People were eager to see the person they had read about in newspapers and dime novels. In a petite young woman named Annie Oakley joined the show, wowing crowds by outshooting everyone. Her shooting attracted Lakota chief Sitting Bull to the show for four months that year. Oakley was with the show for the next fifteen years, second only to Buffalo Bill in popularity.
It was the hit of the celebration, visited by nobility, commoners, and Queen Victoria herself. The show was even credited with improving British and American relations. During the tour of Europe, Cody met the celebrities of his day—from prime ministers and kings to artists and writers.
He even became friends with Thomas Edison. When he returned to the United States, he was invited to take part in presidential inaugurations and society functions. He still preferred, however, to stay on the show grounds with the Indians, cowboys, and frontiersmen he knew best. By , the show had grown to include more than people, including performers and support personnel. A popular addition to the program was an exhibition of horsemanship from around the world. It occupied fifteen acres, had a grandstand that housed 18,, and played to record crowds.
He was not just a showman; he was a visionary.
The Lives and Legends of Buffalo Bill by Don Russell
Cody had encountered the Lakota as enemies during the Indian Wars but shared their mutual respect. He treated his former foes with dignity, giving them an opportunity to both represent and preserve their culture in his show. He advocated for their rights, arranged for them to have audiences with American presidents, and defended their culture at a time when many were trying to destroy it.
While he supported the preservation of places like Yellowstone and the Grand Canyon, he also advocated settlement, particularly in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. There, he helped found the town of Cody, supported large-scale irrigation projects, and created resorts along the route to Yellowstone National Park.
Over the years they had four children: Kit who died of scarlet fever at age five , Orra, Arta, and Irma. Show business kept Cody on the road most of the year, which made it difficult to maintain a family life. Louisa ran the household while Bill ran around the country. But the constant travel and pressures of celebrity put a strain on their relationship, and he pressed for a divorce in The divorce was denied, and after several years of separation, the Codys reconciled and became close in their later years.
- Buffalo Bill Cody: The Cowboy Who Invented The 'Wild West'.
- Practical management of the side effects of psychotropic drugs?
- Primary Menu.
- Water, Wastewater, and Stormwater Infrastructure Management!
- Who Was Buffalo Bill?.
In Cody turned sixty-three. He had worked constantly since age eleven and was ready to retire. Cody announced his retirement from show business in and went on a two-year farewell tour. Moreover, some mines he had purchased in Arizona were also doing poorly. Chapter Titles: 1. Captured By Redskins; 2. Circling Death; 3. Between Hostile Tribes; 4.
Buffalo Bill - Wikipedia
The Savage Horde; 5. The Fatal Plunge; 6. Trapped; 7. The Unseen Killer; 8. Sentenced To Death; 9. The Death Trap; A Shot From Ambush; The Flaming Death; and Indians attack a party of white men and one of the survivors captures an Indian medicine arrow; one of the Indians tells outlaw Blade that he found gold but will trade the location only for that medicine arrow. Perils of The Plains; 2.
Thundering Hoofs; 3. Fires of Vengeance; 4. The Ghost Dancers; 5.
Trapped; 6. Human Wolves; 7. Demons of Disaster; 8. White Treachery; 9. Circle of Death; Flaming Arrow; Warpath; Firing Squad; Red Panthers; Custer's Last Ride; and Early in they joined with the Wyoming Board of Land Commissioners in urging the federal government to step in and help with irrigation in the valley. The Shoshone Project became one of the first federal water development projects undertaken by the newly formed Reclamation Service, later known as the Bureau of Reclamation.
After Reclamation took over the project in , investigating engineers recommended constructing a dam on the Shoshone River in the canyon west of Cody. Construction of the Shoshone Dam started in , a year after the Shoshone Project was authorized. When it was completed in , it was the tallest dam in the world. Almost three decades after its construction, the name of the dam and reservoir was changed to Buffalo Bill Dam by an act of Congress. Cody married Louisa Frederici on March 6th, , just a few days after his twentieth birthday.
Louis under his command during the Civil War. Cody's Autobiography barely mentioned the courtship to Frederici but declared, "I now adored her above any other young lady I had ever seen. Frederici stayed home with their four children in North Platte, while he stayed outside the home, hunting, scouting, and building up his acting career in the Wild West show. These concerns grew so great that in , Frederici showed up at his hotel room in Chicago unannounced and was led to "Mr. Cody's suite. Cody filed for divorce in , after 38 years of marriage.
By , Cody had instructed his brother-in-law to handle Frederici's affairs and property, stating "I often feel sorry for her. She is a strange woman but I don't mind her—remember she is my wife—and let it go at that. If she gets cranky, just laugh at it, she can't help it.
