Special thanks are also extended to Nishal Sankat for his online research contributions. These incidents gener- ally originate from two major sources, namely, unsafe behaviors and actions and unsafe conditions. Why do organizations fail to learn from prior incidents internal to the business?
Process Safety Management
Why do organizations fail to learn from their peers and other same- industry players? Why do organizations fail to learn from the incidents and experi- ences of other industries? The answers to these questions provide opportunities to generate tremen- dous improvements to business performance and to create a learning culture within organizations.
In this book, the authors draw upon field experience and knowledge to intro- duce a new and growing area of opportunity for organizations to improve upon health and safety performance, and overall business performance. The introduction of Networks and Communities of Practice for generating and disseminating knowledge within the organization is a proactive way to pre- vent incidents from occurring within the organization, while at the same time generating superior business performance. These Networks add value in the continual improvement of business performance in the following ways: 1.
Learning from incidents that occur within the organization, and devel- oping practical and financially viable solutions to prevent a repeat of the same or similar incident within your organization. Learning from incidents that occur in organizations within the same industry, and applying practical and financially viable solutions to prevent the same or similar incidents from occurring within your organization.
Learning from incidents that occur in other industries that can likely occur in your business or organization, and applying practical and financially viable solutions to prevent the same or similar incident from occurring within your organization. From existing operations, finding new ways and means to improve the reliability, operability, and performance of existing assets, technolo- gies, and processes. Networks, though relatively new to many organizations, have been in exis- tence for decades. However, they exist as informal, unstructured, and under- utilized processes known and used by few people within the organization.
Furthermore, the full range of Network opportunities has not been lever- aged within organizations, and this brilliant learning and value maximizing opportunity continues to be missed by many organizations and industries. How Do We Define Networks?
Communities of Practice – Scaled Agile Framework
Since the earliest of times, informal Networks have existed as a means of generating improvements and social well-being. It is difficult to imagine the life of early human beings on this planet without Networking i. Moreover, informal Networks have existed in the workplace as a means of achieving business objectives. Today, Networking is an absolute requirement in our highly competitive environment. We all maintain our own informal Networks with which we work every day.
For example, if we are planning to buy a car or any other major expense item we will connect with someone whom we trust and from whose advice we have benefited from in the past.
Services on Demand
Also, members of the Network may be more knowledgeable subject matter expert regarding that product or service. Organizational Networks are intended to do just that. Formal Networks in businesses are in the early stages of development within organizations. Where created, organizations have assessed the poten- tial value creation from such units for improving processes and business practices to generate efficiencies, productivity, and overall performance.
Among its people- related arsenal of tools were teamwork, committees, rapid response teams, and management Networks. History has also shown over time that Networks do work regardless of whether they are formal or informal. Organizations that have reached the world-class status have leveraged the concepts and attributes of formal Networks. Successful Networks were characterized by leadership commit- ment, operational discipline, clearly defined goals, and supporting resources.
To enable successful Networks, they must be established with the right Network members, adequate Network structure, stewardship of Network activities, and conduits and tools for sharing of lessons with users through- out the organization. The subsequent chapters in this book delve into the way Networks are created and provide the reader with a better understanding of how Networks are created and stewarded.
The focus of this work is on formal Networks and it draws upon more than years of collective experience of the authors. Reference Lutchman,C. As a result, millions of people became employed and enjoyed a higher standard of living over the years, and companies also increased their profits. As indus- tries increased the production of goods and services for consumers using hazardous materials, there was also an increase in the number of accidents, deaths, and injuries at the workplace.
Although industrialization has its benefits, every year millions of dollars are spent to compensate workers for injuries sustained on the job. Many of the injuries reported are a result of process safety issues. These may be unex- pected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases, which are highly hazardous chemicals that affect the conditions for safe and healthy workplaces.
Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals that may be toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive, or may exhibit a combination of these properties Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA], Today, the importance of safety and PSM is recognized by most organiza- tions. Organizations respond with Safety Management Systems and Process Safety Management Systems as society continues to demand higher levels of safety performance.
These discussions will better enable us to understand the requirements for successful execution of PSM within organizations and how its benefits can be improved by best practices in the specific industries. Process Safety Management PSM A process hazard is a major uncontrolled emission, fire, or explosion involv- ing one or more highly hazardous chemicals that presents serious danger to Table 1. PSM is the application of Management Systems to the identification, understanding, and control of process hazards to pre- vent process-related injuries and incidents. PSM is a complete system approach for effective control of process haz- ards in every function of an organization.
PSM is not limited to the pro- cess industries. It is fair to say the principles of PSM span across industries involved in research, development, and communication and information management technology. Perhaps not all of the PSM elements apply to these industries, but the requirements for hazard management continue to be the same. Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals have been reported for many years in various industries that use chemicals with such properties.
