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Then, state Military Police used extreme force on the protestors, indiscriminately using tear gas, pepper spray and rubber bullets. After the Military Police brutality even traditional political parties and the major media turned against the security forces. In such a context, Brazilian academics and NGOs are trying to build bridges of communication between the military, police and civil society to offer forums for dialogue on the emphasis on public safety versus national security.
However, there is an increasing consensus of the importance to discuss these issues more openly among Brazilian society, not only in silos of those directly involved. The educational field seems to be a respected intermediary to provide forums for civil-military-police dialogue. In Brazil, universities can provide a safe space for civil society and the military to interact, and therefore serve as an entry point, whilst overcoming stigma from talking to the military.
ISS opened its doors in after a ten-year process of consolidation within the Political Sciences Department. Scholars engaged in its creation had a historical involvement with civilian-military issues and had helped to establish organizations such as the Brazilian Association for Defence Studies ABED , in ISS has cooperation agreements with high-level military schools in Brazil Army, Navy, Air Force , with special attention to their graduate courses.
Besides that, ISS offers an undergraduate course in International Relations and a postgraduate course devoted to civil-military relations. There are around 20 military officers in the institute, under civilian supervision, and among its professors there are forms military officers. London: London School of Economics. World Politics of Security. Nueva Sociedad. January-February Defence White Papers in the Americas. Author s Thiago Rodrigues. Region s or Country ies Brazil, Federative Republic of.
Related content Case Studies. Historically, diseases such as malaria and yellow fever have negatively impacted military operations. By the end of the decade after the war, malaria was eradicated from the US, with the country being certified malaria free in [ 15 ]. Even though malaria was eradicated in the US, during the Korean War, military personnel returning from the conflict to the United States are thought to have imported malaria back to the US.
For example, in , Camp Fire girls attending summer camp in California contracted Plasmodium vivax brought to the region by returning Korean veterans. This was possible because of the latency period of P. Importation during this period caused the incidence of malaria to spike in the US, reaching a high of cases in [ 20 ]. This importation of malaria to the US by returning military personnel also occurred during the Vietnam War.
At least once case of malaria was reported from each state during this time frame [ 21 ]. More recently, from through , malaria was re-imported into the former USSR by troops returning from fighting in Afghanistan. During this period, over cases of malaria were reported in the USSR in personnel returning from the war. All cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P.
The cases were primarily caused by P.
Additionally, cases were reported in military personnel deployed to Afghanistan, Liberia and Honduras. This implies that these military personnel could serve as reservoirs to import malaria to the US or other countries to which they may be deployed. This is important because malaria has been considered eradicated from the United States, although the primary vector, Anopheles mosquitos, still occur, indicating that the movement of US military personnel around the globe could act as a method of reintroduction of malaria, much like happened in the USSR.
While it has been shown that malaria can and has been imported and reintroduced through military operations, it is by no means the only mosquito borne disease impacted by the global movement of military personnel. Once such disease is dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, both transmitted by several species of the Aedes mosquito type, primarily Aedes aegypti [ 24 ]. Historically, dengue has caused major illness in military personnel.
Troop movements during the conflict in Cuba are thought to have led to an outbreak of dengue in Texas as troops returned to the US from Cuba, resulting in over people being infected [ 25 ]. In the Philippines, dengue was second only to venereal diseases as the most common illness in US personnel stationed there at the start of the twentieth century [ 26 ]. While no recent cases of dengue in the US have been shown to have occurred because of the movement of military personnel, an outbreak of dengue in Australian troops during operations in East Timor highlighted the possibility for returning military personnel to import dengue to areas where it has been eradicated.
During retrograde operations from East Timor, nine Australian military personnel were confirmed positive for dengue after their return to north Queensland. While no local transmission cases occurred, the potential for importation is possible due to the mosquito vectors being present. This is also true in the US, where species of Aedes mosquitoes are common throughout much of the US [ 29 ].
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Other mosquito borne diseases shown to have the potential for importation by military personnel include chikungunya, West Nile and Rift Valley virus and lymphatic filariasis. A new variant of chikungunya has been shown to have been introduced to temperate regions such as the US, possibly by troop movements. This is important because this variant is associated with a new vector, Aedes albopictus , which possibly has a more cosmopolitan distribution that Aedes aegypti , the more common vector of chikungunya. Additionally, serological evidence supports the importation of lymphatic filariasis to Australia by an Australian soldier stationed in Timor [ 15 ].
These incidences highlight the potential for military personnel to import many mosquito borne diseases across the globe. Ticks are ectoparasites, meaning they feed on their hosts on the skin or body surface. They are known to be vectors for several viral and bacterial diseases including ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease and many others [ 15 ]. Military personnel are at a high risk for tick borne diseases because of their increased time in rural, remote areas due to training and combat operations. For example, The same outcomes occur for spotted fevers.
