Manual The Sacred and Secular Canon in Romanticism: Preserving the Sacred Truths

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Throughout her twenties Rossetti continued to write poetry and prose. In early Rossetti began volunteering at the St. When she was on duty she resided at the penitentiary, probably for a fortnight at a time. Mary Magdalene Penitentiary. In June of that year Rossetti took a short vacation in France. Comparisons of the manuscript and printed versions of the poems show that most were not substantially revised.

Usually the earliest extant version of a given poem is the fair copy transcribed into the notebook; if Rossetti reworked it in the act of composition, such drafts no longer exist. In poetics, my elder brother was my acute and most helpful critic. Afterward she wastes away, pining for more fruit.


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The goblins refuse to allow Lizzie to purchase fruit to save her sister, try to persuade her to eat with them, then attempt to force the fruit into her mouth. The suggestiveness of the narrative runs in many directions, and this multivalency is perhaps the most striking quality of the poem. It can be read as a straightforward moral allegory of temptation, indulgence, sacrifice, and redemption.

Psychoanalytic interpretations have regarded the sisters as two aspects of one psyche and have emphasized the sexuality of the poem, noting both its orality and its lesbian dynamics. Throughout the volume Rossetti presents a bleak appraisal of gender relations. The flimsiness and inconstancy of romantic love is a recurring theme, as is the treachery of sister against sister in a ruthlessly competitive marriage market. In later years she acknowledged in a 20 May letter to W.

The Prince procrastinates at great length before setting out to claim his waiting bride. He does not, however, remain true to his purpose, and on his journey he is sidetracked and delayed first by a milkmaid, then by an alchemist, and finally by a circle of ministering females who save him from drowning.

Mother and daughter suffer the lifelong consequences of illegitimacy, while the seducer father is absent from the poem and, presumably, free of social stigma. The poem shows the injustice of conventional morality in a patriarchal society and offers the equality of the grave as the only solution. Implicitly contrasted with the fleeting quality of this life is the permanence of God and the heavenly reward. A hesitant romance probably began to develop between Rossetti and the awkward, absentminded scholar around She declined to have a large packet of her letters to him returned to her, asking that they be destroyed.

For this volume Rossetti was persuaded by Dante Gabriel to defect from Macmillan to his publisher, F. From to Rossetti was dangerously ill, at times apparently near death, with a condition characterized by fever, exhaustion, heart palpitations, stifling sensations, occasional loss of consciousness, violent headaches, palsied hands, and swelling in the neck that made swallowing difficult.

Her hair fell out, her skin became discolored, her eyes began to protrude, and her voice changed. Although Rossetti recovered, the threat of a relapse always remained. Moreover, the crisis left her appearance permanently altered and her heart weakened. Some of the poems are primarily edifying, promoting, for instance, patience or good manners; others are memory aids for learning about numbers, time, money, months, and colors.

Most of the poems are evocative of the security of an ideal childhood, but others modulate into more-serious subject matter in simple and moving explorations of death and loss. Some critics have questioned the appropriateness of these darker themes for the intended audience. Dante Gabriel had been prone to insomnia for some time and had become dependent on alcohol and chloral in his attempts to sleep. Thomas Gordon Hake, in whose home he took a large dose of laudanum in an unsuccessful suicide attempt. Cared for by friends, Dante Gabriel made a partial recovery, though he continued his use of alcohol and chloral.

In these devotional writings readers can find explicit statements of themes treated in the poetry of previous decades, and in many instances Rossetti discusses natural and biblical images, virtually glossing favorite poetic symbols. The texts are arranged in the order of their appearance in the Bible, and prayers throughout are intensely Christ-centered; even Old Testament passages prompt an address to Christ. The book consists of three tales framed by the dialogue among a storytelling aunt and her nieces.

Many readers have noted the sexual implications of the monstrous children in the first tale—boys bristling with hooks, quills, and angles; girls exuding sticky and slimy fluids—and that the predatory games they play amount to a figurative rape. The final tale, in which danger and temptation are overcome, rounds out the volume with a happy ending.

The fire has died out, it seems; and I know of no bellows potent to revive dead coals. I wish I did. The tensions between the sisters, between aspiration and opportunity, and between ambition and resignation are highly charged and never fully resolved. She remained until the very last before leaving the building, and it was evident from her demeanour that even then she strove to avoid ordinary conversation, evidently feeling that it would disturb her mood of mind.

She also dreaded receiving unsolicited poems from aspiring writers, because she was torn between kindness and honesty regarding the merit of the work. Though increasingly reclusive, however, Rossetti was more politically outspoken in these later years. Critical of slavery, imperialism, and military aggression, she was most passionately committed to the antivivisection movement, at one point breaking with the S. She also petitioned for legislation to protect children from prostitution and sexual exploitation by raising the age of consent.

As her poetic creativity decreased, Rossetti cultivated a modest scholarly impulse. In she considered undertaking literary biographies of Adelaide Proctor and Elizabeth Barrett Browning; and she took a commission and began to research a life of Ann Radcliffe, but a lack of materials prevented her from completing it. By reiteration and accretion the passing months, the progression of seasons, and blooming and fading flowers become poignant and nostalgic symbols of the process of aging. The final poems of the non-devotional section return to the seasonal, vegetative cycle. The most often quoted passages are those in which Rossetti describes her experiences of nature and elaborates on the moral and symbolic meaning suggested by them.

While some passages engage in traditional exegesis, others are more personally contemplative and address issues of spiritual and moral duty. Published in by the S. In Rossetti was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a mastectomy that was performed in her own home. The cancer recurred the following year, and after months of acute suffering she died on 29 December After her death many articles appeared with personal reminiscences, expressing admiration of her saintliness and assessing her poetry and prose.

Her lyric gift has never been doubted, but the unassuming tone and flawless finish of these compositions has sometimes led critics to suggest that their lyric purity is achieved at the expense of intellectual depth and aesthetic complexity. For several decades after her death Rossetti criticism tended to be narrowly biographical, her mournful lyrics and fantastic allegories being used to construct narratives of agonizing conflict between secular and sacred impulses, renounced love, and repressed passion. Christina Rossetti has often been called the greatest Victorian woman poet, but her poetry is increasingly being recognized as among the most beautiful and innovative of the period by either sex.

