Other editions: 4th, , p. Part II, Kazan', n. Educator and journalist, Ahmed Hadi was an important figure in the gadidist movement. Along with the numerous educational texts that he wrote, he founded in the Kazan' newspaper Yoldiz The Star , which served as an organ for moderate reformism. On Ahmed Hadi, and his more famous brother Sadreddin, see A. Other editions: 2nd, , 72 p. Chirkova, , 88 p. Brat'ev Karimovykh, , 70 p. A new method primer based upon the ideas of Gasprinskii, with whom Maqsudi had become acquainted while teaching at the Zingirli medresse in Bakhchisarai.
Maqsudi also wrote a companion volume entitled Mu'allim-i sani The second teacher. Battal-Taymas, op.
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Other editions: 3rd, lito-tip. Kharitonova, , 60 p. An advertisement in Perevodchik, 12 Mar. In a previous issue of the same newspaper 5, Febr. Dombrovskago, , 23 p. Dombrovskago, , 55 p. Other editions: tip. Kharitonova, , 54 and 32 p. He was the founder of the Muhammadiyya medresse in Kazan' which instituted a curriculum composed of both religious and secular subjects, including the Russian language. An active gadidist, he wrote a number of textbooks for use in the reformed schools; Medkhal-i 'arabiye is probably one of those works. Battal-Taymas, Alimcan Barudi Istanbul, One should also consult the review Al-Din va'l-Adap issued irregularly beginning in March, , of which Barudi was editor-in-chief.
Other editions: 3rd, , 70 p. Cherniaevskii was an Azerbaidjani-born Russian who served as director of the Gori Pedagogical College from its inception in His textbook Vatan dili — first published in — was a popular grammar of Azeri Turkic utilizing the phonetic method of presentation.
A brief study of Cherniaevskii's pedagogical ideas is L. Vekilova, "Metodicheskoe nasledie A. Cherniaevskogo" The legacy of A. Cherniaevskii's method , Russkii iazyk v natsional'noi shkole, 4 : Concerning this publication or perhaps a later edition , the St. Petersburg newspaper Russkaia zhizn' wrote that Gasprinskii had accomplished something worthwhile by publishing an atlas with a Tatar text; the hope was also expressed that he would continue to publish a whole series of scientific and belletristic works in that language.
A short book on arithmetic and mathematical problems , Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, , 46 p. A textbook designed to teach the four fundamental arithmetical processes, with each section followed by exercises. The text lacks any introduction which might have explained the expected duration of the course. Other editions: 3rd, , 90 p.
See note Other editions: , 26 p. A textbook to be used in a new method mekteb after the students had mastered Khog"a-yi sibyan. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, op. The author was an Ufa akhund theologian. His textbook was used in old method as well as new method schools, according to la.
Koblov, op. Dombrovskago, or , 32 p. Petersburg, n. A one-time collaborator with the newspapers Vlfet Rapprochement and Vaqt The Times , he joined the staff of Terguman in Brat'ev Karimovykh, , p. Other editions: lito-tip. Kharitonova, , p. Umerova, , p. Dombrovskago, , 60 p. Of the two Maqsudi brothers, Sadreddin was perhaps the more famous.
Besides A. Battal-Taymas', Iki Maksudiler, op. Dombrovskago, , 71 p. According to Gasprinskii, Perevodchik, 10 Mar. Univer- siteta, , p. Universiteta, , 40 p. Sultan Megid Ganizade ? A brief biographical note on Ganizade is found in Zaman kalindar igio Calendar of the times, igio Kazan', : Akhundova, , 72 p. A collection of readings, in Persian, for beginning students. See Perevodchik, 34 Sept. Possibly the work of M. There is a copy of this in Helsinki. Part II : Books pertaining to science and literature. Alvayzi, Tegriibename A book of experiments [?