These cases occurred in troops from states where the disease was not found, indicating they were novel cases which had the potential to be carried back to the home states of the military personnel if not diagnosed and treated [ 15 ]. If ticks capable of being a competent vector occur in those states, the geographic range of the disease would be increased.
The same disease has been shown to be common in British military personnel deployed to Afghanistan with as many as 4.
This implies that it may be possible for these personnel to carry the disease to the United Kingdom [ 30 ]. Ticks are also the primary vector for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever CCHF , a disease caused by an arbovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. CCHF is spread from host mammals such as rodents and small mammals to humans through the bite of Hyalomma tick species [ 31 ]. US military personnel deployed to Afghanistan are at risk for contracting CCHF, with one US military member contracting the disease in Afghanistan, which ultimately led to his death [ 30 ]. Evidence exists which indicates CCHF can be imported to new geographic regions via the movement of individuals coming from areas endemic for the disease.
Because Hyalomma ticks are common across Europe, introduction of the arbovirus by military personnel and an expansion of the geographic distribution of the disease are of potential concern to public health organizations. Sand flies include species of flies found in several different Genera.
Of concern are those of the Genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia , both of which can transmit the parasites of the Leishmania type [ 15 ]. This parasite is responsible for leishmaniasis, a disease with two main forms in humans, cutaneous and visceral. As an emerging vector borne disease, much research into the life history, distribution and potential for range expansion has been conducted regarding the vector, the sand fly [ 33 ]. Sand flies are crepuscular, with the highest infection rates occurring at dusk and dawn [ 34 ].
The organisms responsible for causing leishmaniasis are found in over 90 countries, including those with current military activity. Of note are military operations occurring in Afghanistan and formerly in Iraq [ 34 ] where genetic sequencing has confirmed the parasite in areas where NATO troops are operating [ 35 ].
Rates of infection in military personnel can be high. During operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, it is estimated that at least US military personnel have contracted leishmaniasis [ 36 ], an incidence higher than that seen in US military personnel in World War II [ 34 ]. British, Dutch and German forces have also experienced leishmania infections while deployed to Afghanistan [ 15 ]. This implies that military personnel could serve as a reservoir to expand the geographic range of Old World types to the New World if endemic sand flies received the parasite from an infected individual.
Sand flies are also competent vectors for an arboviral infection caused by serotypes of the Phlebovirus. This infection, often called sand fly fever or pappataci, is considered a disease of military importance, affecting military personnel deployed to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. During World War II, sand fly fever was of serious concern to allied forces, with over 19, cases reported.
Outbreaks have been reported in allied forces deployed to Afghanistan, although at numbers far fewer than for leishmaniasis [ 15 ]. Of British military personnel deployed to Afghanistan, only 4. However, local populations show high rates of seroconversion, indicating the risk to military personnel operating in these areas, and the subsequent risk of importation to other countries remains high [ 15 ].
In the context of this discussion, infectious diseases are those that are spread by means other than vectors. These can include emerging infectious diseases, which are those that are entirely new to a population or geographic region or that have been re-introduced. The conditions that favor this emergence are often encountered during military conflict, increasing the risk of the disease not only to the civilian populace, but to military personnel mobilized to these areas.
The emergence of these infectious diseases can often be a two-way street, meaning military personnel may bring diseases with them or local diseases may be transported by military personnel to their home countries or regions.
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For example, Lassa fever, an often-fatal viral disease, was imported to Germany from Sierra Leone in while a case was imported to the US from Liberia in Additionally, cases were imported to the Netherlands in and the United Kingdom in by military personnel returning from peace keeping missions. In both countries, war had displaced large numbers of people with aid workers and military personnel moving in and out on a regular basis [ 38 ]. Influenza remains a disease of serious concern for military personnel.
As militaries from various countries are mobilized to more and more places, the risks of an influenza pandemic increase. Even with higher vaccination rates, military personnel show high rates of infection and seroconversion. For example, in , Even with this high vaccination rate, crew members contracted the flu. The source of the outbreak was a single sailor who had vacationed in North Carolina prior to the ship sailing [ 39 ].
Even with high vaccination rates, the high rate of infection occurred because of the new variant of the virus which was not included in the vaccine. This underscores the capability of highly mobile military personnel to serve as conduits for a rapid spread of novel diseases. This potential for rapid expansion and emergence of novel strains was apparent in when a Private David Lewis died of influenza while training at Fort Dix, New Jersey.
