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Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library. Ancient Jewish History. Table of Contents. The Temples. The Twelve Tribes. The Two Kingdoms. Archaeology in Israel. Modern Jewish History. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Historical Timelines. Today in Jewish History. Timeline for the History of Judaism. Timeline for the History of Jerusalem.
History of Israel in a Nutshell. Christian-Jewish Relations. Black-Jewish Relations. Bibliography of Jewish History. Jews in Former Soviet Union. Jews in the Arab World. Click on a Time Period to Expand: Note: Dates regarding biblical figures and events cannot be confirmed. October 7, They called it Philistia from which the modern name Palestine is derived , and made it one of their civilization's most important cities.
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Seventy years of exile terminated. Persian Period. Edict of Cyrus first return from Exile. Jerusalem "Second" Temple rebuilt. Judean Prophet Haggai. Reformation led by Ezra and Nehemiah. Achashverosh becomes king of Persia. First decrees by Haman; fast ordered by Esther, Haman's downfall and execution. Haman's ten sons executed; Purim celebration. Megillah recorded. Bagoas, a Persian, is made governor of Jerusalem. Hellenistic Greek period. Alexander the Great conquers the Land of Israel.
Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean. Prophets second division of Jewish Scriptures recognized by some as Scripture ca. Jewish Qumran community. Selicid, king of Syria, plunders Jerusalem , murdering many. Jewish Maccabean revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans. Rome Pompey annexes the land of Israel. First Jewish Revolt against Rome. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple. Herod the Great Jewish Roman ruler of the land of Israel. Mark Antony deeds the city of Gaza to his lover, Queen Cleopatra. Herod creates Temple Mount and begins to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. Project continues until 72 C. Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea. Philo Judaeus of Alexandria. Jesus is crucified. Josephus Jewish leader, historian. Christian Testament NT writings. December 21, 72 Thomas the Apostle is murdered by Hindu priests of Kali.
Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus. Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy villages and 50 fortresses. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone ca. To Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome. Hillel , a descendant of King David , is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues. Cyril, the Bishop of Alexandria, champions violence against the city's Jews and incites the Greeks to kill or expel them. Some Jews return within a few years, but many return only after the Muslims conquer Egypt. Recared also declares that children of mixed marriages be raised Christian. Eventually the Southern Arabian tribes are destroyed. After spending all night praying, all but three or four Banu Kurarans are beheaded. Hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands exhiled to Egypt , ending the Jewish towns in the Galilee and Judea.
Heraclius' decree remained in effect until the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem. Other Jewish tribes, including Fadattr, Tedma and Magna reached similar deals. Many Christians and Jews remained despite the Muslim takeover. The Jews were also forbidden from riding horses and holding judicial or civil posts, and were forced to wear a yellow patch for identification.
November 9, The 17th Council of Toledo convenes, passing a wide-ranging array of restrictions on the local Jewish community. David ben-Zaccai held the postion. This marks the beginning of Ashkenazi Franco-German halachic creativity. He is the first of the poets of the Golden Age of Spain, and symbolic of both the political power and literary creativity of Jews in Spain at the time.
At this time, aproximately , Jews are living in 43 settlements in Eretz-Israel. The adult Jews of the city are arrested and most are executed after refusing to convert. Thirty-one or 32 of the Jews are killed. The Jewish children are forcibly baptized. Jews are sometimes required to wear a badge; sometimes a pointed hat. Most Jews went to Germany and further east.
This form of distinctive dress was an additon to badge Jews were forced to wear. He also forced Jews over the age of seven to wear an indentifying badge. An additional Jews are burned alive at the synagogue. They were only allowed to take what they could carry and most went to France, paying for thier passage only to be robbed and cast overboard by the ship captains.
Some , Jews are forced to leave. An estimated five thousand Jews were killed before the king, Philip the Tall, admitted the Jews were innocent. Despite the pleas of innocence of Pope Clement VI, the accusations resulted in the destruction of over 60 large and small Jewish communities. The city's Christian residents convert the synagogue into a church and destroy the Jewish cemetery.
