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Members of the NDP pressured the government to accept the recommendation of the moderator of the United Church, the primate of the Anglican Church and Bishops of Canadian Catholic Conference to withhold recognition of the Chilean military regime until the new Chilean government declared that it would respect human rights.

Yet, Trudeau argued that Canadian government had quite routinely recognized other Latin American military regimes, so there was no reason why it should not do so in this case. Churches have played an important role in refugee matters, from encouraging governments to adopt more liberal admission policies to providing material assistance in refugee settlement. Christians were motivated by human compassion and were supported by their Church members, financially and organizationally.

Ottawa decided to work within the U. At the U. This coincided with mounting revolutionary tension in El Salvador, and with the imminence of the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua. The Canadian government followed suit on July After the Nicaraguan revolution, Ottawa assigned an ambassador to the region R. The changes in state-society and social relations in the U. Reagan's main problem was the worldwide spread of communism, and above all in Central America. This was why, in , U.


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The Canadian government took up a different position, convinced that regional turmoil was caused by North-South disparity. El Salvador was the scene of a terrible civil war between Left and Right but the Canadian government similarly remained largely silent until the early s. Their positions clashed with U.

Influenced by Liberation theology and events in Latin America, Leddy also became engaged in the peace movement.

The Doctrine of Discovery, 1493

Since then, she has participated in numerous peace campaigns, including pilgrimages to the Honduran-Nicaraguan border and to the south of Lebanon. Jim Webb SJ, Fr. Tom McKillip, Fr. Margaret Ordway IBVM, and a collective of twelve people, Leddy was a founding editor of the Catholic New Times , a national, independent Canadian newspaper that soon grew into an award-winning publication with a wide readership.

It was a time of change, a time of hope and of fear. We live in the world that oppressed at least half of the human race. But it is not enough to see injustice, disorder, and violence at home and abroad and to worry about the future. These conditions will not improve on their own. We have the responsibility to change them.

China's Foreign Policy in a New Era of Sino-Latin American Relations

They have been silenced because they are challenging the structure and the status quo. Only recently, Jesuit theologians were killed in El Salvador. Brazilian theologian Leonardo Boff was censured by the Vatican. I keep thinking that one of the reasons Vatican II has been so fragile is that prophetic voices were not welcomed earlier and listened to in greater depth. No one in Latin America has written more powerfully about the oppression of the poor, but he also knew in his skin what the oppression of women was about.

Joseph College School, Toronto, in December A letter expressing these concepts was sent to Episcopal Conferences of Latin American nations and individual Bishops who would be attending the Puebla conference. The Catholic New Times group promoted the open letter and Mary Boyd, Director of the Social Action Commission, Diocese of Charlottetown, wrote a letter congratulating Leddy for a "very good initiative which will hopefully increase our solidarity with our fellow Christians in Latin America". In the Church there had been reactions against the positions expressed at Medellin and the secretariat of the episcopal conference had become more conservative.

Engagement and Pragmatism: Towards an Enduring Canadian Strategy in Latin America

In doing this, it has triumphed over an unholy alliance of the United States and reactionary church elements both in Latin America and in the Vatican. The Church Committee proposed closer economic relations with the Central American country, to support it politically. Xabier Gorostiaga, theologian and consultant to the Sandinista government, went to Canada, invited to attend conferences on the Nicaraguan situation, the Catholic New Times suggested that its readers attend his lectures. During his visit to Nicaragua in February the Pope prohibited members of the Catholic Church from participating in the government of Nicaragua.

And this vision is characterized by a working relationship between faith in the Gospel and action in society. Berkeley: University of California Press, Historical treatment of the armed forces in Latin America by an outstanding French expert; chapters 8—11 focus on the — period. Also examines the role of US policy in the region. Stepan, Alfred. Edited by Abraham F. Lowenthal and J. Samuel Fitch, — Comparative analysis, by a leading theorist on civil-military relations and military government, of military prerogatives and transition toward civilian government in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, with special attention given to the Brazilian case.

Keen focus on military autonomy and the system of military intelligence. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.

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No golden era in Canada’s foreign policy – Canadian Dimension

Columbus Day this year brought with it the usual acrimony, and this Salon article hit the usual talking points by declaring European settlement of the Americas to be "the most massive act of genocide" in world history. Figures like these remain hotly debated, but few disagree that, ultimately, the number of natives was extremely small when compared to the overall size of the Americas. In other words, the number of people relative to the amount of natural resources in the New World was tiny, and population density in the Americas continues to be low by global standards even today.

There is a growing scholarship on the economic history of the Americas and on so-called "frontier states. The movement of peoples onto frontier lands, and the exploitation of natural resources there, has shaped the economic and political realities of today. Turner focused primarily on the experience of the United States, but Walter Prescott Webb would attempt to develop these ideas into a more universally applicable set of ideas in his book The Great Frontier.

Later historians would add Eastern Russia to this list. Since then, most historians working on the issues of frontier history have attempted to either build upon the work of Webb and Turner, or to refute them. Frontier states are — to use a definition employed by political scientist Roberto Foa — "countries that in recent centuries have extended rule over new territories adjacent to their core regions. Economist Edward Barbier, in his book, Scarcity and Frontiers , adds that these regions are also characterized by a small labor force relative to the amount of land and natural resources available.

That is, frontier areas are notable for experiencing labor shortages which lead to a wide variety of political and demographic outcomes. Consider the problem a land owner faces in a frontier setting. At the same time, there are few people in the area to plant and harvest the crops, or dig the mines.

As noted by many historians of the native tribes, of course, the indigenous population had already been decimated by disease and military conflict. Unlike the situation in Africa, India, and East Asia, settlements in the Americas found themselves with large tracts of land inhabited by few people. The solution to this economic problem, of course, is to bring in more abundant labor. This can be done through several means. First, of all, an owner whether the owner be a private party or a state organization can convince settlers to voluntarily move to a new region.

APUSH Review: Foreign Policy, Latin America Edition

A variety of different strategies have been employed in the New World in this regard. In early decades, North American colonies often relied on indentures servants who were held to a period of servitude in exchange for the cost of transporting the immigrant to the New World. The laborer, of course, was drawn by the prospect of obtaining freedom at the end of the contracted period. Later, the US used the Homestead Acts and land-sales schemes to attract settlers to frontier lands.

Canada employed similar tactics. In Argentina, on the other hand, the Argentinian state actively subsidized the migration of immigrants from Italy to South America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Throughout the Americas, settlers relocated from Europe in a search for relatively cheap lands or as a hoped escape from the social and economic ailments of the Old World. Today, surnames throughout the Americas remind us of the pan-European flavor of immigration in the region.


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