized by trucks for timber. The tractor-trailer has been used for fuel wood, pulpwood or etc. The fundamental transport foundation is the forest roads providing wood acquisition and access to harvest blocks. The road requirement of Turkish forest ecosystem was estimated as Now, approximately The standardization of forest roads is low volume, majority of which are earth road. Thus, those roads are open to truck traffic only dry season. The road geometry has low standard, so the vehicle movement ability is therefore limited.

A Review on The Wood Harvesting and Transportation Technologies in Turkish Forestry

Moreover, the forest road density is not balanced and low than aimed. The road network isn't planned as functional and rational. In the road construction, although bulldozer and explosive matter have been traditionally used since average terrain slope of Turkey is 50 - 60 percent, recently, hydraulic excavators usage was started to build it.

In Turkish forestry, the wood production expenditures capture the majority of the total forestry expenditures, which is amount 35 percent of total expenditures. In Turkey, wood procurement costs have highly materialized more than average timber costs in the worldwide, which increases the timber prices. These operation costs are highly since production facilities are being executed by forest cooperative as monopoly. As mentioned above in section 2.

While being used the chainsaw to cutting, felling, topping, delimbing, and bucking of trees, the manual techniques such as axe is being used for debarking. In certain region, where is low the standard of living, pre-skidding for cable logging and tractor pulling, and skidding or grapping of cut trees from stump to collection points or landings have been executed by mostly manual or animal logging.

The loading operations of trucks to haul are made by hand or simple tools, which is the basic technology. In the other region, where may be used tractors and cable logging and loader executes the loading of trucks. Thus, it has been benefited from intermediate technology. The harvesting and transportation activities may alter the environment. The impacts of driving equipment and moving material in the forest cause to substantial damages and soil, water, and residual vegetation can be affected.

The logging techniques cause the damage on soil, standing trees, and flora and fauna. Some impacts are short-lived, while others may affect the long-term productivity of the forest. The forest road or skid trails construction, truck traffic and dragging of wood influence the soil disturbance and forest landscape.

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The employee working harvest and transport activities have got no social insurance and they are unrecorded to any trade union and they have temporary status whose payment is arranged to unit costs. In addition that, since they live in rural areas far from city center, their education and training level on safety, healthy, and productivity is low and their source of income is therefore restricted. Their main priorities are only to earn money with easiest and cheapest method. The simple hand tools used in daily works weren't mostly designated according to anthropometrical features of the workers Acar et al.

The number of forest villages and their population in Turkey are respectively The forestry operations are source of income of them. According to the last census, Turkey population is over the 69 million.

Unemployment proportion has gradually increased; so labour force costs are plentiful and low especially in rural areas. This forces being done logging as manual. However, the villager, forest workers use simple tools and traditional method because their revenue acquired from forestry is low. They have no possibility of machine purchasing and renting. The "Turkish Constitution" and "Forest Law" dictate to be protected, developed, expanded of forest resources and to be used of them by the citizen.

Forest villagers esteem this as a right. The wood procurement activities have been traditionally carried out according to timber management plan but not ecosystem management. There are no comprehensive transport and operational planning guiding the operators, and workers. The forest information system containing of all forest reserves and relevant knowledge in Turkish forestry has been recently developed.

The technological tools that are remote sensing and GIS combining with GPS and other tools, can be used to plan the forest management plan. Nevertheless, these systems and tools have been not driven yet as applicable decision support tools in transportation planning Eker and Acar, The forest operations are materialized by forest contractors or cooperatives that are generally forest villagers as monopoly by traditional approach with making a labour contract.