Holograph poems are scattered among various public and private collections, also listed by Crump. Antony H. Harrison notes in his edition of The Letters of Christina Rossetti that more than 2, autograph letters are dispersed in more than one hundred public and private collections. Prose Home Harriet Blog.

Visit Home Events Exhibitions Library. Newsletter Subscribe Give. Poetry Foundation. Religious commodities are often enjoyed in groups, and this is leveraged in order to receive not just religious customers, but highly committed members. Cognitive Consistency : As influentially stated by Leon Festinger , humans are theorized to have a natural need to form coherent mental models of the world, and thus they will exert effort to resolve any contradiction between two beliefs, or between a belief and a behavior.

The theory of cognitive consistency predicts that people will join together to defend their beliefs against disconfirmation, perhaps resulting in religious innovation, like a new religious group or a reconciliation between religious ideas and potentially contradictory secular ideas. Cognitive Efficiency : This kind of theory postulates that the human mind naturally seeks simple models of reality, and that humans will tend to avoid extreme cognitive effort. This perspective is similar to, but distinguishable from, cognitive consistency theories. Cognitive Evolution : The biological evolution of the human brain, which offers hypotheses about the nature of religion and variations across history and across subgroups in the population with respect to religious beliefs and practices Watts and Turner Most obviously, if evidence shows that religion has on balance been beneficial for humanity, it can be said to have evolved over time through natural selection from the varieties of ideas and activities oriented toward the supernatural that naturally spring up.

However, that simple idea leaves open whether the evolution was primarily biological or cultural, and it does not immediately suggest what kinds of research could clarify the mechanisms involved and establish the degree of truth to the theory. Because of this, cognitive evolution theory, as it applies to religion , is widely debated. Cognitive Theories : Cognitive theories of religion seek to integrate the scientific study of the mind, intelligence and cognition into explanations of religious belief.

Several cognitive theories of religious phenomena include attribution of intentionality , cognitive consistency , cognitive efficiency , modes of memory and pragmatic epistemology. Communal Family : Churches where members often live together or share living activities, such as common meals, as an expression of their faith. The Hutterian Brethren is an example of a communal church Smith and Green Communes, Religious : Communities that share beliefs and possessions while striving internally for equality.

The Shakers were fairly successful in maintaining communes in the 18th and 19th century. Economist Ran Abramitzky has argued that communes come with risks, specifically, the possibility that more productive members may leave brain drain , the tendency to shirk moral hazard , and the potential for less productive members to join adverse selection. In order to counteract these issues, communes must enforce social sanctions; enhance commitment, loyalty, and cooperation; and create lock-in devices Abramitzky Communion : 1 The Christian commemoration of Christ's last supper by partaking of the elements of bread and wine or grape juice.

The various churches and denominations are divided on whether these elements actually become Christ's body and blood or symbolize them see Transubstantiation. Communion also is known as the Eucharist in some Christian traditions. Historically and in modern times, spiritual practices may function as CAM treatments, as prayer remains the most common practice used for healing P.

Barnes et al. Confession : A sacrament in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches in which a penitent confesses his or her sins to a priest and is absolved of them. In Roman Catholicism, confession is only one part of the entire sacrament of penance Smith and Green Confirmation : This ceremony marks the reception of young Christians usually in their early teen years into full participation in the life of the church. Confirmation is most often celebrated in the Roman Catholic , Episcopal , Lutheran , Methodist and Presbyterian denominations Smith and Green Confucianism : A Chinese religion founded by Confucius BCE , whose goal was to foster social harmony through a combination of self-cultivation and social rites.

Chinese Immigrants brought Confucianism to the United States in the 19th century Prothero Confucius BCE : A Chinese philosopher who taught concepts of righteousness and of "being fully human. His name actually was Master K'ung, but Catholic missionaries later referred to him as Confucius, a Latinized version of his name Esposito et al.

Congregation : Any local gathering of believers for worship. This can be thought of as a more inclusive term for church , since many religious traditions use different names for their place of worship. Usually this refers to a building or physical structure, but it also could refer to a more fluid group of people without a specific building e. Congregationalism : A system of church governance in which the members hold most of the power, such as electing the clergy and making other major decisions.

Conservative Judaism : An offshoot of Reform Judaism in America that officially began in the early 20th century, but traces its early thought pattern to European Jews in the midth century. The founders desired to reaffirm the validity of the Jewish past while still emphasizing the need for Jews to modernize. The movement claims to be an authentic continuation of rabbinical Judaism while still maintaining a sense of relevance in modern times Smith and Green Conservative Protestantism : A broad social category of Protestantism that advocates a conservative theological position e.

Conservative Protestants are often subdivided into Evangelical Protestants and Fundamentalists , who differ in terms of their engagement with the secular non-Christian world. Control Theory : Control theory, as originally formulated by Travis Hirschi , posited that group member behavior is regulated by four aspects of social bondedness: attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. In the sociology of religion, Rodney Stark Hirschi and Stark ; Stark et al extended this theory in subsequent studies of the relationship between religion and delinquency.

The "Stark Effect," that the power of religion to deter delinquency depends upon the proportion of the community that is religious, was an outcome of this extension. Conversion : A turning away from one way of life to another. In Christianity , it is a turning away from sin and toward a new life of Christ. Most churches agree on the need for conversion, but its relationship with salvation is debated between religious groups Reid et al.

Some sociologists of religion define conversion as the shift in religious allegiance from one religious tradition to another, from Judaism to Christianity, for example. These scholars would define the shift from the Baptist to the Catholic tradition as a process of reaffiliation , not conversion Stark and Finke Conversion Experience, Measure of : This survey item asks whether a respondent identifies with undergoing a religious conversion experience of some kind.