The king also confiscated his great wealth. Germany, and confiscates their books. Later, he expelled the Jews of Strassburg after a community debate. King Wenceslaus refused to condemn the act, insisting that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during the Holy Week. He extends this edict to Spanish Jewish refugees. Jews now only remain in Provence until and in the possessions of the Holy See.
The Bull was withdrawn the following year, alleging that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud. May 3, Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed all the defenders. May 27, 1, Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them. He is a friend of commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra , who also left Spain for the life of a wandering Jewish scholar.
The blood libel, as well as others in England that follow in the 12th century, incites anti-Jewish violence. March 16, Jews attacked, over die after a six day standoff in York, England. The Zohar a Jewish kabbalistic book :. Gaza becomes the capital of a Mamluk Province. The Zohar remains a central text of Jewish mysticism. The edict was not formally revoked until December 16, September 30, The Deggendorf Massacre.
Residents of Deggendorf, Germany , burned the homes of and massacred the town's approximately 50 Jews. No charges were ever given and the King confiscated Abulafia's lands and great wealth. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became on of the leading Chinese Jewish families. This time he was foiled by Torquemada and he followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the Messiah would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu'ot Tower of Salvation.
This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked. In he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis where he wrote a history of the Jews from creation until the sixteenth century. The Bishop had correctly predicted Casimir's defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews. Over time, Jews in many lands are similarly segregated.
November 22, Jews in the small community of Asolo, Italy were victims of a massacre, leaving 10 of the 37 Jewish residents dead. Luria's ideas give rise to a new form of Jewish mysticism. Ottoman Muslim rulers later claim the title "caliph". Jospeh Hacohen was chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews were expelled. The Bull also forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians.
It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occured. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti. He is tortured and killed. In 80 years the Jewish population surges from 4, to more than 50, His arguments against Christianity were published and gained wide popularity.
Thier correspondence is the basis for most known information regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms. February 28, Vincenz Fettmilch, the leader of a popular uprising targetting Jews in Frankfurt, Germany, is executed along with six of his companions. In the towns where Jews were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.
Many secretly practiced Judaism. He also built a printing house in , despite being jailed several times, accused of printing anti-Christian material. The printing house lasted more than years. He also served in the goverrnment and helped build schools and squashed marauding bandits.
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July 17, Poland's Parliament centralizes power and aboloshes the Council of the Four Lands, a semi-autonomous Jewish governing body. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office. George Washington writes letter to Jewish community proclaiming religious liberty. September 27, French Jews granted full citizenship for the first time since the Roman Empire.
March 11, Prussia's Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews. November 30, Greece grants citizenship to Jews. House of Representatives. However, he cannot be seated as a member of Parliament because he will not swear the oath of office, which affirms Christianity as the true faith.
The civil rights, however, existed on paper only and were not enforced. September 1, An anti-Jewish riot erupts in Stockholm, Sweden. Grant expels Jewish civilians issues General Order No. He coins the word " antisemitism " so that Judenhass, or Jew-hatred, can be discussed in polite society. January 12, A new German constitution gives German Jews full legal equality. In the 20th century, many of these evolve into Jewish Community Centers.
Although it was abandoned in after Arab attacks, it was reestablished in after the First Aliyah. The party demands that Jews convert to Christianity. March 28, Birthdate of Jewish actor Louis Wolheim. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House of Lords. March 24, Oscar Straus is named the U. Minister to the Ottoman Empire, the second Jew in U.
October 2, Jewish comedian Groucho Marx is born. The brothers were also pioneers of modern cinema and television. February 10, Boris Pasternak , the man who would win the Nobel Prize in literature for his novel Dr. Zhivago , is born. Those who refuse to convert or become prostitutes are sent to the Pale of Settlement. February 23, Emile Zola is convicted of libel for defending Dreyfus. Dreyfus, Emile Zola publishes J'Accuse. August 26, Herzl proposes Kenya as a safe haven for Jews. The musical Fiddler on the Roof is based on his story Tevye's Daughters.
