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In tourist consumption, the customer interacts with a host, often represented by the service worker, in addition to other guests and physical elements within a firm or as part of a destination. These interactions happen because they are valued or expected to provide future value or hinder events, thereby diminishing value for the customer. The actors in the service encounter, i. The environment includes all aspects that facilitate or communicate the nature of the experience, before, during or after its performance. Subsequently, tourists and hosts are part of an experience process in which both parties — more or less willingly and actively — partake for the purpose of creating value experience value for the customers, economic value for the firm, and social, economic and sustainable value for the destination.

The level of interaction, i. Other researchers suggest that the dimensions of interactive experiences include passive versus active participation and absorption versus immersion Pine and Gilmore , and suggest four realms of experience: entertainment, educational, aesthetic and escapist. This perspective reflects the notion of actions as autotelic, indicating that the customer values being present and enjoying the moment.

As Ramirez : 49 puts it: … value co-produced by two or more actors, with and for each other, with and for yet other actors, invites us to rethink organizational structures and managerial arrangements for value creation inherited from the industrial era. But it also invites us to rethink value creation itself.

Hence, interaction practices can be inputs for firms to develop and facilitate enhanced value for the various interaction parties. Hedonism is a foundational idea for tourist travel whatever the underlying motivations are, i.

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Tourist travel is thus fundamentally different from traditional services purchased to solve a problem, e. Tourists visit other places, events and people because they want to be present during the production, and more or less actively involved in the production or creation of the experience.

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Consequently, tourist experiences may differ from other services bought because of lack of motivation, time or knowledge to perform the service oneself. Research shows that tourists who are more motivated are more involved in the tourist trip Prebensen et al.

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Prebensen et al. In a follow-up study, Prebensen et al. Thus, tourist motivation, involvement and knowledge are vital antecedents in value creation processes. S-D logic embodies a move in the logic of exchange signifying a shift from a focus on products and results to a process and service-centric orientation Vargo and Lusch The dichotomy between co-creation versus co-production is outlined in a tourist context by Chathoth et al.

Co-production is delineated as comprising lower and more sporadic involvement, whereas co-creation is described in terms of a higher degree of involvement from both host and guests and being a continuous process.

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Prahalad and Ramaswamy Value is not what the firm produces, but the perceived benefits over the costs, i. However, a recent study by Prebensen et al. Their study outlines and tests various experience-relevant resources, such as service quality, price, effort, time spent and customer involvement, on overall experience evaluation.

The study shows that the time spent and effort made, normally viewed as costs or sacrifices in the consumer behaviour literature, have a positive effect on overall experience value.

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Therefore, resources such as time and effort should not only be treated as costs for the customer, but as providing value through partaking in value creation. The focus is on the action of the actors in creating experience value. The model can be described within a tourism framework. The tourists use various interpretive frameworks to experience a certain object at the destination, through accounting, i.

Integrating practices, i. Among tourists, two types of play are prevalent, that is communing and socializing. Classifying practices provide the means to build affiliation and to enhance distinction, and the tourists do so through objects or through actions.

Tourists often use symbols, e. Discovering why and how tourists act in the way they do would generate new knowledge in relation to value creation theories and practices. Literature on customer participation focuses on the activities of customers during service delivery and the customer experiences in relation to these activities e.

Bendapudi and Leone This way of thinking reflects a traditional perspective on value. In tourist experiences, other types of value may readily come to mind, e. Customer perception of value is viewed as interactive between customer and offering, relativistic between people and situations, preferential and based on a holistic experience Holbrook, Bradley and Sparks follow the lead of Holbrook and Woodall in perceiving value as a benefit or advantage, something consumers regard above other things.

Based on similar ideas, Vargo and Lusch highlight the interactive, relativistic and experiential nature of customer value in relation to the topic of value co-creation, and further the concept of value propositions. Ballantyne and Varey note that value propositions are reciprocal promises of value, operating to and from suppliers and customers seeking an equitable exchange. Bolton and Drew : draw on social judgment theory e. Measuring multiple components of perceived value has therefore been recommended by many researchers e.

Gallarza and Saura ; Sweeney and Soutar A comprehensive theoretical framework of perceived value has been developed by Sheth et al. Sweeney and Soutar utilize Sheth et al. Holbrook employs the traditional extrinsic—intrinsic conceptualization of experiences as a foundation for his work on value perception and additionally includes a dimension of activity in the concept.

As the consumer is assumed to be more or less active active versus passive in the experience, Holbrook supports the idea of the consumer as a participant in co-creating experience value. Sweeney and Soutar base their work on Holbrook and Hirschman and further on the framework delineated by Sheth et al.

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Sweeney and Soutar view the consumer as a participant in creating experience value — both hedonic and utilitarian — for the customer. Within this perspective, the consumer makes a choice based on many value dimensions dependent on the choice situation Sheth et al. These authors assess the functional value as the primary driver of consumer choice and as more often including value for money, quality, reliability, durability and price. Bagwell and Bernheim but also reflects the need to bond and socialize Arnould et al. This value scale has been tested in tourism contexts, such as adventure tourist experiences e.

The results from these studies reveal slightly different support for the value scale, indicating that further testing should be performed in a tourist experience setting. Goffman employed a theatrical metaphor in studying individual behaviour in public settings resulting in a theory of impression management. The theatrical metaphors, i. Impression management is about the presentation of self or management of the impression of oneself. The fundamental idea is that the individual wants to develop congruence between his or her self-concept and feedback from the social groups to which he or she belongs.