Examples of this measure are found in the Baylor Religion Survey and the U. Conversion Therapy : Conversion therapy is the controversial practice of converting homosexuals into heterosexuals Hood, Hill and Spika Many conservative religionists believe that conversion therapy is effective Haldeman However, research on its effectiveness has been scant apart from anecdotal statements. Shidlo and Schroeder , using a rigorous selection process, interviewed recipients of conversion methods by therapists.

Two-thirds of the clients were religious. Eighty-seven percent of respondents viewed the therapy as a failure. Coping Theory : The way in which individuals use religion to cope with difficult situations and make sense of events in their lives Pargament Originating in psychological studies of religion, research and theory indicate that religious coping is more likely to occur in situations perceived as uncontrollable. Cost-Benefit Analysis Religion : The tendency of humans to weigh the benefits of certain actions against their costs in the contexts of religion.

This is a key component of rational choice framework in the economics of religion. Although he garnered millions of listeners, the U. For more information on Charles Coughlin, click here. Counseling, Religious : A type of counseling that incorporates religious teachings to serve mental health needs. Many clients are already religious, although counselors may reach out to those nominally religious, homeless or poor.

Depending on the particular faith group, counseling may incorporate prayer , meditation or scripture reading. Some forms of religious counseling may be completely faith-based, while others may incorporate secular therapeutic practices Koenig, King and Carson Creationism : The belief that the creation account of Genesis, the first book of the Bible, is historically and scientifically correct.

Art and Religion

This has led to some confrontation with proponents of Darwinian evolution, most notable in the infamous Scopes Trial of in Dayton, Tennessee. More recently, former creationists have advocated Intelligent Design instead of creationism to counter evolutionary claims Prothero Creed : A confession or adherence to selected essentials of religious faith. Creeds are especially prominent in liturgical traditions. Some groups, like those in the Restoration Movement , state that there is "no creed, but Christ.

Cross : 1 A sign widely used in the history of religion to express the structure of the cosmos. Crucifix : A cross bearing the figure of Christ. It is often used to represent the suffering of Christ. It became an important image for devotional purposes in the Middle Ages, but was viewed as idolatry by many Protestant Reformers, which is why many Protestant churches prefer the symbol of a cross without Jesus on it Reid et al.

Crusades : Medieval military campaigns of the eleventh through fifteenth centuries waged by Christians to recapture Jerusalem from Muslims Prothero Cultural Theories of Religion : Theories of religion that examine how religious institutions, communities and symbols are embodied and connected to other aspects of society. Generally speaking, studies using cultural theories focus on how cultural boundaries and meanings are constructed by interpretive communities, as well as how the institutions and symbols of religion are used in both mediated communication and social interactions Hall, Neitz, and Battani Cyclical Theory : Asian religions, and some classical western philosophers, believed that history consisted of an endless series of cycles: the Wheel of Life, eternal return, or eternal recurrence.

More recently, sociologist Pitirim A. Sorokin proposed that each great civilization emerges out of a period of chaos with a set of empowering spiritual beliefs which eventually erode, leaving only materialist interests and leading again to chaos and conflict. It consists of either six or 16 items, depending on whether the researcher is using the long or short form. For example, is feeling peaceful the sign of spirituality or the result that comes from being spiritual?

When used to predict other mental health outcomes, findings become difficult to interpret and tautological i. Damnation : Condemnation to punishment in the afterlife for sins committed while alive. This is said to occur on judgment day , and the eternal abode for the damned is hell Smith and Green Day, Dorothy : Dorothy Day was a Catholic activist known for co-founding the Catholic Worker movement , leading anti-war and anti-nuclear proliferation movements, and promoting assistance to the poor.

For more information on Dorothy Day, click here. Deacon : A minister ranking below a priest in the Anglican , Catholic and Orthodox churches. In most Protestant churches, deacons are not ordained and are seen as people who assist the clergy Reid et al. Death, Religion and : Religion, death and the afterlife are strongly tied to each other for many individuals.

The religious scriptures of the main world religions support the belief in life after death and eternal rewards for adherents. It perhaps is little surprise that religiosity often is associated with less fear of personal death and less grief after the death of a loved one Koenig et al. A study of Presbyterian Church U. In a study by Brown and colleagues looking at widowed persons over the age of 65, they found that respondents who increased in religious importance tended to have lower grief scores over time.

Deconversion : The processes involved in leaving religious groups Hood, Hill and Spilka Most of the research on deconversion has focused on leaving strict new religious movements, but some have focused on mainstream religious groups see Streib et al. In general, only a small percentage of denominational members completely reject their denominational identity and never return again, but this certainly varies by religious group.

Deism : A rationalistic religion based on religion and nature instead of revelation. Deists believe in one God and in an afterlife of rewards and punishments, but they reject both miracles and prayers. This position spread under the Enlightenment period and influenced the founding fathers of the United States Prothero Deity : Typically, a supernatural being considered holy or sacred.

HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY

Teenage drinking and drug abuse may be viewed as delinquency. Among studies of the highest quality, 91 percent found an inverse relationship between religion and delinquency Koenig et al. Demand-Side Model of Religion : Demand-side models of religion emphasize that changes in religious demand impact religious participation or vitality in society Olson For example, religion may be in demand during times of greater stress or national trauma and perhaps in less demand over time due to secularization see Bruce This perspective is heavily challenged by supply-side theories of religion see Supply and Demand, Religious.

Demographic Transition Theory : According to this theory, fertility and mortality rates change in a predictable manner, when a society evolves from a traditional to a modern form. Initially, death rates are high, because of the primitive technology and economic poverty of a traditional society, so birth rates were also high to sustain a stable population. At the beginning of modernization, technological and economic progress reduces the death rate, but the birth rate remains high through social inertia, so there is a population explosion.

Eventually, the birth rate comes down as well, and the result is a stable population with low fertility and mortality rates. The immediate relevance to religion is two-fold, because low birth rates undercut some of the family related variables that encourage religious participation and because one of the few factors that could sustain fertility at the replacement level is religion. However, only fundamentalist religions may have sufficient fertility, and thus society ironically may become more religious, rather than less, through modernization.