Ultimately, an epidemic did not occur, however it highlighted the potential for a new global influenza pandemic [ 40 ]. Other respiratory diseases shown to be capable of mobilization and transmission by military personnel include pneumonia, pharyngitis and acute rheumatic fever, pertussis and tuberculosis. Of grave concern is the appearance of bacterial resistant strains of the causative agents for these diseases.
Many of these strains are not endemic to the country of origin for the military personnel. However, multi-drug resistant strains reported in civilian populations globally have caused outbreaks among US military personnel. Increases in the prevalence of resistant Streptococcus pyogenes have also been noted in US military personnel, even though these strains typically only occur in Europe and Japan, both regions with an active US military presence [ 41 ].
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These strains are rare in US civilian populations but may be introduced by military personnel if not actively monitored and controlled. In , Fort Jackson, South Carolina experienced an outbreak of adenovirus type-4 among its basic trainees. Because graduating basic trainees typically move directly from basic training to their advanced schools at other installations, they may serve as a conduit for disease expansion. One such graduate from Ft. Jackson was shipped to Fort Gordon, Georgia. Gordon, which then experienced its own installation wide outbreak [ 42 ].
This example highlights the ability of military personnel to transfer infectious diseases from location to location and introduce it to the local population. Alternatively, French soldiers typically do not receive vaccinations against Bordella pertussis as an adult. While deployed in support of International Security Assistance Forces in Afghanistan in and , French soldiers were exposed to the pertussis bacteria. Because of its public health significance, tuberculosis remains a global disease of concern as multi-drug resistant strains have developed in many parts of the world [ 44 ].
Military activities, due to their cramped living and operating conditions, provide a prime habitat for TB outbreaks to occur. Additionally, because military personnel, especially naval personnel, are often exposed to novel or resistant strains while in contact with the resident population where they embark, they are at risk for contracting and spreading TB.
In , the seroconversion rate for the crew of the USS Saipan was Because of these declining seroconversion rates, it was thought that adequate control measures had been developed, mitigating the risk of TB on ships. Of the approximately crew members on board, 21 members developed active TB and were positive for the Mantoux tuberculin skin test TST.
All were thought to be new cases [ 45 ]. During this outbreak, a sailor born in the Republic of the Philippines, who was diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection LTBI , converted to active TB. Of the approximately personnel on the ship, had a new TST result, most likely from the recent transmission of tuberculosis from the index case [ 46 ].
Additionally, over civilians were allowed on the ship as it returned to its home port in San Diego, California. Of these, only one exhibited a new positive result. Of more importance, the Navy was unable to locate 33 sailors who may have been exposed due to separation from the Navy. In this instance, the ultimate source of the outbreak was a foreign-born sailor who converted to active TB, meaning the source of the bacteria was not the US, although US personnel potentially brought the strain back to the US. While respiratory diseases are of major concern, diseases of the gut and intestines may occur at a much greater incidence.
Diseases such as norovirus, salmonella, E. Historically, diseases such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid, caused by Salmonella enterica , have caused serious disease morbidity and mortality for military personnel, often by transmission from the local environment to incoming military personnel. However, these diseases have also moved among these same personnel. For example, during the Spanish-American War of , typhoid affected more than 24, US military personnel training at camps in preparation for mobilization.
This outbreak was used by MAJ Walter Reed to determine the origin of typhoid in the camps and the development of controls to reduce its impact on military operations [ 48 ]. Many of the causative agents, especially bacterial agents, are showing resistance to antimicrobial therapy [ 49 ]. This resistivity varies geographically, as does the primary causative agent.
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However, in Thailand, the primary agent is Campylobacter species. Of note is the resistance of this particular strain to quinolones and other antibiotics in Thailand. Because resistance is high, relapse is also high [ 49 ]. One potential outcome of this resistance and relapse is the introduction of this novel strain into other parts of the world as deployed personnel return to their country of origin. This has the potential to change the geographic distribution of this resistant strain of Campylobacter from regional to global. Other bacteria responsible for diarrhea have also shown resistance in deployed military personnel.
During Operation Desert Storm, US military forces suffered from high rates of gastrointestinal infections. Other diseases, while not specifically resistant, have shown a propensity for expansion of its geographic distribution through military operations. Cholera was historically contained to the Indian subcontinent but was brought to other areas of the globe through shipping and trade, including the slave trade. However, the first cholera pandemic occurred from to , caused by the movement of British troops and camp followers in the Indian subcontinent and abroad.
A similar pattern occurred during the Crimean War [ 51 ]. Asiatic cholera was first introduced to the US by immigrants arriving at seaports. While rare up until the mids, cholera rapidly expanded in the US, partially by the movement of troops westward.