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The IPCC currently has members. Thousands of people from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC. For the assessment reports, IPCC scientists volunteer their time to assess the thousands of scientific papers published each year to provide a comprehensive summary of what is known about the drivers of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and how adaptation and mitigation can reduce those risks.

An open and transparent review by experts and governments around the world is an essential part of the IPCC process, to ensure an objective and complete assessment and to reflect a diverse range of views and expertise. Through its assessments, the IPCC identifies the strength of scientific agreement in different areas and indicates where further research is needed. The IPCC does not conduct its own research. The sides of each pedestal are fastened together by screws passed through the 1-in.

When each pedestal is put together the lower back panel is fastened to them with screws turned into the pieces provided as stated in making the end panels. The top board is now adjusted with equal edges projecting and fastened in position with finishing nails. As the top panels cover directly over where the nails are driven, the heads will not show. The upper back panel is fastened to the curved ends and the whole top held to the top board with cast corner brackets that can be purchased at any hardware store.

The detail showing the pigeon holes gives sizes for 30 openings 3 by 4 in. In making this roman chair, as well as other articles of mission furniture, the materials can be ordered from the mill with much of the hard work completed. Order the stock to make this chair as follows:. Have all these pieces mill planed on the four sides straight and square, also have them sandpapered on the four sides of each.

Plain sawed white [68] or red oak finishes nicely and is easily obtained. The sizes are specified exact as to thickness and width, but the lengths are longer than is needed. This is to allow for cutting and fitting. Begin by squaring one end of each post; measure the length 28 in.


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The mortises in the posts must be cut smoothly and of exact size. Wood pins fasten these rails and posts together. The mortise in the post is placed central. On the ends of the chair the shouldered side is turned in see photograph , while on the front and back they are turned out. Miter the ends of these tenons. These tenons are to be glued and clamped—the ends of the chair being put together first.

When this is dry the sides are clamped. A cushion can be made, as shown in the photograph, by lacing with leather thongs two pieces of Spanish leather cut to proper length and width. For a brown stain, dissolve by boiling in 4 oz. Apply hot and repeat until the desired color is obtained. Stains can be bought ready prepared, however, and are quite satisfactory. Finish by applying several coats of wax. This handsome piece of mission furniture is designed to be made up in three different pieces as desired, the only changes necessary being in the length of the one front and the two back rails.

The settee can be made into a three-cushion length by adding the length of another cushion to the dimensions of the one front and two back rails. A companion piece chair can be made by using suitable length rails to admit only one cushion. The following stock list of materials ordered mill-planed and sandpapered will be sufficient to make up the settee as illustrated.

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Oak is the most suitable wood which can be finished in either mission or a dark golden oak. The material list gives the exact dimensions for the rails and slats as they will not need to be squared for entering the mortises, provided you are careful to get all lengths cut to dimensions. When cutting the mortises take care to get them square and clean. The joints are all put together with glue.

Nails can be driven into the posts intersecting the tenons of the rails on the inside, as they will not show and will help to make the settee more solid. The cushions can be made with or without springs as desired. The two cleats are fastened one on each inside of the front and back rails with screws. The location as to height of these cleats will depend upon the kind of cushions used.

The parts necessary to make the cushions with springs are as follows:. An open box is made from two in. The tops of the springs are tied or anchored with stout cords running in both directions and fastened to the inside of the pieces forming the open box. These should be tied in such manner as to hold each spring so it cannot slip over and come in contact with another spring. Roan or pebbled leather are very popular for cushions for this style of furniture.

The leather is drawn over the springs and tacked to the outside of the open box frame. When complete the cushions are set in loose on the cleats, which should, in this case, be placed about 1 in. Any pyrographer will appreciate the construction of the table and cabinet as illustrated. Anyone doing burnt wood work will know the annoyance of building up a steady support for the arm to the level of the article on which the work is to be done.