This perspective has been used to explain the relative success of more conservative religious movements e. Demon : A superhuman being between humans and gods , which can have benevolent or malevolent intentions based on the religious tradition. In Christianity , they are considered evil. In Hinduism , demons belong to many castes and are sometimes hard to distinguish from gods Smith and Green Denomination : A larger religious organization or structure to which a congregation may be a member.

Congregations not belonging to a denomination are usually called "independent" or "non-denominational" Melton 3. Denomination, Measure of : This divides affiliation within Protestantism into differing religious organizations.


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This is a standard question available in a wide range of data sets, including the General Social Survey , Baylor Religion Survey and the U. It is suggested that a denominational continuum exists within each religious tradition e. Denominationalism : Denominationalism refers to the subdivision of a particular religion. A common example is Protestant Christianity in the United States, which is subdivided into multiple denominations e. Deuterocanonical Books : See Apocrypha.

Devotionalism : The frequency at which an individual performs religious rituals and comparable behaviors, notably prayer and Bible reading, often measured independently of group activities such as church attendance Roof Dharma : The proper course of conduct, norms and ultimate realities in the Buddhist religion. Dharma is central to Buddhist practice. The term also exists in Hinduism and Brahmanic thought as a set of ritual actions sanctioned by the priestly class Smith and Green Dialectical Imagination : A religious perspective emphasizing the individual and the withdrawal of God from the sinful world.

The dialectical imagination contrasts with the analogical imagination , which stresses the community and the expression of God through every aspect of creation. The differing concepts were developed by Andrew Greeley , who believed that Catholics tend to have analogical imagination while Protestants tend to have dialectical imagination.

Diaspora : The dispersion of a religious people outside their geographic homeland, where they must live as a minority among others Esposito et al. Differential Association : Edwin Sutherland postulated that criminal behavior was chiefly learned within intimate personal groups as mental associations between concepts and definitions of situations are learned in complex patterns of communication with others. Applied to the study of religious conversion, this theory suggests that the frequency, duration and intensity of definitions and information favorable to a given religion, if greater than unfavorable ones, may lead someone to convert.

Diocese : The wider regional structure connecting parishes and other local organizations that is overseen by a bishop Reid et al. Disaffiliation : The opposite of conversion , disaffiliation refers to the process of leaving a religious organization or disavowing one's former religious identity. Disciple : A pupil who is attached to a specific teacher or way of life Smith and Green In the Christian tradition, John the Baptist and Jesus had disciples.

The Origins of Romanticism

Peter is a famous disciple of Jesus. The term also has been used in the Buddhist tradition. For example, Ananda was a disciple and cousin of the Buddha. Dispensational Premillennialism : The belief held by some Christians that the current dispensation, or historical period, is near the end, and will conclude with the rapture of the believers into heaven. Jesus will come down from heaven to fight the Antichrist and establish a thousand-year reign of peace. This type of theology was made popular by the Scofield Reference Bible and the fictional Left Behind book series.

It is one of the most popular forms of prophecy belief in the United States Prothero Dispensationalism : A Christian theological view that divides history into several periods, or dispensations. God's plan for salvation differs according to the dispensation Smith and Green Divination : The determination of the hidden significance of things through a variety of techniques. Divination often is performed by specialists and is historically common in Chinese and Japanese religions Smith and Green Divinity : A term frequently used prior to the 20th century to refer to the study of theology or the "science of divine things.

Doctrine : An official teaching of a religious group. Religious bodies and officials often establish doctrine through written statements or councils. In a Christian context, the Trinity serves as an important doctrine. Dogma : Dogma is understood as a principle component of a religious ideology that is non-disputable. The Greek word is "dokeo," which means "appears. In a non-liturgical setting, it has a pejorative connotation. Dome of the Rock : A domed shrine in Jerusalem that houses the rock upon which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into the Seven Heavens during his night journey.

Dominionism : The belief that Christians should hold positions of power in society and government based on biblical law. Dominionism has close ties to Christian nationalism , which suggests that it is important to reunite church and state in the United States because the Founding Fathers believed in a Christian nation. Easter : A Christian holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ three days after his crucifixion.

It is known as "Pascha" by Orthodox Christians Prothero The Catholic and Orthodox churches were originally united, but they parted in the eleventh century, when they differed over several points of doctrine, including the supreme authority of the pope, which Orthodox Christians reject Melton Since the 20th century, the Catholic and Orthodox churches have made greater efforts toward reconciliation.

Ecclesiastic : A broad term for anyone who specializes in religion. Economic Theories of Religion : The understanding of religious phenomenon through economic theory and principles. Ecumenism : A movement supporting closer relations and unity between Christians. Often this means denominational dialogues and even mergers Reid et al. Eddy, Mary Baker : Mary Baker Eddy founded the Christian Science movement , a religious body that believes illness is an illusion.

She helped establish a church of , members and founded the Christian Science Monitor , which still exists today. For more on Mary Baker Eddy, click here. Edwards, Jonathan : Jonathan Edwards is the most influential theologian in American religious history and helped start the First Great Awakening. He was a Congregational preacher with a calm preaching style, though he is ironically known for his passionate sermon entitled "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God".

For more information on Jonathan Edwards, click here. Egyptian Book of the Dead : A collection of more than prayers , spells, and illustrations to ensure a peaceful afterlife for the dead. Eightfold Path : As a culmination of the Four Noble Truths in Buddhism , it charts the course from suffering to nirvana.

HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY

It is further divided into three parts: wisdom right view and right intention , morality right speech, right conduct, and right livelihood , and concentration right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. It also is known as the "middle way" Prothero Elder : In various churches , especially the Presbyterian-Reformed tradition, the elders are laypeople who share authority and leadership with the clergy Smith and Green For more information on Ralph Waldo Emerson, click here.