People participate in this process of identity building when they enter a social setting. However, the planning, enabling and dramatizing of the interaction scenes are of vital importance for the customer to be motivated, involved and informed to partake in value creation processes. The change in focus on production and consumption practices from exchange to use includes acknowledging that the customer has valuable resources in partaking in the value creation process.

Not only does the customer have a chance to partake in the value creation process, but also the host depends on the customer to partake in order to create value. Partaking in value creation not only requires motivation and drive to be present in the situation, it also requires some sort of knowledge and skills, defined as operant resources Vargo and Lusch Consequently, it is the application of resources that enables exchange. Furthermore, it is the benefits that the actors experience in partaking in co-creation that determine the level of value achievement.

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The ultimate tourist experience happens on site, in a specific situation often together with other tourists and hosts. However, parts of the tourist experience start before and end after the journey takes place, often enabled by technology Kohli and Grover Before the journey, the tourists talk to friends and family, and learn from them what to experience and which places to visit. The company should therefore ensure that existing customers bring home a toolkit e.

Staging and dramaturgy is thus of great importance before the journey. The tourist experience is filled with numerous minor experiences adding up to an overall experience, affecting evaluations and future intentions. The experience could therefore be compared to a theatre and a play, where the tourists are introduced to, involved and immersed in the drama Goffman Moiso and Arnould used the dramaturgical framework to explore shopping experiences, distinguishing between drama structure, drama interaction and drama content.

The extended dramaturgical framework provided a more comprehensive understanding of the ways in which cultural resources, active consumer agency and the formal components of performances in consumption situations contribute to customer experiences. The components of the framework, i. Drama interaction denotes the level of consumer involvement or activities, ranging from active to passive, which can shape, redirect and structure the unfolding of the drama performance Firat , thus focusing on customer involvement experiences.

Table 3. Partaking, interest, involvement and surprises — focusing on the tourist as part of a certain group. Based on an idea of what constitute core customer values, i. Tourists attracted by functional value should receive information regarding standards of quality and value for money, perhaps even compared to other facilities. Customers seeking emotional value should receive information about and experience the sensations and emotions of the experience, e. For risk-takers climbing mountains, a film produced to evoke the emotions of experiencing heights would probably be of significance, while a person in need of relaxation would be more likely to appreciate calm and tranquil environments.

For those tourists who value epistemic qualities, promotion material and actual experiences focusing on authentic stories and learning might be expected to be more effective in attracting tourists to search for more information and to choose the actual destination and activities. In these situations, the guide is often a key player in communicating and co-creating valuable experiences for the customers Arnould et al.

Below, Table 3. The table exemplifies how the firm may facilitate enhanced value creation processes by dramatizing a range of experience value elements. Interaction and value creation in tourism are core issues in terms of attracting the right customers and making their trip valuable and worthwhile.

Thus, the focus of interaction in tourism is gradually shifting towards integrating the tourist as a co-creator to build value-in-use, before, during and after a journey. The tourism companies and destinations therefore have to put their efforts into attracting, facilitating and involving tourists in partaking in value creation in the whole process of a tourist experience.

In particular, the firm needs to be active and creative in order to motivate the customer to engage in value creation before the journey takes place. A particular challenge is the fact that the destination, the place of enjoyment, cannot physically be transported to the customer. Accordingly, the firm has to propose value enhancement situations, i.

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The tourist continues to evaluate and remember the experience after the journey, sometimes for a very long time. The company should therefore ensure that the customer has something valuable to recall and remember, and to tell others when arriving back home. People tend to travel for a variety of motives body- and mind-related motives , but it seems that they are more likely to tell others about their mind-related experiences, such as learning and authentic experiences Prebensen et al. Consequently, a dramaturgical framework is used to help firms provide tourists with the right motivation, involvement and skills to partake in and create valuable experiences in the tourism drama.

The chapter outlines and exemplifies how tourist companies can enhance experience value for the tourist by dramatizing the experience value throughout the whole experience. As researchers outline e. Hence, a tourist buys into a potential value which will come to existence thorough being present on or off stage , taking or adopting roles more or less given to them , within a certain environment. The action or behaviour in the tourist experience will be different based on what the tourist value, i.

Further, the tourist acts differently at the destination or within a tourist activity framework based on their motivation purposes and with whom or what they interact structure of the action Holt In managerial terms, the chapter offers a framework for tourist companies to facilitate enhanced value creation through motivating, involving and teaching the customer to partake in value creation processes before, during and after the journey through employing the dramatizing framework.

Based on what and the level of experience value the tourist prefer, the tourist company may develop value propositions for the tourist to realize. They will do so dependent of the purpose of why they participate, i. The structure of the action, i. For tourist firms then to fulfil the tourist needs in a satisfactory way is through acknowledging and dramatizing for the right experience dimension to be fulfilled. Theoretically, the chapter supports existing conceptualizations of the value-in-use perspectives by integrating various theoretical perspectives, i.

As research has acknowledged the perceived value as the leading predictor of satisfaction and behavioural intention Cronin et al. Additionally, due to the importance of servicescape Bitner and dramaturgy Goffman on consumption practices, different special dramaturgy effects, e. Part 1: Motivation and Need Recognition 1. Tourism Destination Image Formation 4. Decision Strategies in Tourism Evaluation 6. Understanding Tourist Experience though Mindfulness Theory 8.

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