Universiteta, , 46 p. As such, it would appear to be a significant contribution to the literature of the Muslim "renaissance" of the pre period. Brief descriptions of this work can be found in A. Karimova, , 20 p. A novel , Kazan', tip. Universiteta, , 54 p. Professor N. Katanov published a review of this work in Deiatel', 4 Reflecting his wide range of interests, this volume by Nasiri is a collection of tales and anecdotes drawn from the Kuran and the Hadiths concerning all aspects of life. Appended to the work are a number of specimens of Tatar folk literature. Contains advise on how to sow grain and cultivate gardens.
Provides information on some three hundred and thirteen useful plants, with their names given in Russian, Tatar, and Latin. This represents the first dictionary of its kind in that Nasiri drew all of his descriptive examples from the Tatar spoken language.
He ignored the written. Universiteta, , 32 p. Other editions: 3rd, , p. Petersburg, tip. Boraganskago, , p. Universiteta, , 27 p. A pamphlet containing the biographies of the Russian sovereigns from to It represents one of the few of Nasiri's historical works that were published. Vecheslava, , 64 p. The author is the famous seventeenth century Khivan historian. See item Dombrovskago, , 30 p.
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Besides playing an important role in the development of journalism in the late Ottoman Empire, Ahmed Midhat 3 was a prolific writer both of fiction and what might be called works of popularized knowledge. Most, if not all, of his writings were instruments of social criticism or aimed at bringing modern European knowledge to his compatriots in a simple and attractive form.
In this, and many other respects, there is a striking similarity between Ahmed Midhat and Gasprinskii, and indirect evidence points to the influence of the former upon the latter. For brief but penetrating discussions of Midhat, see B. Berkes, op. Dram The unfortunate young man. A drama , Kazan', tip. Other editions: Elektro-tip. Sarafa, , p. The above drama was his first. A chapter is devoted to Kemal in the study by M. Gainullin and G. Petersburg, tipo- lit. Boraganskago, , 20 p.
According to A. Another possibility is that she was a teacher in the city of Tara, in Tobol'sk Province, " famous for her learning". See Perevodchik, 18 May 8, : Boraganskago, , 23 p. Universiteta, , 41 p. Dombrovskago, , 40 p. Other editions: 2nd, , 24 p. Petersburg, tipo-lit. Boraganskago, , 69 p. Bezobrazov, Tiflis, n. Roman Eluf, or the beautiful girl Khadige. Chirkova, , 77 p.
Other editions: Kazan', tip. Dombrovskago, , 77 p. Muhammed Zahir was one of the earliest modern Tatar writers.
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A social critic, he attacked the destructive influences of vice, much of it introduced to the Tatars by Russians, on the fabric of Tatar society in his novels Eluf and Guneh-i keba'ir see item The Emir frequently travelled throughout Russia — many of these travels were chronicled by Gasprinskii in Perevodchik — and was often a guest of the Russian royal family in St. A man with some reformist. Gasprinskii expended a great deal of time and effort trying to obtain the Emir's permission to open new method schools for native children in Bukhara.
That permission was finally granted in , but the school that resulted continued to function for just a short time owing to the violent opposition of the traditionalist Bukharan clergy. Universiteta, , 15 p. Vecheslava, , 35 p. Muhammed Fatih Gilman oglu Kerimi i87o? Upon his return to Russia, he bought a printing house in Orenburg with the aid of the gadidist 'Abdulgani Bey Huseynov a millionaire merchant and commenced a career in writing and publishing.
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In the latter Kerimi launched an attack upon both the old Muslim educational system and the ignorance and lack of culture of the Muslim clergy. Brief notices concerning Kerimi can be found in Z aman kalindar Validov, op. Karimova, , 16 p. Like the previous work, this short story is a critique of the old ways in Muslim life. Kharitonova, , 48 p.
The author is the same as Riza'eddin ibn Fakhreddin see item Sa'adi, op. One of Gasprinskii's most important works, in which he thoroughly discussed his. Rehber-i mu'allimin was meant to be a guide for those who desired to administer or teach in a new method mekteb. As such it provided detailed information on curriculum planning, teaching techniques, and even classroom organization, as well as a spirited defense of the new method itself.