The size of this table may be made to suit the surroundings and the space of the builder. Figure 1 shows the table with a slot cut in the side support in which to place the thumb screw of the bracket as shown on top of the table. It will be noticed, Fig. The bracket shelf slides in the slot at the side of the table, and is fastened to any height by the thumb screw There is also a smaller slide bracket on the shelf to clamp irregular objects to the side of the table. The thumb screws, hinges and drawer pulls can be purchased from any hardware store. When the table is not in use for pyrography it can be used for a writing table or a round top provided and attached on which to play games.

When used for this purpose the bracket, as well as the pyrographic outfit, is stowed away in the cabinet as shown in Fig. What is mission oak stain? There are many on the market, with hardly two alike in tone. The true mission oak stain may be said to show a dull gray, the flakes showing a reddish tint, while the grain of the wood will be almost a dead black. To produce such a stain take 1 lb. This will make about 1 qt. Use these proportions for a larger quantity of stain. Strain it through cheese cloth.

Japan colors will give a quicker drying stain than that made with oil colors, and in this case omit the japan and add a little varnish to bind it. One of the most popular of all the fancy oaks has been that known as Flemish, and this in spite of its very somber color, says Wood Craft. There are several ways of producing Flemish finish; you can fill the wood with a paste filler strained with raw umber, and when dry apply a stain of transparent flat raw umber, and for the darker shades of finish use drop black with the umber.

Varnish and rub down. According to a foreign technical journal, French workmen mahoganize various kinds of woods by the following method: The surface of the wood to be stained is made perfectly smooth. Then it is given a coating of dilute nitric acid which is rubbed well into the wood fiber.

Apply this mixture with a brush, and repeat the coats at intervals until the [77] surface has the appearance of polished mahogany. In case the luster should fail it may be restored by rubbing with a little raw linseed oil. The description of the process is meager, and hence he who would try it will have to experiment a little. A good cheap mission effect for oak is to mix together equal parts of boiled linseed oil and good asphaltum varnish, and apply this to the wood with a brush; in a minute or so you may rub off surplus with a rag, and when dry give a coat of varnish.

A gallon of this stain will cover about sq. A very good hardwood filler for oak, either for a natural or golden effect, may be made from two parts of turpentine and one part of raw linseed oil, with a small amount of good japan to dry in the usual time. To this liquid add bolted gilder's whiting to form a suitable paste, it may be made thin enough for use, if to be used at once, or into a stiff paste for future use, when it can be thinned down for use, says Woodworkers' Review.

After applying a coat of filler, let stand until it turns gray, which requires about 20 minutes, depending upon the amount of japan in the filler, when it should be rubbed off with cotton waste or whatever you use for the purpose. A filler must be rubbed well into the wood, the surplus only being removed. The application of a coat of burnt umber stain to the wood before filling is in order, which will darken the wood to the proper depth if you rub off the surplus, showing the grain and giving a golden oak effect.

The filling should stand at least a day and night before applying shellac and varnish. In wax-finishing hardwoods, use a paste filler and shellac varnish to get a good surface. Of course, the wax may also be rubbed into the unfilled wood but that gives you quite a different effect from the regular wax polish, says a correspondent of Wood Craft. With soft woods you first apply a stain, then apply a liquid filler or shellac, according to the quality of work to be done.

The former for the cheaper job. The usual proportion of wax and turpentine is two parts of the former to one part of the latter, melting the wax first, then adding the spirits of turpentine. For reviving or polishing furniture you can add three or four times as much turpentine as wax, all these proportions to be by weight. To produce the desired egg-shell gloss, rub vigorously with a brush of stiff bristles or woolen rag. Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. This process is rather a difficult one, as it requires an airtight case, but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.

Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box, or any other metal receptacle of good proportions, provided it is airtight. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece; the article may be propped up with small sticks, or suspended by a string. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes.

A saucer of ammonia is placed [79] in the bottom of the box, the lid or cover closed, and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in, taking care to have all the edges closed.