Encyclical : A statement or document on an important issue written by the pope or bishops to fellow Catholics. These statements often pertain to controversial social issues, like poverty Rerum Novarum , , human rights Pacem in Terris, , contraception Humanae Vitae , , as well as abortion, birth control, euthanasia, and capital punishment Evangelium Vitae, Prothero End-Times : The belief that the world is coming to an end and God's kingdom will be established. See Apocalypse. Enlightenment : The experience of knowing the cause of suffering in the Buddhist tradition. Eschatology : A broad theology concerning the End-Times , and processes of salvation.

The term was first used in the nineteenth century with the advent of critical biblical studies. Topics in eschatology include Armageddon , millennialism, the Second Coming , and the Messiah Smith and Green Eucharist : The Christian ritual that focuses on the life, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The term has existed since the second century CE and comes from a thanksgiving prayer that acts as an important element of the rite. European Free Church Family : Churches that left established and state churches in Europe over the belief that congregational activity and membership should be voluntary and free of state control.

Examples of these churches include the Society of Friends Quakers and the Evangelical Covenant Church, which is the result of a schism from the Church of Sweden in the 19th century Melton Evangelical Protestantism : A movement in Protestantism emphasizing one's personal relationship with Christ , the inspiration of the Bible , and the importance of sharing one's faith with non-believers. Evangelical Protestantism is usually seen as more theologically and socially conservative than Mainline Protestantism , although there is obviously variation between denominations , congregations , and individuals within the "evangelical" category Reid et al.

Evangelism : The Christian practice of sharing the gospel of Christ with non-believers. This term comes from the New Testament Greek word "euangelizomai," which means "to proclaim the good news" Reid et al. Evangelist : One who engages in evangelism. See evangelism. Excommunication : The banishment of an individual from a religious community. This practice exists in some Jewish and Christian communities Smith and Green The practice dates back thousands of years prior to the Common Era and across various societies.

Physical and mental illnesses were indistinguishable from one another, as diseases and mental instability represented the presence of unappeased spirits according to pre-modern civilizations. Extrinsic Religion : Using religious participation and affiliation to achieve practical rewards, such as social status.

This is in contrast to intrinsic religion , which pertains to internal motivations for religious activity. The concepts of extrinsic religion and intrinsic religion was developed by Gordon Allport Differences between intrinsic and extrinsic religion can be understood as differences in religious orientation Allport Faith Healing : A term usually limited to the Christian practice of restoring health by means of prayer , divine power or the intervention of the Holy Spirit Smith and Green Family, Religious : See religious family.

Fanatic : A derogatory term for someone overly zealous in their religious faith Smith and Green Fasting : The religious practice of abstaining from food for a certain period of time. There are various forms of fasting in the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism , Christianity and Islam. The Jewish passover includes a fast, Lent usually includes a chosen fast for Christians, and Ramadan in Islam includes a month-long daytime fast Smith and Green Fatalism : The belief that all events are predetermined, and human effort is therefore irrelevant Smith and Green Fatwa : The legal opinion of a private religious scholar concerning Islamic law.

This opinion often guides certain legal rulings Esposito Feminist Theology : A system of religious thought that interprets practices and scriptures through a feminist perspective. It tends to challenge male-dominance in religious language, authority, and scripture. This perspective spans across Christian , Jewish , Muslim , and other religions Lippy and Williams Financial Contributions, Measures of : These survey items measure how much a respondent gives to his or her religious congregation or organization.

Finney, Charles : Charles Finney was a prominent evangelist and revivalist during the Second Great Awakening. Licensed by the Presbyterian Church , Finney began conducting revivals in small New York towns and then spread to large urban centers, including Philadelphia, Boston, and Rochester. Like many revivalists, he was criticized for using emotionalism and abandoning traditional religious teachings. For more information on Charles Finney, click here. Fiqh : Human interpretation and application of divine law in Islam Esposito et al.

First Great Awakening ss : The First Great Awakening ss was a series of religious revivals in the 18th century that propelled the expansion of evangelical denominations in the colonies.

THE APOSTOLIC AGE

For more information on the First Great Awakening, click here. Five Pillars of Islam : The five essential practices of Islam. These include shahada profession of faith , salat worship , zakat alms-giving , saum fasting and Hajj pilgrimage. The observance of these pillars differs between Sunni and Shi'ite traditions Hinnells These four truths include: the Existence of Suffering which characterizes human life , the Origin of Suffering which is ignorance , the Cessation of Suffering through nirvana , and the Path to the Cessation of Suffering through the Eightfold Path Prothero The first stage of primal faith is a stage where individuals, often at infancy, learn emotional trust based on contact and care that sets up the foundation for faith.

The final stage of universalizing faith allows the individual to feel one with God. Free-Rider Problem : In general, a free-rider problem occurs when individuals take advantage of common resource or common goods without paying for or contributing to them. Free-riding is more common in low commitment religious organizations and may explain some of the decline that Mainline Protestant denominations have experienced Stark and Finke Because of this, religious identification tends to be stronger within high commitment groups compared to low commitment ones Stark and Finke Frequency of Prayer, Measure of : This survey item measures how often a respondent prays.

Frequency of Reading Sacred Texts : This survey item measures how often someone reads sacred texts such as the Bible , Koran , sutras etc. Freud, Sigmund : Considered the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud is one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century. His ideas on the unconscious, dreams, child sexuality, and the libido are influential academic concepts, but Freud also had a unique conceptualization of religion. As evidenced by the title of his book Future of an Illusion , Freud believed religion was a false belief system passed down by primitive ancestors.

Similar to his notion of the Oedipus Complex, God represents a childlike longing for a father. Future of an Illusion has been accused of succumbing to the genetic fallacy, in which the truth or falsity of belief is tied to its origin Whittaker Friar : A member of the mendicant orders of Roman Catholicism Reid et al. Friends at Church, Measures of : These survey questions ask respondents where they met their closest friends or if the majority of their close friends are found in their church.

