Instead, fraternity is accorded that task. In structuralist anthropology, the excessive generosity of the West puts its own privilege in question.
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But, for Levinas, it is precisely here that its special contribution to the world is revealed. It concludes that orientation to the Other , the excellence of the Judaeo-Christian legacy, underlies structuralist ontology. For there does exist the possibility of a Frenchman learning Chinese and passing from one culture into another, without the intermediary of an esperanto that would falsify both tongues which it mediated. Yet what has not been taken into consideration in this case is that an orientation which leads the Frenchman to take up learning Chinese instead of declaring it to be barbarian that is, bereft of the real virtues of language , to prefer speech to war, is needed.
One reasons as though the equivalence of cultures, the discovery of their profusion and the recognition of their riches were not themselves the effects of an orientation and of an unequivocal sense in which humanity stands. One reasons as though the multiplicity of cultures from the beginning sunk its roots in the era of decolonization, as though incomprehension, war and conquest did not derive just as naturally from the contiguity of multiple expressions of being.
MS 46 Let me spell out three points The recognition of the richness of cultures and the suggestion that they are equivalent, depends upon an orientation to the Other; a sense of the status of humanity. The veiled suggestion to the anthropologist is the following: we have seen that your interest in these other civilizations and cultures depends on an orientation towards the other. However, does the culture you examine itself reveal or valorize this orientation?
Robert Bernasconi observes that Levinas seems unaware that the Chinese also learn to speak French. War does not only spring from a logic directed towards totality and domination. War also springs from the friction of contiguity with other civilizations. Difference cannot be valorized per se, if war is to be avoided. Peace does not just require the recognition of difference, but the orientation to the other: the sens unique which can ground peace.
The Other as instantiating height, not the other as different. Of peace there can only be an eschatology. It must be stressed that there is no epistemological privilege accorded to these ideas. If the beyond established is not simply to repeat onto-theology, or be determined by being, it must be a human, subjective production.
The face is not the discovery by the West of a pre-existent truth. The courthouse for eschatology is not the limits of theoretical reason or phenomenological description.
All Other Work
The key lies in the ability of the idea of fraternity to orient peace. The excellence of the West would be located in a potential that must be manifested such that the other cultures of the world follow that example and Europeanize. The bottom line is peace. To recap, in so far as they exceed philosophical support, the ideas of the face and fraternity draw their power from the monotheism that informs Western culture.
This hypothesis can only be tested historically through this very production — it is fundamentally speculative. In short, Buddhist and Hindu metaphysics are presented as polar opposites, but from which there is the same result — the human individual is not the root of value. The weakness of India and China for Rosenzweig is that they are unable to live beyond the immediate present, since history for those cultures is simply the passage of various contingent arrangements — the future cannot be the site of meaning by which to guide the transformation of the present. This, combined with the concept of prophetic time, produces a wholly different culture, a wholly different past.
As in Levinas, a unique concept of humanity rests with messianic monotheism: it is not present in other traditions whose own ideas can be encompassed by the Greek dimension of Europe. For example, you can say Buddhism in Greek. To repeat, the alterity of height is distinguished from an alterity of difference. For Levinas, contiguity without orientation will lead to wars worse than those witnessed in recent history. First, why have the philosophical readings of Levinas missed the, admittedly troubling, notion of transcendence and instead reduced his work to more familiar ideas?
Is Western philosophy simply one cultural formation among others limning its own borders? What would it entail to act otherwise? These fundamental questions challenge the particularity of all philosophizing and cannot be avoided given current institutional and world-historical conditions. 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Go to Section. Home Organization Science Vol. Eric von Hippel. Georg von Krogh. Previous Back to Top. Perspective on coarse-graining, cognitive load, and materials simulation. Communities of practice as collective lead users. Team diversity, polarization, and productivity in online peer production. Hacking events: Project development practices and technology use at hackathons.