Regardless of the industry that uses these highly hazardous chemicals, there is potential for an accidental release any time the chemicals are not prop- erly controlled, creating the possibility of disaster OSHA, The principal concerns of PSM are as follows: 1. Process hazards—Concerns such as fires, explosions, toxic gases, and unintended releases, and how they affect the workers in their use, storage, and disposal. Safety—Concerns how the company uses or implements safety reg- ulations and any program to reduce incidents and injuries in the production process.
Management—Concerns all people who have some measure of con- trol over the process, such as employee participation, operating pro- cedure, and management of change. Many companies develop their own structure to this holistic system that best suits their safety requirements, but in general, a PSM system can contain 14 parts or elements. They highlighted that this model was successfully applied for generating sustained high business performance at Centrica, an integrated energy company formed from the demerger of British Gas in When major incidents are investigated, root cause analysis almost always points to a PSM failure or multiple PSM elements being compromised.
In the Texas City incident, Turney advised, despite the fact that policies and comprehensive corporate procedures existed and there was a low per- sonal accident rate, there was still a failure to address serious process safety issues that led to the tragic incident. One key element to PSM stability and functionality is a strong commitment from leadership and management, up to and including the board of directors being aware of and willing to act on safety concerns of the organization.
In order to address these issues, it is important that bold and courageous leadership prevails in the organization. Leaders must be prepared to forego short-term earnings to protect life, the environment, and assets. To do so they must have a good understanding of the principles in PSM, maintain effective and open lines of communication with all levels of the organiza- tion, and conduct continuous audits and assessment reviews predicated on the same principles of the plan—do—check—act quality improvement circle.
From Patel, J. From McBride, M. With permission. The author also distinguishes performance-based standards, which are currently adopted in Canada and focus on what must be done, rather than on how it should be done. Performance-based standards are predominantly consultative, whereas results-based standards are traditionally more prescrip- tive standards as is experienced in the United States and Europe, which sets out details of the process and may or may not achieve the desired results.
According to Osborne and Zairi , an SMS is composed of standards, procedures, and monitoring arrangements that aim to promote the health and safety of people at work. It establishes a comprehensive management program that inte- grates technologies, procedures, and management practices OSHA, It is imperative that manufacturers involved in processes using chemicals, toxicgases,fluids, and other hazardouselements adhereto OSHArequirements in order to save lives, and keep their businesses compliant and in operation.
According to a March news release from the U. It will benefit workers by reducing confusion about chemical hazards in the workplace and facilitating safety training and improving understanding of hazards, especially for low literacy workers. The GHS is also expected to prevent injuries and illnesses, save lives, and improve trade conditions for chemical manufacturers. The revised standard also is expected to prevent an estimated injuries and illnesses annually.
Department of Labor, They are expected to put labels on containers and prepare safety sheets. Also, the modified standards set criteria for classifying chem- icals according to their health and physical hazards. OSHA also requires a process hazard analysis of which the employer shall perform an initial process hazard analysis hazard evaluation on processes covered by this standard.
The process hazard analysis shall be appropriate to the complexity of the process and shall identify, evaluate, and control the hazards involved in the process. Employers shall determine and document the priority order for con- ducting process hazard analyses based on a rationale, which includes such considerations as the extent of the process hazards, number of potentially affected employees, age of the process, and operating history of the process. Since all accidents result from human error and errors by creating deficien- cies in the design, the OSHA standard attempts to address the human factors in training and operating procedures.
By the end of , many employers around the world will be readily informed and be subjected to the penalties under OSHA. Responsible Care is a world-leading voluntary industry initiative. Every national Responsible Care program has eight fundamental features as outlined by Macza : 1. A formal commitment by each company to a set of guiding prin- ciples—signed, in most cases, by the chief executive officer. A series of codes, guidance notes, and checklists to help companies fulfill their commitment. The development of indicators against which improvements in per- formance can be measured.
Open communication on health, safety, and environmental matters with interested parties, both inside and outside the industry. Opportunities for companies to share views and exchange experi- ences on implementing Responsible Care. Consideration of how best to encourage all member companies to commit themselves to, and participate in, Responsible Care.
A title and logo that clearly identify national programs as being con- sistent with, and part of, the Responsible Care concept. Procedures for verifying that member companies have implemented the measurable or practical elements of Responsible Care. Responsible Care can be used to bring a strong focus on SMS, particularly through planning, auditing, and reviewing alongside good performance reporting. This should assure company boards that the right things are actu- ally being done at the plant in the right way.