Examples of this measure are found in the National Study of Youth and Religion and the U. For more information on Charles Fuller, click here. However, other researchers argue that some of the items may not measure spirituality but measure the results of spirituality. With studies using dependent variables measuring meaning and hopefulness, this leads to unclear circular findings, as these studies correlate good mental health with itself Koenig et al. Functionalism : According to this perspective, religion exists because it serves an integrating function for society as a whole.

Durkheim suggested this when he argued that God represents the society, and in worshiping God, society really reveres itself. Unlike theories of the rise and fall of civilizations, functionalists do not consider the survival of a religious culture to be problematic. While flavors of this theory are common in older writings on religion , among the best texts to consult are Durkheim and Parsons Fundamentalism : 1 A movement of Protestants embracing similar beliefs as evangelicals , although usually in a more conservative direction, stressing separation from the world and from more liberal Christian bodies.

The term derives from a series of booklets entitled The Fundamentals , which were published in the early 20th century on what were viewed to be the basic doctrines of Christianity. Gabriel : An archangel in Jewish , Christian and Islamic traditions. In Christianity, he is known for announcing to Mary that she will bear the Jesus , the savior of humanity.

In Islam, he is known as "Jibril," and is known for visiting the Prophet Muhammad in a human form. It was Jibril who revealed God's messages through Muhammad, and who also guided Muhammad during his night journey through the heavens Smith and Green Gentile : Anyone not Jewish Esposito et al. Ghost : The appearance of a dead person, usually thought of as a disembodied spirit.

In Korea, ghosts operate as malevolent spirits who died prematurely and are therefore unfulfilled, like unmarried women, young children or drowning victims Smith and Green Gibbons, James : James Gibbons was an important American cardinal archbishop who guided the Catholic Church through the influx of Irish immigrants in the 19th century. Moreover, he mediated relations between American Catholics and the Vatican.

For more information on James Gibbons, click here. Global Meaning : In the psychology of religion, global meaning refers to general life meaning that involves beliefs, goals and subjective feelings. Religion often is invoked with regard to this concept. For the experiential dimension, religious people achieve direct knowledge of the ultimate reality and experience religious emotion. For the ideological dimension, religious people hold certain beliefs.

For the ritualistic dimension, religious adherents are expected to engage in specific religious rituals. For the intellectual dimension, religious people are expected to be knowledgeable with regard to the basic tenets of their faith. And for the consequential dimension, religion should have a consequence on the actions and attitudes of adherents.

For example, the experiential and consequential dimensions are strongly correlated with one another, as are other categories see Hood, Hill and Spilka Gnosticism : A term used for a category of religions that emphasize knowledge as a means to salvation. Its origins and age are debated. Since there have been Gnostic interpretations of Christian , Jewish , Greek and Iranian philosophies, it is not necessarily a religion as much as it is an interpretative perspective of specific religious phenomena Smith and Green Judaism , Christianity , and Islam often mention God as the supreme and sole deity.

Goddesses are more common in Eastern religions, especially Hinduism Smith and Green Variations of this precept are attributed to Confucius, Muhammad and the rabbi Hillel Prothero It functions as a somber time of reflection and meditation with regards to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ Reid et al. Gospel of Wealth : A religious doctrine that maintains that wealth is the natural product of moral character, diligence and faith Reid et al. In Greek, "gospel" refers to "good news. Many believe that Mark is the first gospel, and that Matthew and Luke borrowed some of their material from Mark.

He was soon reported to have baptized 10, a month. He then headed to Cape Comorin, the southern tip of India, where he made many conversions of the fishermen there. Andres de Urdaneta and the Augustinian monks sailed to Cebu, Philippines in He was a self-sacrificing man dedicated to protecting the natives, and received the name Motolinia for his life of poverty. He recorded in his book History of the Indians of New Spain the dramatic conversions following the appearances of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Dominican Bartholomew de Las Casas first went to the West Indies in as a soldier, but on viewing the horrendous enslavement of the native Indians through the Spanish encomienda system, was ordained as a Dominican priest in , the first ordination in America.

In his role as human rights advocate for the Indians, he is considered an early pioneer of social justice. Missionary efforts would continue to the New World for years to come. The history of the English Bible is intimately intertwined with the history of the Reformation. He served until his death in , when he was succeeded by his son, Charles I.

It was a time when the English language reached its greatest expression in the works of William Shakespeare and the King James Bible. King James as head of the Church of England commissioned a group of bishops and scholars to establish an authoritative translation of the Bible from the original languages into English in There were several English versions available, either as translations of the Latin Vulgate or from the Greek-Latin parallel New Testament of Erasmus; the ones that follow influenced the King James scholars.

John Wycliffe produced a hand-written English translation of the Latin Vulgate in His colleague, Miles Coverdale, completed Tyndale's work, which formed the basis for the Great Bible , the first authorized Bible in English, which was placed in every church in England. When the Catholic Queen Mary came to the throne in , further work had to be done on the European continent, and the Geneva Bible, the first to have numbered verses, was published in The King James Bible originally included the Apocrypha but in a separate section. A literary masterpiece of the English language, the King James Bible is still in use today.

Christopher Columbus reached America in the Bahamas on October 12, Following the discovery of Florida by Ponce de Leon in , St. Augustine, Florida became the first permanent European settlement in North America in , from which missionaries spread Catholicism to the Native American Indians. Augustine, Florida. Spanish explorations extended as far as Santa Fe, New Mexico, established in A wave of explorations to the New World continued. Samuel de Champlain explored the St. Christianity continued to thrive in the New World as our young Nation developed.

Four of the original 13 English colonies were specifically chartered for religious freedom, as a refuge from religious persecution in England at the time. The settlers soon enacted the Toleration Act of Maryland and founded St. Mary's Chapel in St. Mary's City, Maryland. William Penn and the Quakers settled in in Pennsylvania. The Mennonites also moved to Pennsylvania in at the invitation of William Penn. The universal toleration offered in Pennsylvania continued to attract groups such as the Amish, Moravian Pietists, and Presbyterians. The period from through the eighteenth century was known as the Age of Enlightenment in Europe.