One of Ismail Bey's earliest publications. In it he provided a wealth of information on a wide variety of subjects ranging from history and geography, to contemporary events, education in various countries, the press, train schedules, and even a discussion of the history, spread, and treatment of syphilis.
A graduate of, and later instructor at, the Gori Pedagogical College, Feridun Bey acquired fame as a critic and historian of Azeri literature. His best work in this area is Azerbaygan edebiyati tarihi materyallan Materials for Azerbaidjan literary history , 4 vols Baku, Chirkova, , 74 p. Karimova, According to Gasprinskii, Perevodchik, 27 July 23, , this is a biography of the American Benjamin Franklin translated "into local Tatar from Ottoman".
Dagilan tifaq, the first of his tragedies, was written while he was still a student. The play accurately portrays the crisis facing the Azeri landowning class in the 'sand 's, and is an indictment of that class. For further information concerning Haqverdof and his work, see K. Mamedov, Abdurragimbek Akhverdov Baku, Possibly Hasan 'Ata, a mulla from Kazan', who authored a work entitled Fen-i mesaha al-arz The science of land surveying Kazan', See Perevodchik, 12 Apr.
Universiteta, , 18 p. Chirkova, , 16 p. Universiteta, , 16 p. Universiteta, , 92 p. Other editions: , 92 p. Ibra- gimova, His religious training was extensive, and included years of Kuranic study under famous scholars in Mecca. After his return to Russia Ibrahimof became a mulla, and in was elected hadi judge at the Muslim Spiritual Assembly in Orenburg. Because of his high position, he was allowed access to all of the secret documents of the Assembly, documents which exposed the subservient relationship of the Muslim hierarchy to the Russian government.
This revelation resulted in his becoming increasingly anti-Russian, an attitude which was central to his participation in Muslim cultural and political developments from the mid's onward. It was earlier, however, in , that Ibrahimof initially became involved in periodical publishing when the first issue of Mir' at appeared. Twenty-one subsequent numbers were to be published on an irregular basis between and Mir'at was a literary and cultural, later political, review with a decidedly panislamic tendency.
While most articles were written in Tatar, some were in Arabic.
A brief notice on Ibrahimof is found in Dzh. Boraganskago, According to Gasprinskii, this work was recommended for use at prayer gatherings by the Orenburg mufti Sultanov. See Perevodchik, 24 June 30, : Other editions: , 16 p. Universiteta, 24 p. Chirkova, 16 p. Karimova, 16 p. Dombrovskago, , 75 p.
Ğadidism at the turn of the twentieth century : A view from within - Persée
The first Tatar zoology textbook. Written, as Gasprmskii notes, in a "simple, comprehensible language", it was designed for use by both mekteb and medresse students. Universiteta, , 78 p. Announcement of publication in Perevodchik, 27 July 23, Lakhtina, , 24 p. For a biographical sketch of Ishaqi, see A. Ishaqi's first play, published in according to A. A collection of Muhammed Sadiq's poetry. See the notice of publication in Perevodchik, 24 June 30, : Vecheslava, , 70 p. The author is the same as Muhammed Zahir Bikiyof see item Ashmarin, Ocherk literaturnoi deiatel'nosti Kazanskikh tatar-mokhammedan za i88o-i8g5 gg.
Universiteta, , 70 p. Musa Aqgigit was born in the Russian province of Penza, where he attended a state gymnasium. In he moved to Kazan', but two years later emigrated to Turkey. His major claim to fame is his novel Husameddin Mulla, which he wrote during his Kazan' sojourn in a simplified Turkic language. His choice of language may have been influenced by Gasprinskii, with whom Aqgigit is said to have collaborated.