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Surrendering control to gain advantage: Reconciling openness and the resource-based view of the firm. Product innovation rumors as forms of open innovation. Because what this imaginary conveys is that if the world is created out of nothing, then man can indeed model it as he sees fit,  without trying to conform on some pre-existing order like a divine law. He contrasted that sharply to the Biblical imaginary, which sustains all Judaic societies to this day, according to which, in the beginning of the world there was a God, a willing entity and man's position therefore is to understand that Will and act accordingly.
Castoriadis views the political organization of the ancient Greek city states as a model of an autonomous society. The same goes for colonisation since the neighbouring Phoenicians , who had a similar expansion in the Mediterranean, were monarchical till their end. During this time of colonization, however, around the time of Homer's epic poems, we observe for the first time that the Greeks, instead of transferring their mother city's social system to the newly established colony, instead, for the first time in known history, legislate anew from the ground up.
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What also made the Greeks special was the fact that, following the above, they kept this system as a perpetual autonomy which led to direct democracy. This phenomenon of autonomy is again present in the emergence of the states of northern Italy during the Renaissance ,  again as a product of small independent merchants. He sees a tension in the modern West between, on the one hand, the potentials for autonomy and creativity and the proliferation of "open societies" and, on the other hand, the spirit-crushing force of capitalism.
These are respectively characterized as the creative imaginary and the capitalist imaginary :. I think that we are at a crossing in the roads of history, history in the grand sense. One road already appears clearly laid out, at least in its general orientation. That's the road of the loss of meaning, of the repetition of empty forms, of conformism, apathy, irresponsibility, and cynicism at the same time as it is that of the tightening grip of the capitalist imaginary of unlimited expansion of "rational mastery," pseudorational pseudomastery, of an unlimited expansion of consumption for the sake of consumption, that is to say, for nothing, and of a technoscience that has become autonomized along its path and that is evidently involved in the domination of this capitalist imaginary.
The other road should be opened: it is not at all laid out. It can be opened only through a social and political awakening, a resurgence of the project of individual and collective autonomy, that is to say, of the will to freedom. This would require an awakening of the imagination and of the creative imaginary. He argues that, in the last two centuries, ideas about autonomy again come to the fore: "This extraordinary profusion reaches a sort of pinnacle during the two centuries stretching between and This is a very specific period because of the very great density of cultural creation but also because of its very strong subversiveness.
Castoriadis has influenced European especially continental thought in important ways. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cornelius Castoriadis. Constantinople , Ottoman Empire present-day Istanbul, Turkey. Paris , France. Catherine May  m. Libertarian socialism   political philosophy developmental psychology psychoanalysis economics sovietology social criticism ecology philosophy of science philosophy of history ontology epistemology aesthetics. James , J. Political concepts. Philosophies and tendencies.
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Related social movements. See also. From Neo-Marxism to Democratic Theory. Sharpe, , pp. London: Sage Publications. Castoriadis's evident legacy to Left-libertarian thinking and his radical break with orthodox Marxist-Leninism Cornelius Castoriadis: Key Concepts. Straume: "[Castoriadis'] thought certainly reflects ideas of radical, participatory and direct democracy, communitarianism and republicanism III, Cahier 3, , p. Confer Fichte's original insight.
Klooger has compared Castoriadis' idea of the 'circle of creation' with Heidegger's idea of the ' hermeneutic circle ' Klooger , p. Gourgouris pointed out that the circle of creation is "a circle whose Being is nowhere, since in itself it accounts for the meaning of Being, a meaning that is always inevitably a human Confer: FT B, pp. Time is this emergence as such—whereas space is "only" its necessary concomitant.
Time is creation and destruction—that means, time is being in its substantive determinations. Andrew Arato , Social Research 45 4 —, , esp. It was rooted not in the material sphere of consumption and production, but in the broader social—legal—historical institutions of society. It was not an objective substance, but a human creation. In all pre-capitalist societies, prices — and distribution more generally — were determined through some mixture of social struggles and cooperation. Authoritarian regimes emphasized power and decree, while more egalitarian societies used negotiation, volition and even gifts Cornelius Castoriadis Karalis Sociological Amnesia: Cross-currents in Disciplinary History.