Michelson is first American Jew to win Nobel Prize. After two years followed by a "show trial," Beilis is acquitted. January 28, Louis D. Brandeis is nominated to the Supreme Court by Woodrow Wilson. At the time of his nomination, the Senate had never before held a public hearing on a President's Supreme Court Nominee; they had all been confirmed on the day of their nomination.
However, it took four months of Senate Judiciary Committee hearings until the Senate brought the nomination of Brandeis to a vote. Over pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to , Jews in the next three years. Army, roughy 5. Lawrence and Arabs. Out of an estimated 1. Jewish educational summer camping is launched in the United States with what came to be known as the Cejwin Camps. Versailles Peace Conference decides that the conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.
First Palestinian National Congress meeting in Jerusalem sends two memoranda to Versailles rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.
Romania grants citizenship to Jews. Third Aliyah , mainly from Russia. Histadrut Jewish labor federation and Haganah Jewish defense organization founded.
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Vaad Leumi National Council set up by Jewish community yishuv to conduct its affairs. Keren Hayesod created for education, absorbtion and the development of rural settlements in Eretz-Israel. Chaim Weizmann elected president of the World Zionist Organization. Adolf Hitler is honorably discharged from the German Army. Further restrictions imposed in Fourth Palestinian National Congress, convenes in Jerusalem , decides to send delegation to London to explain case against Balfour.
Arab riots in Jaffa and other cities. Adolf Hitler becomes the Nazi Party's first chairman with dictatorial powers. First moshav , Nahalal, founded in the Jezreel Valley. Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the British mandate area, forbidding Jewish immigration, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home. Mordecai M. Kaplan founds the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, the cradle of the Reconstructionist movement.
Supreme Muslim Council created under the jurisdiction of the British government to centralize religious affairs and institutions, but is corrupted by the overzealous Husseini family who used it as an anti-Jewish platform. Lenin creates the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Benito Mussolini establishes a Fascist government in Italy.
Harvard's president proposes a quota on the number of Jews admitted. After a contentious debate, he withdrew the recommendation. League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine. The latter will form the nucleus of the Schutzstaffel SS. Walther Rathenau, Jewish foreign minister of Germany , is assassinated by members of Organisation Consul, a clandestine, right-wing political organization led by Captain Hermann Ehrhardt. It is initially a bodyguard for Hitler but will later become an elite armed guard of the Third Reich. Palestine constitution suspended by British because of Arab refusal to cooperate.
Technion , first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
Outline Of English History First Period Bc 55--Ad 1603
Fourth Aliyah , mainly from Poland. Benjamin Frankel starts Hillel Foundation. The first Hillel House opens at the University of Illinois, offers religious and social services. Caliphate officially abolished. The first conference of the General Zionist movement is held in Jerusalem. While in prison, Hitler begins work on Mein Kampf. Revisionist Movement founded by Zeev Jabotinsky. Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mt.
Warner Brothers releases The Jazz Singer , about a cantor's son who follows his dreams to Broadway against his father's wishes. This was the first "talking" movie ever made, and it is also famous for it's accurate portrayal of Jewish home life. Seventh Palestinian National Congress convened in Jerusalem ; established a new forty-eight member executive committee. Jewish actor, producer, and director Larry Semon supposedly dies, but many believe he faked his own death to avoid creditors.
Arabs view British refusal to condemn the attacks as support. Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants. Anne Frank , Holocaust victim whose diary, written during the Nazi Occupation became famous. Lord Passfield issues his White Paper banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration.