The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished, but waxed. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some bees-wax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Pour in a little turpentine, and set aside for half a day, giving it an occasional stir.

The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. When putting a wax finish on oak or any open-grained wood, the wax will often show white streaks in the pores of the wood. These streaks cannot be removed by rubbing or brushing. Prepared black wax can be purchased, but if you do not have any on hand, ordinary floor wax can be colored black.

Melt the floor wax in a can placed in a bucket of hot water. When the wax has become liquid mix thoroughly into it a little drop black or lampblack. Allow the wax to cool and harden. This wax will not streak, but will give a smooth, glossy finish. There are 40 distinct styles of chairs embracing the period from B. Of all the millions of chairs made during the centuries, each one can be classified under one or more of the 40 general styles shown in the chart.

This chart was compiled by the editor of Decorative Furniture. The Colonial does not appear on the chart because it classifies under the Jacobean and other styles. A condensed key to the chart follows:. Seems to have been derived largely from the Early Asian. It influenced Assyrian and Greek decorations, and was used as a motif in some French Empire decoration.

Not used in its entirety except for lodge rooms, etc. Influenced by Egyptian and Assyrian styles. It had a progressive growth through the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian periods. It influenced the Roman style and the Pompeian, and all the Renaissance styles, and all styles following the Renaissance, and is still the most important factor in decorations today. Rome took her art entirely from Greece, and the Roman is purely a Greek development. The Roman style "revived" in the Renaissance, and in this way is still a prominent factor in modern decoration. Sometimes called the Grecian-Roman style, which well describes its components.

The style we know as Greek was the Greek as used in public structures. The Pompeian is our best idea of Greek domestic decoration. Pompeii was long buried, but when rediscovered it promptly influenced all European styles, including Louis XVI, and the various Georgian styles. The "Eastern Roman" style, originating in the removal of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople then called Byzantium.

It is a combination of Persian and Roman. It influenced the various Moorish, Sacracenic and other Mohammedan styles. It had nothing to do with the Goths, but was a local European outgrowth of the Romanesque. It spread all over Europe, and reached its climax of development about It was on the Gothic construction that the Northern European and English Renaissance styles were grafted to form such styles as the Elizabethan, etc. The various Mohammedan styles can all be traced to the ancient Persian through the Byzantine.

The Moorish or Moresque was the form taken by the Mohammedans in Spain. The East Indian style is almost composite, as expected of one with a growth of nearly 4, years. It has been influenced repeatedly by outside forces and various religious invasions, and has, in turn, influenced other far Eastern styles. Another of the ancient styles. It had a continuous growth up to B. It has influenced Western styles, as in the Chippendale, Queen Anne, etc. A style probably springing originally from China, but now absolutely distinct.

It has influenced recent art in Europe and America, especially the "New Art" styles. Italian Gothic. The earliest entry of the Renaissance into England. An application of Renaissance to the Gothic foundations. Its growth was into the Elizabethan. Italian Renaissance, Fifteenth Century. The birth century of the Renaissance. A seeking for revival of the old Roman and Greek decorative and constructive forms. Italian Renaissance, Sixteenth Century. A period of greater elaboration of detail and more freedom from actual Greek and Roman models. Italian Renaissance, Seventeenth Century.

The period of great elaboration and beginning of reckless ornamentation.

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Spanish Renaissance. A variation of the Renaissance spirit caused by the combination of three distinct styles—the Renaissance as known in Italy, the Gothic and the Moorish. In furniture the Spanish Renaissance is almost identical with the Flemish, which it influenced. Dutch Renaissance. A style influenced alternately by the French and the Spanish. This style and the Flemish had a strong influence on the English William and Mary and Queen Anne styles, and especially on the Jacobean.

German Renaissance. A style introduced by Germans who had gone to Italy to study. It was a heavy treatment of the Renaissance spirit, and merged into the German Baroque about Francis I. The introductory period when the Italian Renaissance found foothold in France. It is almost purely Italian, and was the forerunner of the Henri II. Henri II. In this the French Renaissance became differentiated from the Italian, assuming traits that were specifically French and that were emphasized in the next period.