The time had come when men would set aside religious views and look to reason and social experience to guide society. It was the loss of Christian unity that led to the secularization of Western culture. Whereas Christendom provided one message to European society, the pluralism of religions provided different answers to questions about life and led to skepticism and conflict rather than unanimous thought. Discoveries in science had much to do with the Age of Enlightenment. Copernicus proposed the sun is the center of the solar system and the earth revolved around the sun. Galileo Galilei , the first to use a telescope, confirmed that Copernicus was right and was condemned by the Catholic Church.

Scientists such as Isaac Newton in physics and Robert Boyle in chemistry were pioneers and gave birth to technology, the application of science to practical problems, which led to the Industrial Revolution. Progress based on science and technology became a major goal of Western Society. Mankind was left without its mooring, and philosophers set out in different directions to provide meaning for humanity. The critical Rationalism of Rene Descartes applied to philosophy the mathematical method so effective in science, that everything was questionable until it could be proved beyond all doubt.

Blaise Pascal took a different stance and presented Pascal's Wager: it is better to live a good life, for if there is a God, you will end up with Him in Heaven; but if you have lived a bad life and there is a God, you are doomed! John Locke applied reason to confirm revelation. The political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu of France proposed that the best form of government would incorporate a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches and would be based on the natural law.

David Hume proposed a science of man, and is considered a pioneer in the social sciences. But Jean-Jacques Rousseau , considered the father of Romanticism, took an opposite approach and spoke of the noble savage, that man was happy only in his original native state, before government, laws, and politics chained mankind. It was the German philosopher Immanuel Kant that defined the era: "Have courage to use your own reason - that is the motto of Enlightenment.

Unfortunately, the Age of Enlightenment ignored love, emotion, spirituality and concern for one's fellow man. It forgot that man is wounded by original and personal sin, and his reason is colored by desire and selfishness. In fact, the Age of Enlightenment brought the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror , Naziism, Communism, and the twentieth century, with its two World Wars, the bloodiest century in history. Intellectual dryness and doctrinal religions prevalent during the Enlightenment Era led to a spiritual revival throughout Western Christian civilization, as seen with Pietism in Germany, Methodism in England and America, and the Great Awakening in the United States.

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Philipp Jakob Spener of Germany wrote Pia Desideria in and spoke of a theology of the heart , placing emphasis on inner devotion and Christian living, and inspired the Pietist movement. Pietism especially influenced Nikolaus von Zinzendorf and the Moravian Church. John Wesley and his brother Charles provided light for Christianity during the Enlightenment.

John Wesley, noted for his moving sermons, and his brother Charles, a poetic genius and hymn writer, began the Methodist movement in England, and set forth an evangelical revival throughout the British Isles, North America, and the world. The two brothers were raised in the Anglican Church. Because of their strict method of living, they were soon called the Methodists.

John Wesley experienced a heartwarming conversion experience at Aldersgate Street in London in He preached in the English countryside to the poor, and sparked a religious revival throughout England. He assured the people that all could be saved by experiencing God and opening their hearts to his grace.

RENAISSANCE

George Whitefield made seven trips to America beginning in and was one of the most powerful evangelists ever. He, along with others, kindled a spiritual revival throughout the thirteen colonies known as the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was the first national experience in America and did much to unite the American colonies. Revival during the Enlightenment Era fulfilled the human need for spiritual experience through Jesus Christ.

The independence movement in the American colonies sparked an outcry for freedom of religion, such that Christianity flourished in the newly-formed United States of America. Every taxable resident was required to support the state established Church, no matter what their faith! This caused dissension in the Colonies such as in Maryland and Virginia, where Catholics in Maryland and Presbyterians and Baptists in Virginia objected to the unfair Anglican clergy tax. Of those states with established Churches, Maryland became the first state to disestablish church and state following the Declaration of Independence.

The Bill of Rights allowed the free exercise of religion and proliferation of Christian denominations during rapid westward expansion in America. Constitution and cousin of Charles Carroll, the only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence, became the first Catholic Bishop of Baltimore, a diocese which served the entire United States. Two days after Thomas Jefferson wrote his highly quoted but out-of-context expression "wall of separation between Church and State" to the Danbury Baptists, he appeared on January 3, in the House of Representatives to hear the Baptist preacher John Leland lead an evangelical service on public property.

Separation of Church and State did not preclude a vibrant public square. Recognizing the need to instill morals and values in our children, Bible reading and prayer continued in our public schools for years! Conversions by Evangelical Protestants and other Christian faiths provided the moral fabric for the new American nation after the Revolutionary War. The Methodist movement proved most successful in North America.

Methodist circuit-riders were effective missionaries in spreading the Christian faith from the South to settlers in the mid-West. It was left to the unlikely figure of President Abraham Lincoln to recognize the Christian culture of our Nation. In his Second Inaugural Address on March 4, , he remarked near the close of the Civil War: "Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other.

He appealed for "malice toward none, with charity for all … to bind the nation's wounds. An conservative Supreme Court that respected the free exercise of religion and our Christian heritage declared in Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States that "This is a Christian Nation. The American Declaration of Independence of July 4, read all men are created equal, but slavery persisted. How could the Revolutionary War be fought for freedom without granting freedom to all? The American Civil War reflected the Christian heritage of our Nation, for the moral issue of slavery troubled the hearts of Americans from our very beginning.

The non-violent religious movement of the s and s emerged as the civil rights movement in the USA, which finally afforded racial equality for African-Americans, one hundred years after the Emancipation Proclamation! The crusade arose within Negro Churches, the center of their life. African-Americans had begun to receive recognition in the fields of art, music, and sports. The arrest in Montgomery, Alabama of Rosa Parks , who was detained on December 1, for refusing to move to the back of the bus for a white person, sparked the drive for civil rights.

Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. The boycott lasted days until a Supreme Court decision ended segregation on city buses. Reverend King then organized 60 pastors into the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to foster civil rights. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas distinguished between just and unjust laws.