Below board level, high-quality training programs and staff involvement in hazard studies and process risk assessments will raise awareness of and control over the major hazards that employees are very close to every day of their working lives. The Responsible Care program also encourages engagement with other industry stakeholders and in particular seeking opportunities for coopera- tion with regulators.
Responsible Care needs to continue to lead the way into the future to promote the role of leadership within chemical businesses and, in particular, the importance of a positive safety culture, shared knowl- edge, and learning from cross-sector experiences Chemical Industries Association, Although PSM is not at present a regulatory requirement in Canada, many organizations have voluntarily proceeded along the route of developing and executing PSM standards across their businesses. For these organizations, the message of good safety means great business appears to have infiltrated the organization with positive consequences.
Process design 2. Process technology 3. Operational and maintenance activities and procedures 5. Nonroutine activities and procedures 6. Emergency preparedness plans and procedures 7. Training programs 8. Employee Participation 2. Operating Procedures 5. Training 6. Contractor Safety 7. Mechanical Integrity 9. Hot Work Program Management of Change MOC Incident Investigation Emergency Planning and Response Compliance Audits Trade Secrets OSHA further advises that should small organizations address the following in their SMS, there is a greater chance that they will be compliant with regulatory requirements.
Hazards of the chemicals used in the processes b. Technology applied in the process c.
- Operations Excellence Management System (Oems): Getting It Right the First Time;
- How Communities Benefit from Tapping Local Quality Improvement Experts;
Equipment involved in the process d. Employee involvement 2. Operating Procedures 4. Employee Training and Competency 5. Contractor Safety Management 6. Mechanical Integrity of Equipment a. Process defenses b. Written procedures c. Inspection and testing d. Quality assurance 8. Nonroutine Work Authorizations 9. Management of Change MOC a. MOC—Engineered and nonengineered changes b. MOC—People Emergency Preparedness Planning and Management Compliance Audits a.
Planning b. Staffing c. Conducting the audit d. Evaluation and corrective actions Although OSHA does not differentiate into the categories defined in this section, it is easy to allocate PSM elements defined by OSHA into people, processes and systems, and facilities and technology.
PSM: People Requirements Fulfilling regulatory requirements keeps organizations compliant with the law. However, most organizations seek to exceed regulatory requirements in a genuine quest for optimizing the health and safety of workers with its SMS. When developing the SMS it is best to ensure that at the very least, regula- tory requirements are met.
Several elements of PSM are focused on person- nel management strategies for ensuring the health and safety of all workers. Employee training and competency 2. Contractor Safety Management 3. Incident investigations 4. Management of change personnel 5. Essentially, workers must be competent to do the work they are expected to safely perform and be able to protect themselves, coworkers, and communities from unintended releases from the process systems.
Training programs must identify roles that are to be trained, training goals and objectives, and pre-established competency assessment requirements. Success in training is achieved when workers are engaged and the process is interactive. Compliance in training and competency requires organizations to evaluate the training programs on some frequency to deter- mine if the training objectives are being met. Where failure rates are high, the training program must be reassessed and training repeated to ensure adequate knowledge transfer to workers.
The training program must be continuous and must be updated when changes to the process or operating systems have been made. Personnel must also be retrained when changes are made so that they can be compe- tent in their work, inclusive of responses to the new operating requirements. Training and competency is perhaps one of the best investments organiza- tions will make in its SMS. A trained and competent worker means there is a reduced likelihood for errors and mistakes and therefore a safer operating system. Furthermore, a trained and competent worker is a more motivated worker who will generally excel in workplace performance.
Ultimately, training and competency creates a win—win situation for the organization regarding compliance and safety performance management. Contractor Safety Management Where contractors are used in hazardous processes, they must be equally trained and competent as workers to ensure that they can protect the health and safety of themselves and other workers while performing assigned work.
An effective contractor prequalification, screening, and verification process is required such that contractors with verified strong safety perfor- mance are used to perform work for the organization. Contractors must be similarly trained and competent as employees when performing hazardous work. Their training and competency records must be accessible and verified by organizations. Organizations are responsible for prequalifying potential contractors before selecting them and require timely corrective actions on Contractor Safety per- formance on an ongoing basis once selected.
Incident Investigations Incident investigation seeks to identify root causes of incidents or near misses such that preventative measures can be established to prevent recurrence. OSHA recommends the development of in-house capabilities for incident investigations by maintaining a multi- disciplinary team of trained and competent incident investigators, such that timely incident investigations can be done. Investigations should be consultative and reports generated from investigations should be made available for Shared Learning.