Louis XIII. A typically French style, in which but few traces of its derivation from the Italian remained. It was followed by the Louis XIV. A compound style containing traces of the Gothic, much of the Tudor, some Dutch, Flemish and a little Italian. Especially noted for its fine wood carving. The English period immediately following the Elizabethan, and in most respects quite similar. The Dutch influence was, however, more prominent. The Cromwellian, which is included in this period, was identical with it.

William and Mary. More Dutch influences. All furniture lighter and better suited to domestic purposes. Queen Anne.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Mission Furniture, How To Make It, Part I, by H.H. Windsor.

Increasing Dutch influences. Jacobean influence finally discarded. Chinese influence largely present. Louis XIV. The greatest French style. An entirely French creation, marked by elegance and dignity. Toward the end of the period it softened into the early Rococo. A direct outgrowth of the Queen Anne, tempered by the prevailing French styles. It includes Chippendale, Hepplewhite and Sheraton, but these three great cabinetmakers were sufficiently distinct from the average Georgian to be worthy separate classification.

The greatest English cabinet style. Based on the Queen Anne, but drawing largely from the Rococo, Chinese and Gothic, he produced three distinct types, viz. The last is a negligible quantity. Louis XV. The Rococo period. The result of the efforts of French designers to enliven the Louis XIV, and to evolve a new style out of one that had reached its logical climax. Succeeded Chippendale as the popular English cabinetmaker. By many he is considered his superior. His work is notable for a charming delicacy of line and design. Louis XVI. The French style based on a revival of Greek forms, and influenced by the discovery of the ruins of Pompeii.

A fellow cabinetmaker, working at same time as Hepplewhite. One of the Colonial styles Georgian. Fathers of an English classic revival. The style created during the Empire of Napoleon I. Derived from classic Roman suggestions, with some Greek and Egyptian influences. New Arts. These are various worthy attempts by the designers of various nations to create a new style. Some of the results are good, and they are apt to be like the "little girl who had a little curl that hung in the middle of her forehead," in that "when they are good they are very, very good, but when they are bad they are horrid.

All the material used in the making of this piano bench is 1 in.

The bench can be made from any of the furniture woods, but the case may demand one made from mahogany. If so, this wood can be purchased from a piano factory. The following stock list of materials may be ordered from a mill, planed and sandpapered:. The rails are "let into" the edges of the ends so the outside of the rails and end boards will be flush.

The joints are put together with glue and screws. The cleats are fastened with screws to the inside of the rails and to the top. The stretcher has a tenon cut on each end which fits into a mortise cut in each end. The tenons will have sufficient length to cut the small mortise for the key. The kind of wood used will determine the color of the stain for the finish. This also depends on matching other pieces of furniture. This attractive and useful piece of mission furniture will be appreciated by the person that does his own shaving.

The shaving stand can be made at home by a handy man in his spare time as the stock can be ordered from a mill ready for making the joints and attaching the few pieces of hardware. The following is a stock list of materials:. While this piece of furniture can be made in any kind of wood, the novice will find that quarter-sawed oak will work up and finish better than the other woods.

The tenons and mortises are first cut for the crosspieces at the bottom of the posts, and, as it is [90] best to use dowels at the top, holes are bored in the bottom piece and also the ends of the slats for pins. The bottom piece is also fastened to the posts with dowels. The bottom must have a square piece cut out from each corner almost the same size as the posts. When setting the sides together the end board and posts can be doweled and glued together [91] and after drying well the posts can be spread apart far enough to insert the bottom rail and two slats.

The rail and slats should be tried for a bit before putting on any glue, which may save some trouble. After the sides are put together, the back is put in and glued. The top is then put on and fastened with cleats from the inside. The partitions are put in as shown and the door fitted. Two drawers are made from the ends and the soft wood material. The drawer ends may be supplied with wood pulls of the same material or matched with metal the same as used for the hinges.