Salo Wittmayer Baron joins the faculty of Columbia University, his is the first chair in Jewish history at a secular university in the United States. Etzel the Irgun , Jewish underground organization, founded. Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,, First Maccabia athletic games take place with representatives from 14 countries. Prospecting begins. Albert Einstein , upon visiting the United States, learns that Hitler had been elected and decided not to return to Germany, takes up position at Princeton. Riots in Jaffa and Jerusalem to protest British "pro-Zionist" policies.
In Afghanistan , two thousand Jews are expelled from towns and forced to live in the wilderness. In , with five games left to the season, Greenberg's 58 home runs are two shy of Babe Ruth's record. When several pitchers walk him rather than giving him a shot at the record, many believe major league baseball did not want a Jew to claim that place in America's national sport. Jewish rights in Germany rescinded by Nuremberg laws. Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants. Leon Blum becomes the first Jew elected premier of France, enacts many social reforms.
Peel Commission investigated Arab riots, concluded Arab claims were "baseless". The Przytyk Pogrom , in which 3 Jews were killed and 60 wounded. Central conference of American Rabbis reaffirm basic reform philosophies in the Colombus Platform. Kristallnacht — German Jewish synagogues burned down.
Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest, launches media campaign in America against Jews.
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Chamberlain declares "peace in our time" after allowing Hitler to annex the Sudetenland in the Munich Agreement. Catholic churches ring bells and fly Nazi flags to welcom Hitler's troops in Austria. Hershel Grynszpan, 17, a German refugee, assassinates Ernst von Rath, the third secretary to the German embassy in Paris. Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper. British government authorizes the Jewish Agency to recruit 10, Jews to form Jewish units in the British army. British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria , permission to dock in Palestine.
The first train of prisoners arrives at Auschwitz-Birkenau. A 2-day strike begins in Amsterdam , in opposition to the anti-Jewish actions being taken by the Nazi occupiers. Palmach , strike force of Haganah , set up. Jewish commando David Raziel is killed by a German bomber while on a mission for the British in Iraq. Rabbi Stephen S. Wise publicizes Riegner report confirming mass murder of European Jews.
Biltmore Conference of American Zionists. Nazi leaders refine the " Final Solutio n" -- genocide of the Jewish people -- at Wannsee Conference. British deport illegal immigrants to Cyprus.
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Raphael Lemkin, an international lawyer who escaped from Poland to the U. The Rabbis also demanded the creation of a special federal agency tasked with the rescue of European Jewry. Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces. For most victims of Nazism, it comes too late. Russians arrive in the Lwow Ghetto, ridding the city of it's German occupiers, only to find the Jewish population liquidated. International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg. President Truman asks Britain to allow , Jews into Palestine.
Arab League Council decides to boycott goods produced by Zionist firms in Palestine. Member of Jewish underground destroyed a power station and a portion of the Central Jerusalem prison by explosives. Two persons were killed by the police.. Ten persons were injured and one was killed. Captured papers indicated that the purpose of this raid was to take revenge on the British for their seizure of the refugee ship on January British military authorities in Jerusalem questioned 3, Jews and held in custody..
Jewish underground attacked a British military installation near Tel Aviv. This group which contained a number of young girls, had as its goal the capture of British weapons. British authorities rounded up 1, suspects.. The Irgun radio "Fighting Zion" wams that three kidnapped British officers are held as hostages for two Irgun members, Josef Simkohn and Issac Ashbel facing execution as well as 31 Irgun members facing trial.. Thirty Irgun members are sentenced by a British military court to 15 years in prison. One, Benjamin Kaplan, was sentenced to life for carrying a firearm..
British military units and police raided Jewish settlements throughout Palestine searching for the leaders of Haganah. The Jewish Agency for Palestine was occupied and four top official arrested. British officials announced the discovery of a large arms dump hidden underground at Meshek Yagur. Four were killed and 80 were injured.. Palestine High Commissioner, Lt. Tel Aviv. British officers, Captains K Spencer, C. Update your profile Let us wish you a happy birthday! Add your birthday. Buy it Again. Make sure to buy your groceries and daily needs Buy Now. Let us wish you a happy birthday!
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