Investigations should also be focused on fact finding as opposed to blame determination. A multidisciplinary team must be assembled with subject matter expertise comprised of rel- evant site personnel and nonsite personnel, including contractors if involved. Management of Change Personnel Management of change personnel MOCP considerations for personnel is generally an area overlooked by organizations that is often left to the human resources department to steward. MOCP is an important component of PSM since the availability of trained and competent personnel is required at all times for safe process operations.
Short-term solu- tions such as overtime are not sustainable and effective succession planning is essential to provide a workable solution for critical roles. Work groups in process facilities must at all times maintain a minimum level of collective experience and knowledge for the safe and continuous operations and maintenance of the facility. Emergency Preparedness, Planning, and Management Emergency preparedness, planning, and management is essential in PSM since unplanned events will at some time occur with the release of energy, process fluids, and hazards from process systems. Organizations must be ready for such events to minimize the impacts.
According to OSHA , emergency response is the third line of defense activated when both the sec- ond line control the release of chemical and first line operate and maintain the process and contain the chemicals have failed. Emergency management planning requires that all workers know what to do and how to respond in the event of an emergency, and they must be so trained.
Signals that a community has reached this stage include a steady decline in event participation and reduced activity on collaboration sites and input from community retrospectives. When a CoP is retired, leaders should make it a positive event where community successes are celebrated, key contributors are recognized, and ongoing participation in other CoPs is encouraged. Through these celebrations, CoP experiences often become part of company lore, and it is not uncommon for a healthy CoP retirement to spawn three to five new communities.
The Innovation and Planning IP Iteration presents a great opportunity for CoPs to hold learning sessions, formal or informal, as well as other activities such as coding dojos, coaching clinics, and the like. CoPs embrace the ideals of respect for people, innovation, flow, and relentless improvement described in the House of Lean. By fostering CoP formation, Lean-Agile Leaders show support by continuously communicating the value of CoPs, highlighting success stories and recognizing the efforts of community volunteers.
Leaders can also support CoPs by providing meeting spaces, logistical support, and funding for meetups, tooling, and communications infrastructure. Find it here! What's new in SAFe 4. DevOps and Release on Demand. Business Solutions and Lean Systems Engineering. Lean Portfolio Management. Details According to Wenger  CoPs must have three distinct traits to be considered a community of practice, as shown in Figure 1: Domain — An area of shared interest Practice — A shared body of knowledge, experiences, and techniques Community — A self-selected group of individuals who care enough about the topic to participate in regular interactions Figure 1.
Communities of Practice have three distinct traits Lean-Agile principles and practice promote cross-functional teams and programs that facilitate value delivery in the Enterprise. Figure 2. Role-based Communities of Practice For example, Scrum Masters from different Agile teams may form a CoP to exchange practices and experiences in building highly productive Agile teams. Figure 3. Organizing a Community of Practice CoPs are highly organic, and like most living organisms they have a natural life cycle, beginning with an idea for a new community and ending when the community members feel the group has achieved its objectives or is no longer providing value.
Figure 4. CoPs typically follow a five-stage life cycle, from conceptualization to closure 3 CoPs are formed in the committing stage by a small, core group of practitioners who share a common passion and need for a particular domain. Figure 5. CoP members exhibit multiple levels of participation and can move freely across the levels as needs and interests evolve. Each level is described next: Core team — The core team forms the heart of the community that will organize, charter, market, nurture, and operate the community.
Active — These members work closely with the core team to help shape the definition and direction of the CoP. Occasional — These members participate when specific topics of interest are addressed or when they have something to contribute to the group. They are often the largest group in the community.
Peripheral — These members feel a connection to the community but engage on a limited basis.
- Process Safety Management.
- 2.D. Professional Publications.
- 5 Key Benefits of Organizational Development.
These could be newcomers or those who have a more casual interest in community activities. Transactional — These members are the least connected to the community and may connect only to access CoP resources or to provide a specific service to the CoP for example, website support. Operating a Community of Practice Since CoPs are informal and self-managing by nature, community members are empowered to design the types of interactions and determine the frequency that best meets their needs.
Core team members focus on maintaining the health of the community by: Keeping things simple and informal Fostering trust Ensuring the rapid flow of communication and shared awareness Increasing the shared body of knowledge developed in the CoP Eventually, individual CoPs will run their course, and community members should consider retiring the CoP, allowing practitioners to commit their energies to other communities.
Fostering Engagement in Communities of Practice The Innovation and Planning IP Iteration presents a great opportunity for CoPs to hold learning sessions, formal or informal, as well as other activities such as coding dojos, coaching clinics, and the like. Learn More  Wenger, Etienne. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge University Press, Riverhead Books, Community of Practice Start-Up Kit, Neither images nor text can be copied from this site without the express written permission of the copyright holder.