The hero, the son of a village mulla, has received his education in Istanbul and returned home to open a school. The plot is a classic one of the conflict between gadidism and kadymism i. Analyses of the novel are to be found in A. Ashmarin, op. A modern Tatar edition, in Cyrillic, is available at Hoover. Karimova, , 43 p. Other editions: , 47 p. Nariman Narimanof , educator, journalist, future Social Democrat and Communist, was an important young playwright who emerged among the Azeri Turks around the turn of the century.
As is the case with so many of the writers included in Gasprinskii's bibliography, Narimanof was a social critic. Further details concerning his life and work are provided by M. Pavlo vich, "Pamiati N. Narimanova" Recollections of N. Narimanov , Novyi Vostok, 7 : 1 ff. For a study of Narimanof 's interest in language reform, see M. Qomediya The misfortune of language, A comedy , Baku, tip. Hagi Zeynal'abidin Taqiyof or Tagiev , was a wealthy Azeri industrialist known also for his very generous philanthropy. Gasprinskii often carried news items in Perevodchik about Taqiyof and his activities, and once included a special supplement entitled "Tagievskaia fabrika v Baku" The Tagiev factory in Baku , in issue 17 May 3, There is evidence that Gasprinskii himself was a recipient of Taqiyof generosity when funds were needed to keep the former's publishing enterprise in the black.
Demurova, , 74 p. Nadanhq deals with the terrible consequences of ignorance for the development of man and society. Through this drama Narimanof criticizes all those who believe that the mode of life is predetermined, and hence there is no need for education, science, or culture. A brief analysis of this play is available in Dzh.
Dzhafarov, Azerbaidzhanskii dramaticheskii teatr The Azeri drama theater Baku, : Boraganskago, , 45 p. Probably a translation of some of the verses of I. Krylov , the famous Russian fabulist. A bilingual edition in Russian and Gasprinskii's simplified Turkic. The Qabus-name is a famous Persian book of moral precepts. Battal-Taymas, Kazan Turkleri, op. A book written concerning the biographies and social status of Muslim savants who live in our country, with dates of birth and death, and other events in their lives , 2 vols 15 fasc. Karimova, , p.
Riza'eddin ibn Fakhreddin was, along with Musa Garulla Bigi, one of the foremost reformist theologians among Russian Muslims. While he was serving in Orenburg and endeavoring to provide some order to the Assembly's archives, Rizae'ddin began to develop an interest in history and biography. It was from those archives that he collected materials for his monumental — but never completed — biographical dictionary Asar. This work consists of biographies of outstanding Muslim theologians and savants who flourished in Russia from about the tenth century onward.
Besides biographical information, Riza'eddin added his own and others' critical analyses of men and events, and often included actual documents and letters from the Assembly archives. A brief sketch of Riza'eddin's life and work can be found in Dzh. Battal-Taymas, Rizaeddin Fahreddin oglu Istanbul, Kazan', tip. Universiteta, , 47 p. Other editions: 3rd, tip. Dombrovskago, , 80 p. An extremely important work concerned with the question of reorganizing the Muslim spiritual administration in Russia, which had been under state control since the end of the eighteenth century.
Other editions: 2nd, tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, , 16 p. Dombrovskago, , 29 p. Other editions: Orenburg, tip. Karimova, , 29 p. Kharitonova, , 24 p. A national novel , Kazan', tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, , 78 p. On Maqsudi, see item Ma'iset is a lengthy short story about the life of a Kazan' Tatar merchant. It was the author's first and last literary effort. Dombrovskago, , 64 p. Universiteta, , 68 p. The two works cited above are critiques of the traditional system of teaching. The new method , Kazan', n. See note 5. I have been unable to find reference to any work by Margani with this. However, given the proneness for error in Gasprinskii's bibliography, the publication in question may actually be Mustafad al-akhbar fi akhvah Kazan ve Bulgar Information concerning the history of Kazan' and Bulgar , the first part of which was published in Kazan' in , with the second part appearing in It was Part II that dealt with the history of Tatar culture after the conquest of Kazan' by Muscovy in the mid-sixteenth century.