The two short posts are tenoned and mortises cut in the bottom piece for joints and these joints well glued together. The bottom piece is then fastened to the top board of the stand. This will form the standards in which to swing the mirror and its frame. This is done with two pins inserted in holes bored through the standards and into the mirror frame.

After the parts are all put together, cleaned and sandpapered, the stand is ready for the finish. The basket shown in the accompanying sketch is designed to be used with a library table having slats in the ends and wooden handles on the drawers. The finish is made to match that of the table by fuming, when completely assembled, in a large-size [94] size, clean garbage can, with fumes of concentrated ammonia.

The following quarter-sawed white-oak stock should be procured in the exact dimensions given. This may be had, planed and cut to lengths, from a mill for a slight extra charge. It is advisable not to have them sandpapered, as the very coarse sandpaper generally used, gives a bad surface for finishing.

See that the posts are absolutely square cross section. Mark with a pencil—not gauge—the chamfers on the ends of the posts and plane them off. Carefully mark the tenons on the ends of all the rails with a knife and gauge lines. Be sure that the distance from the tenon shoulder at one end of rail to the shoulder at the other end is exactly the same on each rail. Cut the tenons, using a backsaw and chisel. Arrange the pieces as they are to stand in the finished basket, and number each tenon and mortise. Mark all the mortises on the posts, being sure to keep the distances between the top and lower rail the same on each post.

Cut each mortise to fit the correspondingly numbered tenon. The handles are next in order. The crosspiece should be mortised all the way through these pieces and held in place by a brad from the under side. Now put the whole basket together without gluing, in order that errors, if any, may be detected. If everything fits perfectly, the basket is ready to be glued. For best results hot glue should be used. First glue up two opposite sides with the slats in place. Clamps must be used. When these have set for at least 24 hours, the other rails and slats may be glued in place and clamped.

It is a good idea to pin the tenons in place with two 1-in. The handles are then glued in place, using hand screws to hold them until the glue sets. The bottom should rest on thin cleats, without being nailed to them, so that it may be removed when the basket is to be emptied of small papers, etc. Before applying the stain, see that all glue spots are removed and all surfaces sanded to perfect smoothness.

If a fumed finish is not desired, any good stain may be used, after which a thin coat of shellac and two coats of wax should be applied. Allow plenty of time for drying between the coats. The illustration shows a unique article for the den. It serves as a pedestal and has one side which opens on hinges allowing the inside to be used as a smoker's cabinet or cellarette.

All the lines are straight and the corners square, making it easy to [97] construct. White oak will make up best, although ash, birch or southern pine may be used with good effect. Make the top and base of two pieces, glued and screwed together with the grain crossed. This method prevents warping. Have the sides, front and back squared up perfectly.

The sides are to overlap the back and to be fastened to it with round-head brass or blue screws. Over these, fit the sides and back and fasten them with screws or nails.

Performance Fabrics

The four corner blocks are now put under the base. Two or more shelves may be set in as shown. Brass or copper hinges will look well if a dark stain is to be used. If a dull finish is desired, apply two coats of stain and two of prepared wax. If a polished surface is wanted, first fill the pores of the wood with any standard filler, which can be purchased at a paint store. After this has dried partly, rub off any surplus filler, rubbing across the grain of the wood. The dresser shown in the illustration was made of quarter-sawed white oak and finished golden and waxed. The mirror is of beveled glass and the following is the stock bill:.

In working up the various parts proceed in the usual manner. If not thoroughly familiar with the various tool processes involved, it will be necessary to investigate pieces of near-by furniture and to read up some good text dealing with the processes involved. For a finish, a coat of paste filler colored so as to [] give a rich golden brown should be applied first.