Filing for divorce was scandalous in the early 20th century , when marital unions were seen as binding for life. This furthered Cody's determination to get Frederici to agree to a "quiet legal separation," in order to avoid "war and publicity. His private life had not been open to the public before, and the application for divorce brought unwanted attention to the matter. Not only did townspeople feel the need to take sides in the divorce, but headlines rang out with information about Cody's alleged infidelities or Federici's excesses.
Cody's two main allegations against his wife were that she attempted to poison him on multiple occasions this allegation was later proved false and that she made living in North Platte "unbearable and intolerable" for Cody and his guests. Desertion was the main grounds for divorce, but in some jurisdictions, such as Kansas, divorce could be granted if a spouse was "intolerable. After Cody's announcement that he was suing for divorce, Frederici began to fight back. She claimed that she had never attempted to poison him and that she wished to remain married.
John Boyer, a housekeeper in the Cody home who was married to a man who worked for the Wild West show. She claimed that Frederici acted inhospitably towards Cody's guests and that, when Cody was not at the ranch, she would "feed the men too much and talk in a violent manner about Cody and his alleged sweethearts Cody's change of mind was not due to any improvement in his relationship with Frederici but rather was due to the death of their daughter, Arta Louise, in from "organic trouble.
Frederici was furious and refused any temporary reconciliation. When the trial proceeded a year later, in , both their tempers were still hot. The final ruling was that "incompatibility was not grounds for divorce," so that the couple was to stay legally married.
Cody returned to Paris to continue with the Wild West show and attempted to maintain a hospitable, but distant, relationship with his wife. Cody died on January 10, The governor of Wyoming, John B. Kendrick , a friend of Cody's, led the funeral procession to the cemetery. He left his burial arrangements to his wife. She said that he had always said he wanted to be buried on Lookout Mountain, which was corroborated by their daughter Irma, Cody's sisters, and family friends. But other family members joined the people of Cody in saying that he should be buried in the town he founded.
His burial site was selected by his sister Mary Decker. As a frontier scout, Cody respected Native Americans and supported their civil rights. He employed many Native Americans, as he thought his show offered them good pay with a chance to improve their lives. He described them as "the former foe, present friend, the American" and once said that "every Indian outbreak that I have ever known has resulted from broken promises and broken treaties by the government.
Cody supported the rights of women. Let them do any kind of work they see fit, and if they do it as well as men, give them the same pay. In his shows, the Indians were usually depicted attacking stagecoaches and wagon trains and were driven off by cowboys and soldiers. Many family members traveled with the men, and Cody encouraged the wives and children of his Native American performers to set up camp—as they would in their homelands—as part of the show.
He wanted the paying public to see the human side of the "fierce warriors" and see that they had families like any others and had their own distinct cultures. Cody was known as a conservationist who spoke out against hide-hunting and advocated the establishment of a hunting season. Cody was active in the concordant bodies of Freemasonry , the fraternal organization, having been initiated in Platte Valley Lodge No. He received his second and third degrees on April 2, , and January 10, , respectively.
He became a Knight Templar in and received his 32nd degree in the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in Buffalo Bill has been portrayed in many literary, musical, and theatrical works, movies, and television shows, especially during the s and s, when Westerns were most popular. Some examples are listed below. Movies about Cody inspired a youth subculture in the Belgian Congo in the s, with young men and women dressing like him and forming neighborhood gangs.
First Man Up The Trail
After Congolese independence some of the "Bills" went on to careers in the music industry. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Buffalo Bill disambiguation and Buffalo Bills disambiguation. For other uses, see Bill Cody disambiguation. Le Claire , Iowa Territory , U. Denver , Colorado, U.
Louisa Frederici m. American Civil War portal Biography portal. The William F. Cody Archive. Retrieved June 19, Cody by the Sioux Nation. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved March 3, The Lives and Legends of Buffalo Bill. Archived from the original on February 25, Retrieved February 19, The Life of Hon. William F. A Public Domain Book. Homewood Press. Retrieved May 14, The Adventures of Buffalo Bill Cody. World Digital Library. Retrieved June 1, April 1, True West.
Retrieved April 11, Hope Cemetery. Cody An Autobiography of Buffalo Bill. Chapters IX and XI. New Perspectives on the West. Retrieved January 23, Stackpole Books. University of Nebraska Press. Western Yesterdays , vol. Paddock Publishing. Fitzpatrick, a lifelong friend of Cody's, met him when he was hired to shoot buffalo to feed the work crew building the Kansas Pacific Railroad. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Chicago Tribune.
Berkeley [u. Retrieved August 26, Random House. Performing the American Frontier, — Cambridge University Press. The Blackfoot optimist. Blackfoot, Idaho. Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved September 4,