For a recent study of Mustafad al-akhbar, but only of Part I, see M. Usmanov, "Istochniki knigi Sh. Mardzhani Mustafad al-akhbar fi akhvali Kazan ve Bulgar, ch. Margani's book Mustafad al-akhbar Dombrovskago, , 16 p. A tragedy , Baku, tip. The play is an amusing piece of temperance propaganda, centering on the efforts of an imp to lead some peasants to sin.
His labors succeed only after he teaches the peasants how to make and drink vodka. Gasprinskii includes the play in his bibliography for much the same reason that Tolstoi wrote it: to point up the dangers of alcohol. Karimova [? According to Gasprinskii, Perevodchik, 36 Sept. Karimi has translated this work in order to propagandize the education and emancipation of Russian Muslim women. See Perevodchik, 42 Nov. Boraganskago, , 54 p. Part III : Supplementary reading. Resimli The human body.
Illustrated , Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, , 15 p. An illustrated pamphlet offering basic information on human anatomy. Appropriately enough Gasprinskii noted in the introduction p. Other editions: 2nd, , 37 p. In the preface p. The widespread popularity of this novel made it appropriate that there should be an edition "in our language". A pamphlet designed to provide a basic understanding of the spread, prevention, and cure of cholera.
An illustrated manual providing brief surveys of seven world capitals: St. Gasprinskii devotes very little space to his description of St. Petersburg, especially compared with Istanbul, but excuses this p. A collection of biographical sketches of some important ulema from Turkestan. These biographies serve to support Gasprinskii's contention that Islam is compatible with science and learning, since "at a time when the arts and sciences were rarely propagated in Europe [i.
The final thirty- fours items, as noted by Gasprinskii, were published in Bakhchisarai by the "Terguman" matbaasi. The customs of East and West , Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, , 24 p. The purpose of this essay was to acquaint Muslims with the educational methods of worth that were used by Russians and Europeans. Resimli megmu'a Iran. An illustrated magazine , Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, An introduction to cosmography, in which the author treats such topics as the universe before the formation of the earth, the origins of the earth itself, and its composition.
A collection of witticisms. A booklet comprising biographies of classical Greek savants. Qomediya The involuntary physician. A comedy , Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, Burch, both of the University of Washington: to the first for his advise concerning the final draft of the translation, and to the latter for his reading of the entire manuscript on more than one occasion and for his judicious criticisms. To the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, joint sponsors of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program, I owe a debt of gratitude for providing me with the funds for one and one-half years of research both abroad and in the United States.
This article is one product of that research. Throughout this article I have generally retained the word gadid, and its derivatives gadidism and gadidist, rather than rendering them into English. But in the context of the Muslim revival in nineteenth and early twentieth-century Russia it came to connote the movement for reform and progress spearheaded by Ismail Bey Gasprinskii, and anything or anyone connected with it.
Gasprinskii himself employed the word in this sense; to render the simple idea of "new" or "recent" he usually used the Turkic word yeni.
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For a succinct treatment of gadidism, see B. A much needed full-scale study of the gadidist phenomenon, however, awaits an ambitious scholar. References to this work are rare both in contemporary sources and more recent studies. The intellectual trauma resulting from confrontation with the West was hardly peculiar to Russian Muslims. Many of their co-religionists in the Ottoman Empire including Egypt , and in India had already begun to experience it some years before, and Muslims in Persia, Afghanistan, and elsewhere would shortly go through it as well.
Passionate yet fair-minded, this is the first account of the subject to appear in English. Designed primarily for the general reader, it In this fascinating book Alter Litvin tells us what life was really like for professional Soviet historians from Lenin to Gorbachev, and assesses the efforts made since to create a more truthful picture of the turbulent Russian past. Designed primarily for the general reader, it contains much fresh material of specialist interest and an ample up-to-date bibliography.
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