Allow this to harden, after rubbing and polishing it in the usual manner, then apply a thin coat of shellac. Sand this lightly when hard, and over this apply a coat of orange shellac. Over the shellac put several coats of some good rubbing wax and polish each coat well. If a striking contrast is wanted for the medullary rays of the quartering, apply a golden-oak stain first.

Sand this lightly, then apply a second coat diluted one-half with solvent and sand again lightly. Apply a thin coat of shellac, then, when dry, sand lightly and apply paste, and proceed as before. Oak is the most suitable material for making this sideboard and it should be first-class stock, planed and cut to the dimensions given in the following list:. Begin work by cutting the posts to the length indicated in the detail drawing.

These posts are cut in pairs and it is best to stand them up in the same [] position they will be in the finished sideboard, and mark the sides to be mortised with a pencil. Also cut the grooves into which the panels are to fit. The bottom part of the back is closed with a panel and two rails, one at the same height from the floor as the front bottom rail, and the top one even with the under side of the top.

The large panel is for the opening thus formed. These parts are now put together, using plenty of good hot glue, and spreading it well on the mortises and tenon ends. After the glue is hard enough to remove the clamps, the top and bottom are put in place. The corners of the top are notched out to fit around the posts, while the bottom is cut to fit on the inside of the rails and is held in place by putting screws in at an angle through the bottom into the rails.

The top is also fastened in this way, except that the screws are run through the rails into the top. The two vertical pieces are now put in place. Drive nails through the bottom and into these pieces. On the top end use screws driven at an angle. Glue may be used if desired. The doors are made to match these openings. The corners are mitered and the backs rabbeted to receive the panels. These panels may be made in art glass if so desired. The horizontal piece for the drawer to rest upon is now put in place and fastened by driving nails through the vertical pieces.

The drawer is made to fit this opening, and it should be lined with velvet to keep the silverware in good condition. The standards and shelves are put on as shown in the drawing. The mirror is put in a frame, which is made to fit the back opening and has the corners mitered and the back rabbeted to receive the mirror. Thoroughly scrape and sandpaper all parts that are visible.

The sideboard is now ready to be finished as desired. A simple design for a hall or window seat is shown in the accompanying sketch and detail drawing. Anyone who has a few sharp tools, and is at all handy with them, can make this useful and attractive piece of furniture in a few spare hours. If the stock is ordered from the mill ready cut to length, squared and sanded, much of the labor will be saved. The following is a list of the material needed:. Square up the four posts and lay out the mortises according to the drawing.

To do this, lay them on a flat surface with the ends square and mark them with a try-square. The tenons on the end and side rails are laid out in the same manner as the posts. The end rails should be marked and mortises cut for the upright slats as shown in the detail drawing. Fit the end and side braces with mortise and tenon joints. The two end frames can now be glued and clamped together and set away to dry. Put all the parts together before gluing to see that they fit square and tight.

The seat should be made of one piece if possible, otherwise two or more boards will have to be glued together. The corners should be cut out to fit around the posts. It rests on the side rails and cleats fastened to the inner side of the end rails. When the window seat is complete go over it carefully and scrape all the surplus glue from about the joints, as the finish will not take where there is any glue. Remove all rough spots with fine sandpaper, [] then apply the stain best liked, which may be any one of the many mission stains supplied by the trade for this purpose.

If this window seat is well made and finished, it will be an ornament to any home. For the mission plant stand shown in the illustration secure the following list of quarter-sawed white-oak stock, cut and finished to size:. Test all surfaces of the posts with a try-square to see that they are square with each other.

Lay out the tenons on the ends of the rails as shown in the sketch and cut with a tenon saw and chisel. Arrange [] the posts and rails as they are to stand and number each tenon and mortise. Lay out the mortises in the legs, taking the measurements directly from the tenon which is to fit that mortise. They come outside of the lower rail and are held to it with two small brads, fancy-headed tacks, or round-head screws.