Non-violent civil disobedience , advocated by John Locke, Henry David Thoreau, and Mahatma Gandhi, was employed by civil rights leaders against oppressive and unjust civil laws. In general, one is obligated to obey civil laws that are just Matthew , Romans , but first one must obey God rather than man Acts in the event of unjust laws, such as Pharaoh's daughter v. King Nebuchadnezzar Daniel ; the Maji v. King Herod Matthew ; and Peter and the Apostles v. Law itself is not meant for the righteous I Timothy The early Christians refused to obey the Romans and suffered martyrdom rather than worship the Emperor.

President John F. Kennedy announced on nationwide television on June 11, that he would submit Civil Rights legislation the following week. Augustine that an unjust law is no law at all. He urged non-violent protest to turn the tide in favor of racial equality. The March on Washington, D.

Martin Luther King Jr. Twentieth-century writers during the World Wars such as T. Eliot, Flannery O'Connor, Thomas Merton, and Dorothy Day catalogued the spiritual bankruptcy of the twentieth century and called for spiritual renewal. John XXIII was welcomed with open arms by all of Christianity, for the Pope called not only for an intense spiritual cultivation of the modern world, but also sought Christian unity.

His opening speech convening the Second Vatican Council on October 11, referred to Jesus in the Gospel of John : "The Catholic Church, therefore, considers it her duty to work actively so that there may be fulfilled the great mystery of that unity, which Jesus Christ invoked with fervent prayer from His heavenly Father on the eve of His sacrifice.

The Second Vatican Council literally "reset the course" for the Catholic Church, a Church which had been described by some as a fortress Church embattled during the Enlightenment and the Modernist era. To coin the expression of Hans Urs von Balthazar in , the time had come to raze the bastions of the Church.

It was time for the aggiornamento of Pope John XXIII, the "opening of the window" of the Church to the outside world, "a translation of the Christian message into an intellectual language understandable by the modern world. The spirit of ecumenism and the change of heart towards all Christian brethren was truly a gift of the Holy Spirit. Lumen Gentium declared "the one Church of Jesus Christ subsists in the Catholic Church, although many elements of sanctification and truth exist outside its visible structure, elements which impel toward catholic unity.

The role of the laity to order temporal affairs to the plan of God was emphasized. Alan Schreck of Franciscan University offered 3 keys to Gaudium et Spes: a the root of the world's problems is found in the human heart. Vatican II led to the creation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church , first published in and updated in A playwright, actor, and poet, he was born May 18, in Wadowice, Poland.

In he enrolled in the school of drama at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, where he played goalie on the college soccer team. He entered an underground seminary in during the Nazi Regime, and was ordained a priest in after Poland fell under Communism. Oppression by the Nazis and Communists forged his dedication to freedom and human rights. He earned a doctorate in theology in and a doctorate in philosopy in His first book was Love and Responsibility , on love and sexual morality, published in His highly successful play on love, The Jeweler's Shop , was published in and subsequently translated into 22 languages, and was made into a movie in Karol Wojtyla became Bishop of Krakow, Poland in He then became Archbishop of Krakow in and Cardinal in Following the day papacy of John Paul I, the Conclave of Cardinals elected the bright, personable, and vigorous Wojtyla the th Pope on October 16, The man lived his philosophy, that man is a relational being.

The world was his parish, as the loving and outgoing Pope made an unprecedented papal trips abroad. During his three pilgrimages to Poland, his repeated call for freedom and spiritual renewal was the turning-point that ultimately led to the non-violent collapse of Communism, symbolized by the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, The world was moved when he forgave and visited the man who seriously wounded him in St.

Peter's Square on May 13, Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral on May 29, He became a symbol of hope to the young with his inauguration of International World Youth Day in As expressed in his book Crossing the Threshold of Hope , his belief in Jesus Christ as the hope for man in the Third Millennium was an inspiration for all. On January 13, , he opposed the imminent pre-emptive strike against Iraq, stating war "is always a defeat for humanity.

His first encyclical, The Redeemer of Man , called the Church a "community of disciples" who follow Jesus Christ, "the center of the universe and of history. He commemorated Saints Cyril and Methodius in The Apostles to the Slavs in to encourage his fellow countryman during communist oppression.

The Pope called for social justice in three encyclicals, On Human Work , On Social Concerns , and On the One Hundredth Year of Rerum Novarum , in which he emphasized the dignity of the individual, in the face of man being unjustly treated as a unit of production in a socialistic utilitarian world. He renewed commitment to the missionary role of the Church in Mission of the Redeemer in He appreciated man's thirst for truth, as noted in his encyclical The Splendor of Truth , published in One of his favorite Scriptural quotes was John You will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.

Perhaps his most important was the widely read encyclical The Gospel of Life , published in , in which he defended the sanctity of life and described the culture of death - the evil of abortion and euthanasia. In addition to pointing out those areas of study necessary for a true consensus of faith, he addressed the common bonds of unity in faith among all Christians: Jesus Christ our Savior, Son of God the Father, who sent the Holy Spirit; Baptism; the New Testament of the Bible; and prayer, especially the Lord's Prayer.

He emphasized the relation of Faith and Reason in an encyclical of the same name in His fourteenth and final encyclical On The Eucharist in its Relationship to the Church was released in His weekly general audiences in St. Peter's Square led to his book on the Theology of the Body in He established Divine Mercy Sunday, which recognized the devotion of St.

Pope John Paul II was truly the moral and spiritual leader of the entire world, as one can appreciate by the worldwide outpouring of love on his death April 2, John Paul II will be remembered for his emphasis on Christ and man, that the Gospel provides direction and supports the dignity of the human person. For "the truth is that only in the mystery of Christ the Incarnate Word does the mystery of man take on light.

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Reprint: Bibliolife, Charleston, South Carolina, The Norton Shakespeare , Oxford Edition. WW Norton and Company, London, The Cross in the Sand. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Of Plymouth Plantation , Dover Publications, Mineola, New York. Of Mourt's Relation. London, Saints and Strangers. Time-Life Books, New York, Mary's Chapel. Church and State in America.