Set up the stand without glue or screws to see that all pieces fit accurately. Then glue up the sides [] with the slats first. After these have set for 24 hours, fit in the other two rails and the shelf. Three flat-head screws should be used to hold the shelf in place.

These must be placed so the slats will cover them when they are attached. When this work is completed it is ready for the top. A good method of attaching the top is shown in the sketch.

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The screws used for fastening should be 2-in. Then bore through the rest of the way with a bit a little [] larger than the shank of the screw. Thus a little space is left for expansion and shrinkage of the top. Scrape and sandpaper thoroughly to remove all marks or glue spots. Finish with two coats of weathered-oak stain, followed by two coats of black wax. The accompanying sketch and detail drawing show a design of a bedside stand.

This is a very desirable piece of furniture and is simple and easy to make. Quarter-sawed oak is the best wood to use in its construction. The material should be ordered from the mill ready cut to length, squared and sanded. The following list of material will be required:. Start work on the four posts by rounding the top corners and shaping the feet as shown. The four posts are identical and the mortises should be laid out on all four at once so as to get them all alike. These should be carefully cut with a sharp chisel. On the inner surface of each leg cut a groove to [] hold the side boards of the lower compartment.

Next prepare the two wide and the four narrow crosspieces, tenoning them to fit the mortises already cut in the legs. The lower crosspieces should also have grooves cut in them to hold the side boards of the compartment. The two complete sides can now be glued and clamped together and set away to dry.

While they are drying the remaining parts of the stand can be made. The three horizontal boards are now made by notching out the corners to fit around the legs. They are supported by fastening small cleats to the inner surface of each crosspiece. The two ends can now be set up and connected. Notch out the corners of the top board and fit it in place. The top is fastened down by means of screws set in at an angle from below. The back boards can be of soft wood and are fastened in place in the [] usual manner.

The door should be of one piece if possible and should have suitable hinges and a catch. Make and fit the drawer in place, and the stand is ready for the finish. First scrape all the surplus glue from about the points so the stain will not be kept from the wood. Finish smooth with fine sandpaper, then apply stain of the color desired. This hall chair is designed to take up as little room as possible. For its construction the following stock will be needed:. Lay out and cut the design on the back, sides, and brace.

To cut the openings, first bore a hole near one corner to get the blade of a coping saw through and proceed to saw to the lines. Smooth the edges after sawing by taking a thin shaving with a sharp chisel. A file will not leave a good surface. Mark the tenons on the ends of the stretcher and cut them with a backsaw and make smooth with a chisel. From the tenons mark the mortises in the sides through which they are to pass. Now make of scrap material the two keys and from them mark the small mortises in the tenons. Before putting the chair together, the cleats for holding the seat should be fastened to the sides, back and brace.

Use flat-head screws for this purpose. Then put the sides and stretcher together, and fasten the back to the sides with flat-head screws. The brace should be put in next, using three round-head screws in each end. There only remains the top, which is held by screws through the cleats from the under side. Stain with two coats of weathered or mission-oak stain, and then apply a thin coat of "under-lac" or shellac and two coats of wax. Suitable for Dining Room Use. Details of Chair Construction.

The Completed Lamp. Construction of Shade. Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand. Details of Home-Made Porch Seat. Porch Chair Finished. Details of Tabouret. Tabouret as Completed. Complete Morris Chair Without Cushion. Details of a Morris Chair. Light but Strong. Details of Stand. Showing Dimensions of Table. Details of Table Construction.

Details of Candlestick. Mission Chair Complete. Details of Mission Chair Construction. Completed Stand. Details of the Magazine Stand. The Completed Swing. Details of Seat. Showing Construction of Stand. Table for Outdoor Use. Details Showing Dimensions of Parts. Details of Shoe Rest. Details of Tabouret Construction. The Desk Complete. Rolltop Details. Detail of Pigeonholes. The Roman Chair. Details of Parts of Chair. A Complete Two-Cushion Settee. Details of a Mission Settee. Details of the Cushion. Convenient Pyrographer's Table.